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The Middle Ages (AKA: Medieval Times or Dark Ages)

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Title: The Middle Ages (AKA: Medieval Times or Dark Ages)


1
The Middle Ages(AKA Medieval Times orDark Ages)
  • Chapters 13 and 14
  • Pages 353-373, 379-403
  • 37a explain the manorial system and feudalism,
    to include the status of peasants and feudal
    monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne

2
  • http//revolutiontvshow.net/full-episode-1-pilot/

3
  • 527 Justinian becomes Byzantine Emperor
  • 542-700 Bubonic plague in Byzantine Empire
  • 630s Muhammad unifies Arabian Peninsula
  • 600-1250 Islamic Empire
  • 800 Ghana thrives
  • 800 Algebra invented
  • 850s Byzantine culture spreads to Russia
  • 850 Chinese invent gunpowder
  • 1054 Church splits
  • 1206 Genghis Khan unites the Mongols and becomes
    Great Khan
  • 1209 Genghis Khan begins the Mongol Conquest
  • 1240 Mongols destroy Kiev
  • 1279 Kublai Khan conquers China
  • 1324 Mansa Musa makes hajj to Mecca
  • 1325 Aztecs build Tenochtitlan
  • 1453 Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks
  • 1480 Ivan III refuses to pay tribute to the
    Mongols
  • Middle Ages 476-1500s
  • Early Mid Ages 476 - 1000
  • 511 Clovis unites Franks under Christian Rule
  • 732 Charles Martel stops the Muslims in the
    Battle of Tours
  • 771 Charlemagne becomes ruler of the Franks
  • 800 Charlemagne is crowned by Pope Leo III
  • 843 Treaty of Verdun
  • 900 Viking invasions
  • 1100 Holy Roman Empire weakens
  • 1066 Norman invasion of England (Battle of
    Hastings)
  • 1095 First Crusade
  • 1215 King John approves the Magna Carta
  • 1300 Renaissance begins
  • 1347 Bubonic plague strikes Europe
  • 1429 Joan of Arc leads the French to victory over
    the English at Orleans
  • 1453 Hundred Years War ends with French victory

4
The Middle Ages
  • When?
  • 476 A.D. (fall of Roman Empire) to 1500s
  • What?
  • Between 400-600, small Germanic kingdoms replaced
    Roman provinces
  • Germans? How did that happen?
  • Roots?
  • The classical heritage of Rome
  • The beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
  • The customs of the various Germanic Tribes
  • .Remember the immediate cause for the fall of
    the Roman Empire????

5
German Invasions!!!
6
Impact of Germanic Invasions
  • Disruption of Trade
  • Invasions wars disrupted trade
  • Breakdown of trade destroyed Europes cities as
    economic centers
  • Downfall of Cities
  • Cities were abandoned as centers of
    administration after the fall of the Roman Empire
  • Population Shifts
  • People abandoned cities as trade govt
    collapsed
  • Population of western Europe became mostly rural
  • Decline of Learning
  • Normal people became illiterate
  • Invaders were illiterate
  • Only the clergy continued to read and write
  • No Common Language
  • Latin mixed with others to form new languages

7
Concept of Govt Changes
  • The Way It Was
  • Loyalty to public govt and written law
  • Society held together through citizenship
  • The Change
  • Society held together through family ties
    personal loyalty
  • Small communities with unwritten laws and
    traditions
  • Gave no credit to officials claiming to
    administer justice in the name of an emperor or
    king they had never met

8
Kingdom of the Franks
  • Clovis
  • Brought Christianity to the Franks
  • By 511, Clovis had unified the Franks into one
    kingdom
  • The Church supported him, marking the beginning
    of the partnership between two very powerful
    forces
  • First Merovingian King

9
Pope Gregory I
  • First pope to make the popes office (the papacy)
    secular (worldly)
  • Concerned with politics and religion. (should be
    concerned with only spiritual matters)
  • Christendom
  • used church revenue to raise armies, repair
    roads, and help the poor, negotiated peace
    treaties with invaders
  • claimed power over Western Europe from Italy to
    England Spain to Germany

