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Title: Formative Assessment Overview: Specific Assessment Tools to Measure Student Literacy Skills and Behavior Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
Formative Assessment Overview Specific
Assessment Tools to Measure Student Literacy
Skills and Behavior Jim Wright www.interventionce
ntral.org
2
Effective Formative Evaluation The Underlying
Logic
3
Summative data is static information that
provides a fixed snapshot of the students
academic performance or behaviors at a particular
point in time. School records are one source of
data that is often summative in naturefrequently
referred to as archival data. Attendance data and
office disciplinary referrals are two examples of
archival records, data that is routinely
collected on all students. In contrast to
archival data, background information is
collected specifically on the target student.
Examples of background information are teacher
interviews and student interest surveys, each of
which can shed light on a students academic or
behavioral strengths and weaknesses. Like
archival data, background information is usually
summative, providing a measurement of the student
at a single point in time.
4
Formative assessment measures are those that can
be administered or collected frequentlyfor
example, on a weekly or even daily basis. These
measures provide a flow of regularly updated
information (progress monitoring) about the
students progress in the identified area(s) of
academic or behavioral concern. Formative data
provide a moving picture of the student the
data unfold through time to tell the story of
that students response to various classroom
instructional and behavior management strategies.
Examples of measures that provide formative
data are Curriculum-Based Measurement probes in
oral reading fluency and Daily Behavior Report
Cards.
5
Formal Assessment Defined
  • Formative assessment in academics refers to
    the gathering and use of information about
    students ongoing learning by both teachers and
    students to modify teaching and learning
    activities. . Todaythere are compelling
    research results indicating that the practice of
    formative assessment may be the most significant
    single factor in raising the academic achievement
    of all studentsand especially that of
    lower-achieving students. p. 7

Source Harlen, W. (2003). Enhancing inquiry
through formative assessment. San Francisco, CA
Exploratorium. Retrieved on September 17, 2008,
from http//www.exploratorium.edu/ifi/resources/ha
rlen_monograph.pdf
6
Academic or Behavioral Targets Are Stated as
Replacement Behaviors
  • A problem solution is defined as one or more
    changes to the instruction, curriculum, or
    environment that function(s) to reduce or
    eliminate a problem. p. 159

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
7
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
8
Formative Assessment Essential Questions
  • 1. What is the relevant academic or behavioral
    outcome measure to be tracked?
  • Problems identified for formative assessment
    should be
  • Important to school stakeholders.
  • Measureable observable.
  • Stated positively as replacement behaviors or
    goal statements rather than as general negative
    concerns (Bastche et al., 2008).
  • Based on a minimum of inference (T. Christ, 2008).

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193). Christ, T. (2008). Best practices
in problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
9
Academic or Behavioral Targets Are Stated as
Replacement Behaviors
  • The implementation of successful interventions
    begins with accurate problem identification.
    Traditionally, the student problem was stated as
    a broad, general concern (e.g., impulsive,
    aggressive, reading below grade level) that a
    teacher identified. In a competency-based
    approach, however, the problem identification is
    stated in terms of the desired replacement
    behaviors that will increase the students
    probability of successful adaptation to the task
    demands of the academic setting. p. 178

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
10
Inference Moving Beyond the Margins of the
Known
  • An inference is a tentative conclusion without
    direct or conclusive support from available data.
    All hypotheses are, by definition, inferences. It
    is critical that problem analysts make
    distinctions between what is known and what is
    inferred or hypothesized.Low-level inferences
    should be exhausted prior to the use of
    high-level inferences. p. 161

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
11
Examples of High vs. Low Inference Hypotheses
The results of grade-wide benchmarking in reading
show that a target 2nd-grade student can read
aloud at approximately half the rate of the
median child in the grade.
12
Adopting a Low-Inference Model of Reading Skills
  • 5 Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Alphabetic Principle
  • Fluency with Text
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

Source Source Big ideas in beginning reading.
University of Oregon. Retrieved September 23,
2007, from http//reading.uoregon.edu/index.php
13
Formative Assessment Essential Questions
  • 2. Is the focus the core curriculum or system,
    subgroups of underperforming learners, or
    individual struggling students?
  • Apply the 80-15-5 Rule (T. Christ, 2008)
  • If less than 80 of students are successfully
    meeting academic or behavioral goals, the
    formative assessment focus is on the core
    curriculum and general student population.
  • If no more than 15 of students are not
    successful in meeting academic or behavioral
    goals, the formative assessment focus is on
    small-group treatments or interventions.
  • If no more than 5 of students are not successful
    in meeting academic or behavioral goals, the
    formative assessment focus is on the individual
    student.

