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Phrases and Clauses

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Phrases and Clauses THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SENTENCES EXAMPLES Because they make me laugh, I like SpongeBob, and I like Plankton. Turn these into complex Patrick is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phrases and Clauses


1
Phrases and Clauses
  • THE BUILDING BLOCKS
  • OF SENTENCES

2
  • PHRASE
  • a group of words that does not have both a
    subject and a verb

3
  • CLAUSE
  • a group of words with both a subject verb

4
  • Whats the difference between
  • a phrase a clause?

5
  • INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
  • a complete thought that can stand alone

6
  • DEPENDENT CLAUSE
  • group of words with both a subject and verb
    cannot stand alone or it is a fragment

7
Independent clauses a foundation and the frame
of the house.
8
dependent clauses like the windows or doors
(they enhance what is already there, but cant
function alone)
9
Sentence Building
  • Independent Dependent
  • Start constructing with
  • ___________________.
  • Improve sentence structure by adding
    _____________________.

10
Clause Identification
  • Cross of prep phrases.
  • Double underline ACTION OR BEING verbs.
  • Single underline the subjects.
  • Each separate section with a subject and verb is
    PROBABLY a different clause!
  • 5. IDENTIFY INDEPENDENT OR DEPENDENT

11
DEPENDENT CLAUSES
  • ADJECTIVE STARTERS
  • 1) THAT
  • 2) WHO
  • 3) WHOM
  • 4) WHOSE
  • 5) WHICH

12
EXAMPLES
  • The dog who lives by me is nice.
  • The show that I watch is good.
  • Jerry Spinelli is the author who wrote Maniac
    McGee.

13
DEPENDENT CLAUSES
  • ADVERB STARTERS
  • after in order that until
  • although since when
  • as so that whenever
  • because than where
  • before though wherever
  • if unless while

14
Examples
  • 1. After I danced,
  • 2. Because he was hungry,
  • 3. Until I get an A,
  • 4. When I get my new pony,
  • 5. Since I love SpongeBob,

15
SENTENCE TYPES
  1. SIMPLE
  2. COMPOUND
  3. COMPLEX
  4. COMPOUND-COMPLEX

16
  • SIMPLE SENTENCE
  • one independent clause
  • I like SpongeBob.

17
  • COMPOUND
  • 2 or more independent clauses
  • I like SpongeBob, and I like Plankton.

18
  • COMPOUND
  • 2 or more independent clauses
  • I like SpongeBob I like Plankton.

19
How do we punctuate compound sentences?
  • Semicolon
  • 2) Comma and a conjunction (FANBOYS)
  • SpongeBob makes Krabby patties.
  • (join these)
  • They are quite delicious!

20
Two ways to punctuate compound sentences!
  • SpongeBob makes Krabby patties they are
    delicious.
  • SpongeBob makes Krabby patties,
  • and they are delicious.

21
  • COMPLEX
  • dependent independent
  • Because he makes me laugh,
  • I like SpongeBob.

22
DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters
  • ADVERB STARTERS
  • after in order that until
  • although since when
  • as so that whenever
  • because than where
  • before though wherever
  • if unless while

23
DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters
  • ADJECTIVE STARTERS
  • 1) THAT
  • 2) WHO
  • 3) WHOM
  • 4) WHOSE
  • 5) WHICH

24
Whats the difference?
  • Adjective
  • Adjective phrase
  • Adjective clause

25
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a
    sentence!
  • Because he makes me laugh,
  • I like SpongeBob.

26
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a
    sentence
  • When I want entertainment, I watch SpongeBob.

27
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a
    sentence
  • If I get a choice of shows,
  • I watch SpongeBob.

28
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Do not use a comma when the dependent clause
    does not begin the sentence!
  • I like SpongeBob because he makes me laugh.

29
Now, write complex sentences!
  • Start a sentence with the dependent clause.
  • Then, rewrite the sentence to end with the
    dependent clause.
  • Use the dependent clause
  • starter when
  • Remember, your clause must have a
    subject and a verb!

30
Heres my example!
  • When Gary runs away from home,
  • SpongeBob is devastated.
  • SpongeBob is devastated
  • when Gary runs away
  • from home.

31
Write two more complex sentences!
  • Use the dependent clause starter if
  • If you are hungry,
  • you should visit the Krusty Krab!
  • You should visit the Krusty Krab
  • if you are hungry.

32
Could you turn our complex sentence into a
compound-complex sentence?
  • If you are hungry,
  • you should visit the Krusty Krab!

33
  • COMPOUND COMPLEX
  • 2 INDEPENDENT
  • 1 DEPENDENT

34
EXAMPLES
  • Because they make me laugh,
  • I like SpongeBob,
  • and I like Plankton.

35
Turn these into complex
  • Patrick is annoying
  • Plankton wants the Krabby Patty recipe
  • The Hashslinging Slasher visits

36
COMMAS
  • AFTER INTRODUCTORY WORDS
  • AFTER INTRODUCTORY PHRASES
  • AFTER INTRODUCTORY CLAUSES
  • BETWEEN 2 INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
  • BEFORE THE CONJUNCTION

37
Introductory Words
  • Unfortunately, I love chocolate.
  • Therefore, I eat it often.
  • Also, I like ice cream.
  • But, I am allergic to it.
  • Thus, I should not eat it.
  • Once, I saw a Yettie.
  • Next, I saw Bigfoot.
  • Finally, I caught a leprechaun!

38
Introductory Phrases
  • To be or not to be, that is the question.
  • Inside the small garden, there is a gnome.
  • (prep phrases of 4 or more)

39
Introductory Dependent Clauses
  • When I grow up,
  • Before I become president,
  • Since I am so short,
  • Until I study for my test,

40
BETWEEN INDEPENDENT
  • St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland,
  • but he was originally British.
  • St. Patrick was captured by Irish raiders, and he
    worked as a slave for 6 years.
  • St. Patrick had a dream to escape, so he walked
    200 miles to the shore.
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