10
Kingdom of the Franks
  • Charles The Hammer Martel
  • Gained political power when Clovis died because
    he was Mayor of the Palace
  • Mayor of the Palace was not king, but he led the
    armies and made policy, so in effect, he ruled
    the empire, but he was not king
  • The Moors (Muslims) attacked the Franks
  • Charles Martel defeated Muslims at the Battle of
    Tours
  • This stopped the Muslim expansion into Europe

11
Kingdom of the Franks
  • Pepin the Short
  • Charles Martels son
  • He wanted to be the king, not just Mayor of the
    Palace
  • Makes a deal with the Pope
  • He would defeat the Lombards who were threatening
    the Pope in Rome if the Pope would crown him king
  • The Pope anointed Pepin king by the grace of
    God
  • His crowning helps lead to the formation of the
    Holy Roman Empire
  • This began the Carolingian Dynasty
  • Ruled Franks from 751-987

12
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
  • Pepin the Short died in 768
  • Charles took over in 771 and ruled until 814
  • Became known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

13
Warm Up
  1. Give me 2 examples of how Western Europe declined
    after the fall of Rome.
  2. How did Christianity spread? Why is Clovis
    important?
  3. How were monasteries important to the
    preservation of civilizations in this period?
  4. Who is Charles Martel? Why is he important to
    the Christian Church?
  5. At the end of the period be ready to justify
    Charlemagne being called Great.

14
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
  • Charlemagne reunited Western Europe and spread
    Christianity throughout his lands
  • Promoted Education
  • Invited English, German, Italian, and Spanish
    scholars to come to his empire to teach
  • Ordered all clergy to be educated
  • Effectively Governed Unified Kingdom
  • Sent out agents to see that counts governed their
    counties justly
  • Regularly visited every part of his kingdom
  • Supervised the management of his huge estates
  • Divided the kingdom into regions administered by
    counts.

15
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16
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor (800 ce)
  • Crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III
  • This was important because
  • it was the first time a Pope had crowned a king
    and
  • it signaled the joining of Germanic power, the
    Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire
  • Showed the power of the church over European
    Monarchs

17
Charlemagnes Death What Happened Next
  • Charlemagnes Death
  • Died in 814, left empire to his son Louis the
    Pious
  • What Happened Next
  • The three sons of Louis fought for power,
    eventually split the kingdom into 3 parts
  • Temporary peace established with the Treaty of
    Verdun
  • This resulted in Carolingian kings losing power
    central authority broke down
  • Lack of strong rulers and constant fighting led
    to the rise of feudalism

18
Vikings
  • From 800-1000 Vikings raided from Ireland to
    Russia.
  • What names were raiders known as?
  • Northmen, Norsemen, Vikings
  • Where are they from
  • Scandinavia, which is modern day Norway, Sweden,
    and Denmark.
  • The Viking age ended around 1000ce
  • What are the three facts that explain why the
    Viking invasions stopped?
  • The European worked out a way to respond quickly
    to the Viking raids.
  • The Vikings gradually adopted Christianity, which
    made them less likely to raid monasteries.
  • Global warming. In Scandinavia and Europe it
    became warmer making life easier. Fewer
    Scandinavians turned to seafaring.

19
G/H Warm UP 1
  1. What were three roots of medieval culture in
    Western Europe?
  2. What are three ways civilization declined after
    the invasion of Rome?
  3. What was the most important achievement of Pope
    Gregory I?
  4. Who invaded Western Europe? Why did they stop
    raiding?
  5. What role did monasteries play during the middle
    ages?
  6. Who was Charles Martel? What did he do?
  7. Who was Charlemagne? What did he do? How did he
    rule his empire?
  8. What was important about Charlemagnes
    coronation?
  9. Describe the culture of the Germanic tribes.

20
CP Warm Up
  • What period began at the end of the Roman Empire
    (Classical Age)?
  • What document/agreement stopped the fighting
    amongst Charlemagnes grandsons and split his
    empire in three parts?
  • Who stopped Muslim expansion in 732ce at the
    Battle of Tours?
  • How did the Frankish kings show their
    alliance/close relationship with the Catholic
    Church?
  • Who fought the Lombards which helped to lead to
    the formation of the Holy Roman Empire?

