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MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration

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Created Date: 9/27/2002 11:29:22 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles: Times New Roman Arial Courier New Default Design 3_Default Design ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration


1
MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Network Infrastructure Configuration
  • Chapter 4
  • Installing and Configuring the Dynamic Host
    Configuration Protocol

2
Objectives
  • Discuss the basics of Dynamic Host Configuration
    Protocol (DHCP)
  • Describe the components and processes of DHCP
  • Install DHCP in a Windows Server 2008 environment
  • Configure the DHCP server
  • Administer DHCP on clients and servers
  • Troubleshoot DHCP

3
Basics of DHCP
  • DHCP
  • Layer 4 protocol that uses User Datagram Protocol
    (UDP) datagrams for communication
  • Defined by Request for Comment (RFC) 2131
  • Clients use UDP port 68 to send and receive DHCP
    broadcast communication
  • Servers use UDP port 67 to send and receive DHCP
    broadcast communication

4
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5
Exploring DHCP Components and Processes
  • DHCP lease
  • Defines the amount of time, or the duration, that
    an IP address is loaned to a DHCP client
  • Lease duration
  • Amount of time a client keeps an IP address
    before releasing it
  • DHCP scope
  • A range of IP addresses and related configuration
    information available by request from a DHCP
    client

6
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7
Exploring DHCP Components and Processes
(continued)
  • DHCP options
  • IP address
  • Subnet mask
  • Default gateway
  • Primary and secondary DNS servers
  • DHCP lease expiration
  • DHCP reservations
  • Allow you to assign a specific IP address to a
    DHCP client without statically configuring the
    device with IP information

8
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9
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10
DHCP Communication Processes
  • DHCP message types
  • DHCPDiscover, DHCPOffer
  • DHCPRequest, DHCPAck
  • DHCPNack, DHCPDecline
  • Initial lease request
  • Clients make these requests if they do not have a
    current lease on a scope
  • Lease renewals
  • Intervals Renewal time value and Binding time
    value

11
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12
DHCP Communication Processes (continued)
  • Changing subnets
  • When a client moves to a new subnet, it cannot
    use its current lease because the IP information
    does match the new network configuration

13
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14
Using DHCPv6
  • IPv6 clients
  • Use DHCP to receive IP address and configuration
    information from an IPv6 router on their network
  • Implementing DHCPv6 requires
  • Configuring your router to forward all
    autoconfiguration requests to an available DHCPv6
    server
  • Disabling stateless mode on your Windows Server
    2008 DHCP servers

15
Installing DHCP in a Windows Server 2008
Environment
  • DHCP Server role
  • Requires minimal server resources
  • Starts the DHCP Server service
  • Installs the files needed for the DHCP database
  • Initializes the DHCP console on the local system

16
Installing DHCP in a Windows Server 2008
Environment (continued)
  • Activity 4-1 Installing the DHCP Server Role
  • Time Required 15 minutes
  • Objective Install the DHCP server role

17
Installing DHCP in a Windows Server 2008
Environment (continued)
  • DHCP database
  • Based on the Joint Engine Technology (JET)
    storage engine
  • Database size is based on the number of client
    requests it receives
  • DHCP Server service
  • Installed with the DHCP Server role
  • DHCP Server console
  • The GUI tool for managing DHCP on Windows Server
    2008

18
Installing DHCP in a Windows Server 2008
Environment (continued)
  • Activity 4-2 Reviewing the DHCP Server Console
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Explore the DHCP Server console

19
Authorizing DHCP
  • In Active Directory domains
  • DHCP servers must be authorized before they can
    begin supplying IP addresses
  • In Windows Server 2008
  • You are prompted for credentials during
    installation if your server is a member of a
    domain

20
Configuring the DHCP Server
  • After installing the DHCP role
  • You need to configure DHCP for its initial use
  • DHCP
  • Requires at least one DHCP scope to issue IP
    addresses for network clients

21
Configuring the DHCP Server (continued)
  • Activity 4-3 Creating a Scope for the
    192.168.100.0 Subnet
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Create scopes in the DHCP console

22
Configuring the DHCP Server (continued)
  • Activity 4-4 Creating a Scope for an IPv6 Subnet
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Create an IPv6 scope in the DHCP
    console

23
Configuring the DHCP Server (continued)
  • Activity 4-5 Activating an IPv4 DHCP Scope
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Activate a DHCP scope

24
Configuring the DHCP Server (continued)
  • Activity 4-6 Expanding an IPv4 Address Pool
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Modify an IPv4 address pool

25
Configuring Exclusions
  • Exclusions are created so that
  • Static IP addresses for devices such as routers,
    printers, or other network devices are not
    assigned
  • Common practice
  • Create exclusionary ranges at the beginning and
    end of a scope range

26
Configuring Exclusions (continued)
  • Activity 4-7 Adding IPv4 Exclusion
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Create IPv4 exclusionary ranges

27
Configuring Options
  • Options
  • Allow you to quickly and easily provide DHCP
    clients with updated configuration information
  • If you are using the default lease duration of
    eight days
  • Could take up to four days before clients receive
    the new DHCP options you deploy