Source Christ, T. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 159-176).
14
Using Local Norms in Coordination with Benchmark
Data
15
Baylor Elementary School Grade Norms Correctly
Read Words Per Min Sample Size 23 Students
Group Norms Correctly Read Words Per Min Book
4-1 Raw Data
31 34 34 39 41 43 52 55 59 61 68 71
74 75 85 89 102 108 112 115 118 118 131
  • LOCAL NORMS EXAMPLE Twenty-three 4th-grade
    students were administered oral reading fluency
    Curriculum-Based Measurement passages at the
    4th-grade level in their school.
  • In their current number form, these data are not
    easy to interpret.
  • So the school converts them into a visual
    displaya box-plot to show the distribution of
    scores and to convert the scores to percentile
    form.
  • When Billy, a struggling reader, is screened in
    CBM reading fluency, he shows a SIGNIFICANT skill
    gap when compared to his grade peers.

16
Baylor Elementary School Grade Norms Correctly
Read Words Per Min Sample Size 23 Students
January Benchmarking
Group Norms Correctly Read Words Per Min Book
4-1 Raw Data
31 34 34 39 41 43 52 55 59 61 68 71
74 75 85 89 102 108 112 115 118 118 131
17
Team Activity Formative Assessment and Your
Schools
  • At your tables, discuss
  • What kinds of formative measures your schools
    tend to collect most often.
  • How ready your schools are to collect,
    interpret, and act on formative assessment data..

18
Formative Assessment Essential Questions
  • 3. What method(s) should be used to measure the
    target academic skill or behavior?
  • Formative assessment methods should be as
    direct a measure as possible of the problem or
    issue being evaluated. These assessment methods
    can
  • Consist of General Outcome Measures or Specific
    Sub-Skill Mastery Measures
  • Include existing (extant) data from the school
    system
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is widely
    used to track basic student academic skills.
    Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) are
    increasingly used as one source of formative
    behavioral data.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge.
19
Making Use of Existing (Extant) Data
20
Extant (Existing) Data (Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Definition Information that is collected by
    schools as a matter of course.
  • Extant data comes in two forms
  • Performance summaries (e.g., class grades,
    teacher summary comments on report cards, state
    test scores).
  • Student work products (e.g., research papers,
    math homework, PowerPoint presentation).

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
21
Advantages of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et
al., 2007)
  • Information is already existing and easy to
    access.
  • Students will not show reactive effects when
    data is collected, as the information collected
    is part of the normal routine of schools.
  • Extant data is relevant to school data
    consumers (such as classroom teachers,
    administrators, and members of problem-solving
    teams).

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
22
Drawbacks of Using Extant Data (Chafouleas et
al., 2007)
  • Time is required to collate and summarize the
    data (e.g., summarizing a weeks worth of
    disciplinary office referrals).
  • The data may be limited and not reveal the full
    dimension of the students presenting problem(s).
  • There is no guarantee that school staff are
    consistent and accurate in how they collect the
    data (e.g., grading policies can vary across
    classrooms instructors may have differing
    expectations regarding what types of assignments
    are given a formal grade standards may fluctuate
    across teachers for filling out disciplinary
    referrals).
  • Little research has been done on the
    psychometric adequacy of extant data sources.

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
23
Grades as a Classroom-Based Pulse Measure of
Academic Performance
24
Grades Other Teacher Performance Summary Data
(Chafouleas et al., 2007)
  • Teacher test and quiz grades can be useful as a
    supplemental method for monitoring the impact of
    student behavioral interventions.
  • Other data about student academic performance
    (e.g., homework completion, homework grades,
    etc.) can also be tracked and graphed to judge
    intervention effectiveness.

Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
25
Marc Ripley
(From Chafouleas et al., 2007)
Source Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T.C.,
Sugai, G. (2007). School-based behavioral
assessment Informing intervention and
instruction. New York Guilford Press.
26
Online Grading Systems
27
Academic Measures Can Serve As Indicators of
Improved Student Behavior
  • Academic measures (e.g., grades, CBM data) can be
    useful as part of the progress-monitoring
    portfolio of data collected on a student
    because
  • Students with problem behaviors often struggle
    academically, so tracking academics as a target
    is justified in its own right.
  • Improved academic performance generally
    correlates with reduced behavioral problems.
  • Individualized interventions for misbehaving
    students frequently contain academic components
    (as the behavior problems can emerge in response
    to chronic academic deficits). Academic
    progress-monitoring data helps the school to
    track the effectiveness of the academic
    interventions.

28
Curriculum-Based Measurement Assessing Basic
Academic Skills
29
Curriculum-Based Assessment Advantages Over
Commercial, Norm-Referenced Achievement Tests
30
Commercial Tests Limitations
  • Compare child to national average rather than
    to class or school peers
  • Have unknown overlap with student curriculum,
    classroom content
  • Can be given only infrequently
  • Are not sensitive to short-term student gains in
    academic skills

31
Curriculum-Based Evaluation
32
Curriculum-Based Evaluation Definition
  • Whereas standardized commercial achievement
    tests measure broad curriculum areas and/or
    skills, CBE measures specific skills that are
    presently being taught in the classroom, usually
    in basic skills. Several approaches to CBE have
    been developed. Four common characteristics exist
    across these models
  • The measurement procedures assess students
    directly using the materials in which they are
    being instructed. This involves sampling items
    from the curriculum.
  • Administration of each measure is generally brief
    in duration (typically 1-5 mins.)
  • The design is structured such that frequent and
    repeated measurement is possible and measures are
    sensitive to change.
  • Data are usually displayed graphically to allow
    monitoring of student performance.

SOURCE CAST Website http//www.cast.org/publica
tions/ncac/ncac_curriculumbe.html
33
SOURCE CAST Website http//www.cast.org/publica
tions/ncac/ncac_curriculumbe.html
34
Curriculum-Based Measurement/ Assessment
Defining Characteristics
  • Assesses preselected objectives from local
    curriculum
  • Has standardized directions for administration
  • Is timed, yielding fluency, accuracy scores
  • Uses objective, standardized, quick guidelines
    for scoring
  • Permits charting and teacher feedback

Source Wright, J. (1992). Curriculum-based
measurement A manual for teachers. Retrieved on
September 4, 2008, from http//www.jimwrightonline
.com/pdfdocs/cbaManual.pdf
35
CBM Student Reading Samples What Difference
Does Fluency Make?
  • 3rd Grade 19 Words Per Minute
  • 3rd Grade 70 Words Per Minute
  • 3rd Grade 98 Words Per Minute

36
CBM Techniques have been developed to assess
  • Reading fluency
  • Reading comprehension
  • Math computation
  • Writing
  • Spelling
  • Phonemic awareness skills
  • Early math skills

37
Measuring General vs. Specific Academic Outcomes
  • General Outcome Measures Track the students
    increasing proficiency on general curriculum
    goals such as reading fluency. An example is
    CBM-Oral Reading Fluency (Hintz et al., 2006).
  • Specific Sub-Skill Mastery Measures Track
    short-term student academic progress with clear
    criteria for mastery (Burns Gibbons, 2008). An
    example is Letter Identification.

Sources Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge. Hintz, J. M., Christ, T. J., Methe,
S. A. (2006). Curriculum-based assessment.
Psychology in the Schools, 43, 45-56.
38
Example of Curriculum-Based Assessment Reading
Probe
39
DIBELS Reading Probe Level 2.1
40
(No Transcript)
41
(No Transcript)
42
Assessing Basic Academic Skills Curriculum-Based
Measurement
  • Reading These 3 measures all proved adequate
    predictors of student performance on reading
    content tasks
  • Reading aloud (Oral Reading Fluency) Passages
    from content-area tests 1 minute.
  • Maze task (every 7th item replaced with multiple
    choice/answer plus 2 distracters) Passages from
    content-area texts 2 minutes.
  • Vocabulary matching 10 vocabulary items and 12
    definitions (including 2 distracters) 10
    minutes.

Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
43
Assessing Basic Academic Skills Curriculum-Based
Measurement
  • Writing CBM/ Word Sequence is a valid
    indicator of general writing proficiency. It
    evaluates units of writing and their relation to
    one another. Successive pairs of writing units
    make up each word sequence. The mechanics and
    conventions of each word sequence must be correct
    for the student to receive credit for that
    sequence. CBM/ Word Sequence is the most
    comprehensive CBM writing measure.

Source Espin, C. A., Tindal, G. (1998).
Curriculum-based measurement for secondary
students. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.) Advanced
applications of curriculum-based measurement. New
York Guilford Press.
44
Curriculum-Based Evaluation Math Vocabulary
  • Format Option 1
  • 20 vocabulary terms appear alphabetically in the
    right column. Items are drawn randomly from a
    vocabulary pool
  • Randomly arranged definitions appear in the left
    column.
  • The student writes the letter of the correct term
    next to each matching definition.
  • The student receives 1 point for each correct
    response.
  • Each probe lasts 5 minutes.
  • 2-3 probes are given in a session.

Source Howell, K. W. (2008). Best practices in
curriculum-based evaluation and advanced reading.
In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices
in school psychology V (pp. 397-418).
45
Curriculum-Based Evaluation Math Vocabulary
  • Format Option 2
  • 20 randomly arranged vocabulary definitions
    appear in the right column. Items are drawn
    randomly from a vocabulary pool
  • The student writes the name of the correct term
    next to each matching definition.
  • The student is given 0.5 point for each correct
    term and another 0.5 point if the term is spelled
    correctly.
  • Each probe lasts 5 minutes.
  • 2-3 probes are given in a session.

Source Howell, K. W. (2008). Best practices in
curriculum-based evaluation and advanced reading.
In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices
in school psychology V (pp. 397-418).
46
Monitoring Student Academic Behaviors Daily
Behavior Report Cards
47
Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRCs) Are
  • brief forms containing student behavior-rating
    items. The teacher typically rates the student
    daily (or even more frequently) on the DBRC. The
    results can be graphed to document student
    response to an intervention.

48
Daily Behavior Report Cards Can Monitor
  • Hyperactivity
  • On-Task Behavior (Attention)
  • Work Completion
  • Organization Skills
  • Compliance With Adult Requests
  • Ability to Interact Appropriately With Peers

49
Jim Blalock
May 5
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Daily Version
50
Jim Blalock
Mrs. Williams
Rm 108
Daily Behavior Report Card Weekly Version
05 05 07
05 06 07
05 07 07
05 08 07
05 09 07
40
0
60
60
50
51
Daily Behavior Report Card Chart
52
Student Case Scenario Jim
  • Jim is a 10th-grade student who is failing his
    math course and in danger of failing English and
    science courses. Jim has been identified with
    ADHD. His instructional team meets with the RTI
    Team and list the following academic and
    behavioral concerns for Jim.
  • Does not bring work materials to class
  • Fails to write down homework assignments
  • Sometimes does not turn in homework, even when
    completed
  • Can be non-compliant with teacher requests at
    times.

53
www.interventioncentral.org
54
Formative Assessment Essential Questions
  • 4. What goal(s) are set for improvement?
  • Goals are defined at the system, group, or
    individual student level. Goal statements
  • Are worded in measureable, observable terms,
  • Include a timeline for achieving those goals.
  • Are tied to the formative assessment methods used
    to monitor progress toward the goal(s).

55
Interpreting Data The Power of Visual Display
56
Creating CBM Monitoring Charts
57
Sample Peer Tutoring Chart
58
Sample Peer Tutoring Chart
59
Single-Subject (Applied) Research Designs
  • Single-case designs evolved because of the need
    to understand patterns of individual behavior in
    response to independent variables, and more
    practically, to examine intervention
    effectiveness. Design use can be flexible,
    described as a process of response-guided
    experimentation, providing a mechanism for
    documenting attempts to live up to legal mandates
    for students who are not responding to routine
    instructional methods. p. 71

Source Barnett, D. W., Daly, E. J., Jones, K.
M., Lentz, F.E. (2004). Response to
intervention Empirically based special service
decisions from single-case designs of increasing
and decreasing intensity. Journal of Special
Education, 38, 66-79.
60
Single-Subject (Applied) Research Designs Steps
  • The basic methods of single-case designs are
  • selecting socially important variables as
    dependent measures or target behaviors
  • taking repeated measures until stable patterns
    emerge so that participants may serve as their
    own controls (i.e., baseline)
  • implementing a well-described intervention or
    discrete intervention trials
  • continuing measurement of both the dependent and
    independent variables within an acceptable
    pattern of intervention application and/or
    withdrawal to detect changes in behavior and make
    efficacy attributions
  • graphically analyzing the results to enable
    ongoing comparisons of the students performance
    under baseline and intervention conditions, and
  • replicating the results to reach the ultimate
    goal of the dissemination of effective
    practices.