21
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22
Feudalism
  • What led to it?
  • Constant brutal fighting amongst nobles
  • What was it?
  • Political system in which nobles were granted the
    use of land that legally belonged to the king
  • In return, the nobles agreed to give their
    loyalty and military services to the king.
  • Developed not only in Europe, but in countries
    like Japan and China also

23
The Feudal System
  • Based on rights obligations
  • In exchange for military other services, a lord
    (landowner) granted land (fief) to a vassal
    (person receiving fief)

24
The Feudal Pyramid
  • Gave land in exchange for military service.
  • Acted as a judge in disputes between vassals
  • Protected the lords land and peasants.
  • Granted use/control of a lords land called a
    fief
  • Fought for the lord
  • Paid the ransom of the lord if the lord were
    captured.
  • Paid several taxes
  • Worked the land of the lords.
  • Paid taxes in labor and most of their crops
  • Milled their grain, brewed the beer, and baked
    the bread(and pay to do so) on the lords estate.
  • Most are serfs
  • Cannot be bought or sold like slaves

25
The Feudal Pyramid
26
Feudal Social Classes
  • Three Groups
  • Those Who Fought
  • Nobles Knights
  • Those Who Prayed
  • Men and Women of the Church
  • Those Who Worked
  • Peasants (vast majority of people in Europe
    during Middle Ages)
  • Most peasants were serfs (lowest social class)
  • People who could not lawfully leave the place
    they were born
  • They were bound to the land, but were not slaves
    because their lords could not buy or sell them.
    However, what their labor produced belonged to
    the lord

27
The Manorial System
  • Manors
  • An agricultural estate, run by a lord and worked
    by peasants during the middle ages in Europe
  • The lords estate Self-contained communities
    that dotted the countryside throughout western
    Europe

28
The Manorial System
  • Economic Arrangement Between Lord Serf that
    supported feudalism
  • In exchange for housing, land, and protection,
    serfs had to perform tasks to maintain the estate
    and pay several different kinds of taxes

29
The Manorial System
  • Serfs
  • The manor was practically self-sufficient,
    producing almost everything needed for daily
    life, so serfs rarely had to leave their manor
    for anything
  • Outside purchases included salt, iron, and a few
    unusual objects like millstones (used to grind
    flour)
  • So why did they accept their economic hardship?
  • Acceptance was part of Church teachings
  • They believed that God decided peoples social
    position

30
The Age of Chivalry (Knights)
  • Education
  • Age 7
  • Began training as a page in the castle of another
    lord
  • Age 14
  • Began training as a squire, acting as a servant
    to a knight
  • Age 21
  • Became a knight

31
The Age of Chivalry (Knights)
  • Weapons Equipment
  • Saddle
  • Kept warrior firmly seated on a moving horse
  • Stirrups
  • Enabled him to ride handle heavier weapons
    (700A.D.)
  • Developed in Asia around 200 B.C.
  • Armor
  • High-flying spears

32
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33
The Age of Chivalry (Knights)
  • War Games
  • Fought in local wars or in tournaments (jousting)

34
The Age of Chivalry (Knights)
  • Code of Chivalry
  • Be loyal.
  • Be brave.
  • Be courteous.
  • Defend Three Masters
  • God
  • Feudal lord
  • Chosen lady
  • Protect the weak and poor

35
The Age of Chivalry (Knights)
  • Castle Life
  • Lived in and protected the home of feudal lords
  • Stone castles were designed as fortresses with
    massive walls and guard towers

36
The Age of Chivalry (Knights)
  • Romantic Love
  • A knight was expected to defend his chosen lady
    and keep her entertained with love poems and songs

37
G/H Warm Up (Homework)
  • What is feudalism? What is the agreement in
    feudalism?
  • What is the job of each member of the feudal
    pyramid and what is the glue that holds the
    system together?
  • What is a manor?
  • What is the manorial system?
  • What was the Treaty of Verdun?
  • Name 3 people that a knight fight for according
    to the code of chivalry?

