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Title:

Chapter 9 Managers and Their Information Needs

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Title: Management Information Systems Author: Andy Khadr Last modified by: akhader Created Date: 10/8/1997 4:30:44 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 9 Managers and Their Information Needs


1
Chapter 9 Managers and Their Information Needs
2
The Organizational Pyramid
  • Many organizations follow pyramid model
  • CEO at top
  • Small group of senior managers
  • Many more lower-level managers
  • Clerical and Shop Floor Workers
  • No management-level decisions required
  • Operational Management
  • Comply with general policies
  • handed down

3
The Organizational Pyramid
  • Tactical Management
  • Wide-ranging decisions within general directions
    handed down how to do it decisions
  • Strategic Management
  • Decisions affect entire or large parts of the
    organization what to do decisions

4
Characteristics of Information at Different
Managerial Levels
  • Data Range
  • Amount of data from which information is
    extracted
  • Time Span
  • How long a period the data covers
  • Level of Detail
  • Degree to which information is specific

5
  • Source Internal vs. External
  • Internal data collected within the organization
  • External data collected from outside sources
  • Media, newsletters, government agencies, Internet

6
  • Structured and Unstructured Data
  • Structured data numbers and facts easily stored
    and retrieved
  • Unstructured data drawn from meetings,
    conversations, documents, presentations, etc.
  • Valuable in managerial decision making

7
The Web The Great Equalizer
  • Outside information now easier to get
  • More free information
  • Information available in easy-to-manipulate
    format

8
The Nature of Managerial Work
  • Planning
  • Planning at different levels
  • Long-term mission and vision
  • Strategic goals
  • Tactical objectives
  • Most important planning
  • activities
  • Scheduling
  • Budgeting
  • Resource allocation

9
The Nature of Managerial Work
10
The Nature of Managerial Work
  • Control
  • Managers control activities by comparing plans to
    results.

11
The Nature of Managerial Work
  • Decision Making
  • Both planning and control call for decision
    making
  • The higher the level of management
  • The less routine the managers activities
  • The more decision-making involved

12
The Nature of Managerial Work
  • Management by Exception
  • Managers review only exceptions from expected
    results that are of a certain size or type to
    save time.

13
The Nature of Managerial Work
  • Leadership
  • Managers expected to lead, which requires
  • Having a vision and creating confidence in others
  • Encouraging and inspiring subordinates
  • Initiating activities to make work efficient and
    effective
  • Creating new techniques to achieve corporate
    goals
  • Presenting a role model for desired behavior
  • Taking responsibility for undesired consequences
  • Delegating authority

14
Organizational Structure
  • IT Flattens the Organization
  • Eliminates middle managers

15
Organizational Structure
  • The Matrix Structure
  • People report to different supervisors, depending
    on project, product, or location of work
  • IT supports matrix structure
  • Easier access to cross-functional information

16
Characteristics of Effective Information
  • Tabular and Graphical Representation
  • Certain information better
  • presented graphically
  • Trends as lines
  • Distributions as pie charts
  • Performance comparisons
  • as bar charts
  • Many people prefer tabular
  • data for complex problem solving

17
Managers and Their Information Systems
18
Managers and Their Information Systems
  • Transaction-Processing Systems (TPS)
  • Capture and process raw materials for information
  • Interfaced with applications to provide
    up-to-date information
  • Clerical workers use TPS for routine
    responsibilities
  • Operation managers use TPS
  • for ad-hoc reports

19
Managers and Their Information Systems
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Expert Systems
    (ES)
  • DSS and ES support more complex and nonroutine
    decision-making and problem-solving activities
  • Used by middle managers
  • as well as senior managers

20
Managers and Their Information Systems
  • Executive Information Systems (EIS)
  • Provide timely, concise information about
    organization to top managers
  • Provide internal as well as external information
  • Economic indices
  • Stock and commodity prices
  • Industry trends
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