Source Barnett, D. W., Daly, E. J., Jones, K.
M., Lentz, F.E. (2004). Response to
intervention Empirically based special service
decisions from single-case designs of increasing
and decreasing intensity. Journal of Special
Education, 38, 66-79.
61
Jared Intervention Phase 1 Weeks 1-6
X
X
F 3/7 82 CRW
Th 2/27 79 CRW
W 1/29 77 CRW
Th 2/13 75 CRW
M 2/3 75 CRW
W 1/22 71 CRW
62
Formative Assessment Donald Grade 3
63
Formative Assessment Donald Grade 3
64
IEP Goal Statements for CBA/CBM
65
Writing CBM Goals in Student IEPs (Wright, 1992)
Source Wright, J. (1992). Curriculum-based
measurement A manual for teachers. Retrieved on
September 4, 2008, from http//www.jimwrightonline
.com/pdfdocs/cbaManual.pdf
66
Writing CBM Goals in Student IEPs (Wright, 1992)
Source Wright, J. (1992). Curriculum-based
measurement A manual for teachers. Retrieved on
September 4, 2008, from http//www.jimwrightonline
.com/pdfdocs/cbaManual.pdf
67
Writing CBM Goals in Student IEPs (Wright, 1992)
Source Wright, J. (1992). Curriculum-based
measurement A manual for teachers. Retrieved on
September 4, 2008, from http//www.jimwrightonline
.com/pdfdocs/cbaManual.pdf
68
IEP Goals for CBA/CBM READING
69
IEP Goals for CBA/CBM Written Expression
A total of number of words or number of
correctly spelled words or number of correct
word/writing sequences
70
IEP Goals for CBA/CBM Spelling
71
Formative Assessment Essential Questions
  • 5. How does the school check up on progress
    toward the goal(s)?
  • The school periodically checks the formative
    assessment data to determine whether the goal is
    being attained. Examples of this progress
    evaluation process include the following
  • System-Wide A school-wide team meets on a
    monthly basis to review the frequency and type of
    office disciplinary referrals to judge whether
    those referrals have dropped below the acceptable
    threshold for student behavior.
  • Group Level Teachers at a grade level assembles
    every six weeks to review CBM data on students
    receiving small-group supplemental instruction to
    determine whether students are ready to exit
    (Burns Gibbons, 2008).
  • Individual Level A building problem-solving team
    gathers every eight weeks to review CBM data to a
    students response to an intensive reading
    fluency plan.

Sources Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools Procedures to
assure scientific-based practices. New York
Routledge. Shinn, M. R. (1989). Curriculum-based
measurement Assessing special children. New
York Guilford.
72
Effective Formative Evaluation The Underlying
Logic
73
Web Resources to Support Progress-Monitoring
74
Web Sites for Academic Progress-Monitoring
  • National Center on Student Progress-Monitoring
    (http//www.studentprogress.org/)
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement Warehouse
    (http//www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/ inte
    rventions/cbmwarehouse.php)
  • DIBELS (https//dibels.uoregon.edu/)
  • AimsWeb (http//www.aimsweb.com/) Pay Site
  • EdCheckup (http//www.edcheckup.com/) Pay Site

75
National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
http//www.studentprogress.org/
76
Curriculum-Based Measurement Warehouse
77
DIBELS https//dibels.uoregon.edu/
78
https//dibels.uoregon.edu/ User ID dibelsuser
  • Password 980679

79
CBM List Builder Letter ID, Word ID, Spanish
Probes
80
OKAPI CBM Reading Probe Generator
http//www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/tools/o
kapi/okapi.php
81
Team Activity Formative Assessment and Your
Schools
  • At your tables, discuss
  • How the SETRC network can use the concepts and
    resources presented in this workshop in your
    daily practice.
  • What your first action plan items might be to
    act on any of the workshop content presented.
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