38
37b describe the political impact of
Christianity to include Pope Gregory VII and King
Henry IV37c explain the role of the church in
medieval society
39
Authority of the Church
  • When Charlemagne was crowned Roman Emperor, it
    was clear the Church sought to influence both
    spiritual and political matters
  • In theory, the Church would hold the authority in
    spiritual matters and kings would hold authority
    in political matters
  • In reality, the Church King competed for power

40
Structure of the Church
  • Pope
  • Cardinal
  • Archbishop
  • Bishop
  • Priests
  • Monks

A pope's tiara symbolized his power.
41
Religion as Unifying Force
  • In the Middle Ages, religion held people together
    and bonded them in a time of political turmoil
    and warfare
  • Even though everyday life was hard, anybody could
    follow the Seven Sacraments to salvation
  • Through the priest, the sinner could receive
    absolution and be rescued from spending eternity
    in hell

42
The Seven Sacraments
  • Baptism
  • Confirmation
  • Holy Communion
  • Confession
  • Marriage
  • Holy Orders
  • The continuation of Christs priesthood
  • Anointing the Sick

43
Church Authority Canon Law
  • All medieval Christians, kings and peasants
    alike, were subject to canon law (Church law)
  • Matters like marriage and religious practices
  • Established courts to try people accused of
    breaking canon law
  • Harshest punishments
  • Excommunication
  • Banishment from the Church and you were denied
    salvation (meaning you could not go to Heaven)
  • Interdict
  • Sacraments religious services could not be
    performed in the kings lands

44
Church Authority Canon Law
  • Pope used excommunication and interdict as
    political weapons
  • A disobedient king might get excommunicated
  • The kings vassals would be freed from all their
    duties to him
  • If king continued to disobey Pope, an interdict
    could be issued against him
  • Remember, sacraments religious services could
    not be performed in the kings lands
  • As Christians, the kings subjects believed that
    without such sacraments they might be doomed to
    hell, so the king lost his authority

45
The Church The Holy Roman Empire
  • Otto I
  • Otto wanted to limit the power of the nobles and
    form an alliance with the Church, so he invaded
    Italy on the Popes behalf
  • The Pope crowned Otto emperor
  • This created a German-Italian empire called the
    Roman Empire of the German Nation later came to
    be known as the Holy Roman Empire

46
Emperor Clashes with Pope
  • Pope Gregory VII
  • He resented the fact that kings, like Otto, had
    control over clergy
  • He banned lay investiture in 1075
  • Ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed
    church officials
  • Henry IV
  • Called a meeting of bishops and ordered Gregory
    to step down from the papacy
  • Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry
  • Bishops priests sided with the Pope
  • Henry decided he wanted the Popes forgiveness

47
Emperor Clashes with Pope
  • Showdown at Canossa
  • January 1077 Henry traveled to this town in the
    Alps and waited in the snow for three days,
    begging for forgiveness
  • Pope Gregory forgave Henry
  • Henry had been humiliated, but he felt triumphant
    and rushed home to punish rebellious nobles

48
Emperor Clashes with Pope
  • Concordat of Worms
  • The issue of lay investiture remained undecided,
    despite all the stuff that happened between Henry
    Gregory
  • 1122
  • Representatives of Church emperor met in the
    German city of Worms
  • Compromise reached
  • The Church alone could appoint a bishop, but the
    emperor could veto the appointment

49
Church Reform
  • Problems in the Church
  • Some priests nearly illiterate
  • Some popes were men of questionable morals
  • Reformers had 3 main issues
  • Many village priests married had families
  • This was against Church rulings
  • Gregory VII forbade priest who had wives or
    concubines to celebrate Mass
  • Bishops sold positions in the church (simony)
  • Clergy who bought their positions were disposed
  • Using lay investiture, kings appointed church
    bishops
  • Reformers believed the Church alone should
    appoint bishops

50
Church Reform
  • Benedictine monastery in Cluny
  • Reformers that founded it desired to return to
    the basic principles of Christianity
  • Power of Pope extended
  • Church had its own court (Papal Curia), tax
    system, and diplomats

51
Church Reform
  • Cathedrals
  • Church was wealthy
  • Cathedrals represented the City of God, so they
    were richly decorated and glorious buildings
  • Built in the Gothic style of architecture

52
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53
Crusades
  • Took place between 1096-1204
  • See AKS 34e

54
The Crusades
  • Cause
  • 1093
  • Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus sent an appeal
    to Robert, Count of Flanders asking for help
    against the Muslim Turks threatening to conquer
    his capital, Constantinople
  • Pope Urban II also read the letter and issued a
    call for a holy war, or a Crusade to gain
    control of the Holy Land

