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Introducing stem cells

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Introducing stem cells Tissue stem cells: Gut stem cells (GSCs) GSCs = intestinal stem cells GSCs are present in the small intestine. They give rise to committed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introducing stem cells


1
Introducing stem cells
2
Dear speaker
This presentation is intended as a flexible tool
for scientists, science communicators and
educators. Not all the slides will be useful for
any one occasion. Choose the ones most suitable
for your audience, mix them with your own slides,
or just use the diagrams.
  • Contents
  • Stem cell biology basics For school students
    aged 16, or adult public with little or no
    scientific knowledge
  • Cloning For adult public with little or no
    scientific knowledge initial slides also
    suitable for students aged 16
  • Stem cell biology in more detail For informed
    non-specialist audiences, e.g. clinicians,
    scientists working in fields other than stem cell
    biology.

Presenters notes Each slide in the Basics and
Cloning sections includes notes that give a
simple, jargon-free explanation of the key
points. The more detailed slides in the last
section have much briefer notes and assume some
knowledge of stem cell science. Further
information and resources The 15-minute film, A
Stem Cell Story provides an excellent
introduction to stem cells and covers many of the
concepts presented here. See www.eurostemcell.org/
films Got a question or a comment? Contact us at
http//www.eurostemcell.org/contact
3
Stem cell biology basics
4
A life story
5
What is a stem cell?
6
What is a stem cell?
7
Why self-renew AND differentiate?
1 stem cell
4 specialized cells
1 stem cell
Differentiation - replaces dead or damaged cells
throughout your life
Self renewal - maintains the stem cell pool
8
Where are stem cells found?
tissue stem cells fetus, baby and throughout life
embryonic stem cells blastocyst - a very early
embryo
9
Types of stem cell 1) Embryonic stem cells
10
Embryonic stem (ES) cells Where we find them
11
Embryonic stem (ES) cells What they can do
embryonic stem cells
PLURIPOTENT
12
Embryonic stem (ES) cells Challenges
embryonic stem cells
?
13
Types of stem cell 2) Tissue stem cells
14
Tissue stem cells Where we find them
skin
muscles
15
Tissue stem cells What they can do
blood stem cell
differentiation
found in bone marrow
only specialized types of blood cell red blood
cells, white blood cells, platelets
MULTIPOTENT
16
Types of stem cell 3)Induced pluripotent
(iPS) stem cells
17
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)
Advantage no need for embryos!
18
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)
genetic reprogramming
pluripotent stem cell (iPS)
adult cell (skin)
19
Stem cell jargon
Potency A measure of how many types of
specialized cell a stem cell can
make Pluripotent Can make all types of
specialized cells in the body Embryonic
stem cells are pluripotent Multipotent Can make
multiple types of specialized cells, but not all
types Tissue stem cells are multipotent
20
Cloning
21
Cloning
There are two VERY different types of cloning
22
Reproductive cloning
23
Molecular cloning Principles
24
Molecular cloning Applications
25
Stem cell biology in more detail
26
Tissue stem cell types and hierarchies
27
Tissue stem cells Principles of renewing tissues
Stem cell
  • stem cell
  • self renew
  • divide rarely
  • high potency
  • rare

28
Tissue stem cells Haematopoietic stem cells
(HSCs)
HSC
bone marrow
29
Tissue stem cells Neural stem cells (NSCs)
NSC
brain
specialized cells
30
Tissue stem cells Gut stem cells (GSCs)
GSC
Small intestine
31
Tissue stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
MSC
bone marrow
32
Stem cells at home The stem cell niche
33
Stem cell niches
Niche Microenvironment around stem cells that
provides support and signals regulating
self-renewal and differentiation
stem cell
niche
34
Credits
Picture credits Many thanks to the following
people for permission to reproduce images Slide
17, iPS cells Keisuke Kaji, University of
Edinburgh, UK Slide 27, blood cell diagrams
Jonas Larsson, Lund Univeristy, Sweden Slide 29,
intestinal cell diagrams Hans Clevers and Nick
Barker, Hubrecht Institute, The
Netherlands Should you wish to re-use any of the
images listed above, please contact the owner.
All other images in this presentation can be
re-used freely. Acknowledgements Particular
thanks to Dr Christele Gonneau for creating these
slides and working tirelessly to help ensure the
notes are correct. Thanks also to Freddy Radtke
of EPFL, Switzerland, whose slide we copied to
make slide 27 on tissue stem cells.
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