28
Configuring Options (continued)
  • Activity 4-8 Modifying the Server Options
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Modify the DHCP server options

29
Configuring Options (continued)
  • Activity 4-9 Modifying the Scope Options
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Modify the DHCP scope options

30
Creating Reservations
  • Reservations
  • Used in DHCP to give a DHCP client a static IP
    address without manually configuring the address
    on the client

31
Creating Reservations (continued)
  • Activity 4-10 Adding a Reservation for
    192.168.100.225
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Add a reservation for a new network
    printer

32
Using netsh
  • Syntax for creating a DHCP reservation
  • netsh Dhcp Server 192.168.100.10 Scope
    192.168.150.0 add reservedip 192.168.150.20
    03043c40fb6a MSN-SRV-150
  • Syntax for creating a DHCP exclusionary range
  • netsh Dhcp Server 192.168.100.10 Scope
    192.168.150.0 add excluderange 192.168.150.1
    192.168.150.10

33
DHCP Client Configuration
  • DHCP Client service
  • Responsible for the DHCP configuration process on
    a client machine
  • Fault tolerance and DHCP
  • Microsoft recommends using an 80/20 rule for
    splitting scopes between two servers for fault
    tolerance
  • 80/20 rule
  • 80 percent of a scopes total IP range is hosted
    on your primary DHCP server, while the remaining
    20 percent is hosted on your secondary DHCP
    server

34
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35
DHCP Administration
  • Monitoring reliability and performance
  • Monitoring allows you to determine the current
    state of DHCP
  • Reliability and Performance Monitor
  • Used to create a real-time picture of what is
    happening on the local or remote server

36
Monitoring Reliability and Performance
  • Activity 4-11 Adding Counters to Performance
    Monitor
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure Performance Monitor by
    adding DHCP Server counters

37
Monitoring Reliability and Performance
(continued)
  • DHCP console statistics
  • Server statistics broader and provide a more
    comprehensive picture of the status of your DHCP
    server
  • Scope statistics display information about each
    scope

38
Monitoring Reliability and Performance
(continued)
  • Activity 4-12 Viewing Statistics
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective View server and scope statistics

39
Monitoring Reliability and Performance
(continued)
  • DHCP audit log
  • Lists detailed information about events occurring
    on a specific day, including
  • Event ID, Date and time
  • Event description, IP address
  • Host name, MAC address

40
Monitoring Reliability and Performance
(continued)
  • Activity 4-13 Viewing Audit Logs
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective View audit logs

41
Backup and Recovery
  • Automatic backup
  • Windows Server 2008 performs an automated backup
    of the DHCP database every 60 minutes
  • Manual backup
  • Stored in the systemroot\systemroot\dhcp\backup
    folder
  • Restoring the DHCP database from a backup
  • You can restore a DHCP database from an offline
    backup when you are building a new DHCP server

42
Backup and Recovery (continued)
  • Activity 4-14 Performing a Manual Backup
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Back up the DHCP database

43
Backup and Recovery (continued)
  • Activity 4-15 Restoring a DHCP Database
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Restoring the DHCP database

44
Troubleshooting DHCP
  • Reconciling the database
  • Validates the DHCP database by comparing it with
    the Registry values of the operating system to
    verify that the database contains the most
    current data

45
Troubleshooting DHCP (continued)
  • Activity 4-16 Reconciling the DHCP Database
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Reconcile individual and all scopes in
    the DHCP console

46
Verifying DHCP Services
  • To determine the running services on a system
  • Enter the net start command at a command prompt
  • To stop a running service
  • net stop DHCP Server or DHCP Client
  • net start DHCP Server or DHCP Client

47
Troubleshooting DHCP Clients IPconfig
  • ipconfig
  • Can be used to renew the current IP address and
    configuration information and to release the
    current IP address
  • Entering the ipconfig /release command
  • Issues the DHCPRelease message to the server
    currently holding the IP address lease for a
    client

48
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49
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50
Summary
  • Information provided by a DHCP server includes
  • Leases, scopes, and options
  • For DHCP to function properly in a routed
    network
  • A DHCP relay agent or an RFC 1542compliant
    router needs to be in place to pass along DHCP
    messages
  • DHCP
  • Uses a standard set of messages for communicating
    between DHCP clients and DHCP servers

51
Summary (continued)
  • Common communication processes
  • Initial lease requests, lease renewals, and
    changing subnet renewals
  • All data in DHCP is stored in the DHCP database
  • Only DHCP servers in an Active Directory domain
    need to be authorized
  • After DHCP is installed
  • You must configure scopes for DHCP clients to
    receive addresses

52
Summary (continued)
  • DHCP console or netsh
  • Can be used to perform all configuration tasks
  • DHCP
  • Uses exclusions to prevent making the IP
    addresses of statically assigned devices
    available in an IP scope range
  • To monitor DHCP
  • Use Performance Monitor, DHCP statistics, and the
    DHCP audit log
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