55
The Crusades
  • Goals
  • Stop Muslim aggression regain Holy Land
  • Pope wanted to reclaim Palestine reunite
    Christendom (the Schism in 1054)
  • Crusades would unite Europe in a common cause
  • Get rid of quarrelsome knights who were fighting
    each other
  • Younger sons wanted land, adventure, and riches

56
The Crusades
  • First Crusade (1096)
  • Reasons
  • Gods will
  • Tax relief
  • Riches in Palestine
  • Result
  • Conquered Jerusalem in 1099
  • Slaughtered Muslims Jews

57
The Crusades
  • First Crusade (1096)
  • Reasons
  • Gods will
  • Tax relief
  • Riches in Palestine
  • Result
  • Conquered Jerusalem in 1099
  • Slaughtered Muslims Jews
  • Why Jews?
  • Crusaders reasoned that if they were warring
    against Gods enemies, why not focus on the enemy
    in the back yard
  • Refusing to convert was an act of wickedness
  • For the crime of the crucifixion they deserve
    ceaseless punishment

58
The Crusades
  • Second Crusade (1144)
  • Reasons
  • Same as First Crusade
  • Result
  • Muslim Turks re-take part of the Holy Land
  • 1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem

59
The Crusades
  • Third Crusade (1189)
  • Reason
  • Recapture Jerusalem
  • Result
  • Richard the Lion-Hearted and Saladin fought many
    battles
  • Agreed to a truce in 1192

60
The Crusades
  • Fourth Crusade
  • Reasons
  • Recapture Jerusalem (what else??)
  • Result
  • Knights did not even reach the Holy Land and
    instead ended up looting Constantinople

61
The Crusades
  • Fifth Eighth Crusades
  • All to recapture Jerusalem, all failed

62
The Crusades
  • Childrens Crusade (1212)
  • 30,000 children under the age of 18 set out to
    conquer Jerusalem
  • Most died of cold or starvation on the trip there
  • The rest drowned at sea or were sold into slavery
  • This illustrates the power the Church had because
    people believed in the teaching so much that they
    allowed their children to embark on a dangerous
    journey

63
The Crusades
  • Spanish Crusade
  • Reconquista
  • Long effort by the Spanish to drive out the
    Muslims in Spain (called Moors) were eventually
    successful

64
The Crusades
  • Spanish Crusade
  • Spanish Inquisition
  • Under the direction of Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Goal was to unify Spanish Christians and suppress
    heresy
  • Many Jews Muslims converted during the late
    1400s
  • Person suspected of heresy might be questioned
    for weeks and even tortured. Once they confessed,
    they were often burned at the stake.

Next slide has pictures of some torture methods
used
65
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66
The Crusades
  • Effects of the Crusades
  • Social
  • Women could manage affairs on the estates or
    operate shops and inns (because they were the
    ones left at home)
  • Led to the growth of trade, towns, and
    universities in medieval Europe benefits both
    Christians and Muslims
  • Economic
  • Merchants who lived in Crusader states expanded
    trade between Europe and SW Asia
  • Political
  • Failure of later crusades lessened the power of
    the Pope
  • Weakened feudal nobility
  • Increased power of the kings
  • Fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine
    Empire

67
The Crusades
  • Impact on the Islamic World
  • Intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians
    in the Holy Land left behind a legacy of
    bitterness and hatred that continues to the
    present

68
Warm Up G/H
  • What is simony?
  • How was the church corrupt during the middle
    ages?
  • What did Pope Gregory VII and emperor Henry IV
    fight over? What was the outcome?
  • What was the Concordant of Worms?
  • What were the weapons of the church? Why were
    they so powerful?
  • Why were the Crusades fought? What was the goal
    of each war?
  • What were the negative effects of the Crusades?

69
CP Warm Up
  • Who set the rules for the lives of monks and
    nuns?
  • What are the laws of the Church called?
  • What were the weapons of the church?
  • What is a heretic?
  • Why were Pope Gregory VII and emperor Henry IV
    fighting?
  • What was the Concordat of Worms?
  • Why did the church yield so much power over
    individuals during the middle ages?
  • What were the effects of the Crusades?

70
Warm Up Quiz
  1. What is feudalism? What is the glue holding
    feudalism together?
  2. What was the agreement between lords and
    vassals?
  3. Draw the feudal pyramid.
  4. What is a manor?
  5. What is the relationship between feudalism and
    the manor system?
  6. How is a serf different from a slave?
  7. What is the code of ethics that knights follow?
    Who do they fight for?
  8. What was the significance of Charlemagnes
    coronation?
  9. Who invaded western Europe from Scandinavia?
  10. What period began at the end of the Roman Empire
    (Classical Age)?
  11. What document/agreement stopped the fighting
    amongst Charlemagnes grandsons and split his
    empire in three parts?
  12. How did the Frankish kings show their
    alliance/close relationship with the Catholic
    Church?
  13. List the accomplishments of each Frankish king
    discussed in class.
  14. What are the laws of the Church called?
  15. What were the weapons of the church?
  16. What is a heretic?
  17. Why were Pope Gregory VII and emperor Henry IV
    fighting?
  18. What was the Concordat of Worms?
  19. Why did the church yield so much power over
    individuals during the middle ages?

71
Warm Up
  • What is feudalism?
  • Political system based on rights and mutual
    obligations in which nobles were granted the use
    of land that legally belonged to the king
  • In return, the nobles agreed to give their
    loyalty and military services to the king.
  • Draw the feudal pyramid and tell me the job of
    each person on it.
  • List the accomplishments of each Frankish king
    Clovis, Martel, Pepin the Short, and Charlemagne
  • Clovis unite Franks and converts to
    Christianity, Martel stopped Muslim expansion at
    the battle of Tours, Pepin the Short defeat
    Lombards for the pope, Charlemagne reunited
    Western Europe, promotes education, Carolingian
    Dynasty, spreads Christianity.
  • What was the impact of Germanic Invasions? (at
    least 4 impacts)
  • Disruption of trade, downfall of cities, loss of
    a common language, population shifts, decline in
    learning
  • What is the difference between peasants and
    serfs? Serfs and slaves?
  • Peasants are free to roam, serfs bound to the
    land. Slaves are bought and sold, serfs are not.
  • What were the two weapons of the church? Why were
    they effective?
  • Excommunication king is kicked out of the
    church, his salvation is in question
  • Interdict sacraments not performed on the kings
    land, makes people question his authority.
  • Why were Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor
    Henry IV fighting?
  • Fight over lay investiture.
  • What was the glue holding feudalism together?
  • Mutual social obligations and the teachings of
    the church.

72
Changes in Medieval Society
  • Switch to Horsepower
  • Horses gradually replaced oxen for plowing and
    for pulling wagons
  • Farmers began using a new type of harness that
    fit across a horses chest
  • Enabled to work more quickly and effectively

73
Changes in Medieval Society
  • Three-Field System
  • Farmers began growing crops on 2/3 of their land
    each year (rather than ½)
  • Food production, including sources of vegetable
    protein, increased
  • This led to an increase in population due to less
    starvation deaths and more manure to fertilize
    the land.

74
Changes in Medieval Society
  • Guilds
  • Organized and changed the way business was done
  • Trained young people in a skilled job, regulated
    the quality of goods sold, and were major forces
    in community life

75
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76
Changes in Medieval Society
  • Commercial Revolution
  • Expansion of trade and business
  • More goods were available
  • New trade routes opened
  • Towns became trade centers
  • Banking became an important business

77
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78
Peasants move from Manors
  • Soon farmland of a manorial village could not
    support the growing village
  • Promoted by lords, peasants colonize trackless
    wasteland and cultivate it.
  • Because the new lands offered more income to the
    lord, Lords promised serfs freedom from all or
    most personal services if they left
  • In time serfs regard the land as their own and
    pay off the lords for their liberty
  • Perk for free peasants they could be taxed by
    the king

79
Urban Life Flourishes
  • As trade blossomed and farming methods improved,
    the population of western Europe increased
  • Rose from 30 million to 42 million between 1000
    and 1150
  • As people left life on the manor for life in
    towns, they challenged the traditional ways of
    feudal society in which everyone had a place
  • People were pursuing the economic and social
    opportunities the towns offered
  • Life expectancy 20-40 years of age

80
Revival of Learning
  • Authors and Vernacular
  • Vernacular everyday language
  • Writers brought literature to many people, since
    most people could not read or understand Latin
  • Growing trade growing cities brought a new
    interest in learning
  • Universities (groups of scholars and students)
    arose in western Europe

81
Revival of Learning
  • Expanded Knowledge
  • Christian scholars from Europe visited Muslim
    libraries in Spain, and Jewish scholars
    translated Arabic copies of Greek writings into
    Latin
  • Europeans acquired a whole new body of knowledge
    in this way
  • Medieval Philosophy
  • Thomas Aquinas
  • Argued that the most basic religious truths could
    be proved by logical argument
  • Scholastics, like Aquinas, debated Aristotle and
    issues of the time
  • Teachings on law govt influenced thinking of
    western Europeans (especially French and English)
  • Thus began the development of democratic
    institutions traditions

82
G/H Warm Up
  • Give three reasons why the food supply increased.
  • What were guilds? What did they regulate?
  • How did ways of doing business change? ( think of
    the Jews)
  • What was the name of the town dwellers?
  • How did the use of the vernacular help spread
    learning?
  • Impact of muslims on the rise of literacy, towns,
    and universities in the middle ages
  • What is feudalism? What role does each person
    play on the social pyramid.

83
CP Warm Up
  • What was the name for townspeople?
  • What were guilds?
  • What was the three field system? What was its
    effect?
  • What event pictured to the
  • right? Why was the event
  • important? (3)

5. How did the use of the vernacular help spread
learning? 6. Impact of Muslims on the rise of
literacy, towns, and universities in the middle
ages 7. What is feudalism? What role does each
person play on the social pyramid.
84
OTHER NOTABLE HISTORICAL EVENTS OF THE TIME PERIOD
  • WARM-UP

85
Englands Evolving Govt
  • Battle of Hastings (1066)
  • Normans, under William the Conqueror defeated
    Harold Godwinson, Anglo-Saxon king
  • English lords lost their land
  • William granted fiefs to Norman lords
  • They swore loyalty to him personally
  • Claimed the English crown
  • Laid the foundation for centralized govt

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Englands Evolving Govt
  • Henry II
  • Became ruler of England in 1154
  • Strengthened Englands legal system
  • Sent royal judges to parts of England to collect
    taxes, settle lawsuits, punish crimes
  • Introduced the use of the jury in English courts
  • Laid foundation for English common law
  • The legal system served as a unifying force.
    (weakens power of nobles)

88
Englands Evolving Govt
  • Magna Carta (The Great Charter)
  • Signed by King John of England in 1215
  • Justinians Code was very similar to the Magna
    Carta
  • Guaranteed what are now seen as certain basic
    legal rights in both England and the US
  • Included
  • No taxation without representation
  • Trial by jury
  • Protection of the law

89
Englands Evolving Govt
  • Meeting of Model Parliament
  • Met in 1295 under the reign of Edward I
  • Considered a major step toward democratic
    government because
  • It was a legislative group composed of commoners
    burgesses from every borough and knights from
    every county
  • Under Edward I, Parliament was a royal tool
    that weakened the great lords, but as time went
    on, it became strong enough to provide a check on
    royal power

90
France Develops
  • Philip II
  • 1204 regained Normandy from the English (King
    John)
  • Strengthened central govt in France
  • Increased land under his control and became more
    powerful than any of his vassals
  • Established royal officials called bailiffs who
    presided over his courts and collected his taxes
    throughout Europe

91
France Develops
  • Louis IX
  • Becomes king in 1226
  • Strengthened monarchy, weakened feudal ties by
  • Created an appeals court
  • This court could overturn decisions of local
    courts

92
France Develops
  • Creation of Estates-General
  • First Estate
  • Church leaders
  • Second Estate
  • Great lords (nobles)
  • Third Estate
  • Added by Philip
  • Commoners, landowners, or merchants that Philip
    invited to participate in the council
  • Collectively, they were known as the
    Estates-General

93
Recap
94
Warm Up
  • What was the outcome of the Battle of Hastings?
  • Why was the Magna Carta proposed? What did the
    Magna Carta guarantee? Who was it originally
    intended to protect?

95
Factors Leading to the end of Medieval Society
  • Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
  • Causes
  • Pope Boniface VIII vs Philip IV of France
  • Pope Boniface issues the Unam Sanctam stating
    that every human creature is to be subject to
    the Roman Pontiff. (The popes power is greater
    than any kings authority)
  • Also Philip tried and imprisoned a bishop. Only
    the church is supposed to judge the clergy
  • Boniface threatens excommunication
  • Result
  • Philip IV kidnaps and imprisons the pope. After
    his release the pope dies a month later.
  • All popes from 1309 1377 must reside in
    Avignon, not Rome

96
Factors Leading to the End of Medieval Society
  • The Great Schism
  • Causes more than one pope
  • Began in 1305 when the College of Cardinals chose
    a French pope who moved the papacy from Rome to
    Avignon
  • 1378, after the death of the pope, Cardinals name
    an Italian, Urban VI, as the new pope
  • He abuses cardinals, but the papacy is in Rome
  • After Urbans election the cardinals realize he
    is unstable and flee to elect a new French pope
    who will reside in Avignon
  • Both excommunicated each other, which means no
    priests have the authority to perform the
    sacraments. EVERYONES GOING TO HELL!!!!

97
Factors Leading to the End of Medieval Society
  • The Great Schism cont
  • The cardinals meet again and elect a new pope.
    Now there are three popes.
  • Result
  • Resolved in 1417 when the Council of Constance
    elected a new pope to replace the three popes who
    had been forced to resign (with help from Holy
    Roman Emperor)
  • Effect on Medieval Life
  • This event significantly weakened the Church

98
Bubonic Plague
99
Factors Leading to the End of Medieval Society
  • The Bubonic Plague
  • Began in Asia
  • Spread to Europe through trade
  • flea-infested rats
  • Economic Effects
  • Caused a severe decline in population and trade
  • Caused higher prices
  • Caused peasant revolts
  • Caused a decline in the manorial system
  • Effect on Church
  • When prayer and penances failed to stop the
    plague, the Church lost prestige

100
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102
Factors Leading to the End of Medieval Society
  • The Hundred Years War
  • Reason
  • Englands Edward III claimed rights to the French
    throne when Philip IV died (b/c he was Philips
    grandson)
  • Outcome
  • French eventually won and the English left France
    (except for port city of Calais)
  • Effect on Medieval Society
  • The Age of Chivalry died and nationalism replaced
    feudal loyalties

103
Recap of Factors Leading to the End of Medieval
Society
  • Great Schismweakens Church
  • Bubonic Plagueweakens church and peasants ask
    for more rights
  • New weapons
  • Longbow fatal within 100 yardsno need for
    knights
  • Cannontear down castle walls
  • Hundred Years War
  • People feel more loyal to their own country and
    king
  • The king is no longer just a lord, but a national
    leader

104
Growth of the Kings power
  • Strong kings arose btwn 1450 and 1500s that did
    not base their power on feudalism. The new
    monarchs had three important new sources of power
  • Control of taxes
  • Every class pays taxes to the king
  • A professional army
  • Soldiers are hired from all classes
  • Professional officials
  • Both noble and middle class

105
Warm Up G/H
  1. What was the cause of the Great Schism? How was
    it resolved?
  2. Why did feudalism collapse?
  3. How did the bubonic plague spread?
  4. What was the cause of the Hundred Years War?
    What was the outcome?
  5. Who was Joan of Arc? Why was she important?

106
CP Warm Up
  1. How did the Bubonic Plague spread to Europe?
  2. What were the effects of the plague on Europes
    population?
  3. What were the effects of the plague on the
    economy?
  4. What were the effects of the plague on feudalism?
  5. What were the factors that led to feudalism?
  6. What were the factors that led to the collapse of
    feudalism?
  7. What was the outcome of the Battle of Hastings?
  8. Why was the Magna Carta proposed? What did the
    Magna Carta guarantee? Who was it originally
    intended to protect?
  9. What was the cause of the Hundred Years War?
    What was the outcome?
  10. Who was Joan of Arc? Why was she important?

107
  • Synthesizing How was medieval European society
    organized socially, economically, militarily, and
    religiously? How did the various systems support
    and reinforce each other? Why was the society
    organized in this manner?
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