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Explicit Instruction


Title: Explicit Instruction Author: 136875 Last modified by: Castaldi, Giuseppe Created Date: 6/4/2013 12:57:48 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Explicit Instruction

Explicit Instruction
  • What does high quality instruction during the
    whole group portion of a lesson look like?
  • Respond without using the word EXPLICIT!

Essential Question
  • As a coach, how can I build the capacity of a
    teacher struggling with explicit instruction?
    What are some specific strategies I can provide
    to support teachers as they become more explicit
    in their instruction?

Explicit Instruction is
  • Systematic
  • Relentless
  • Engaging

Edwards-Groves,  C.J. (2002). Connecting
Students to Learning Through Explicit Teaching. 
Explicit literacy instruction is described as
instruction that does not leave anything to
chance and does not make assumptions about skills
and knowledge that children will acquire on their
own (p. 363).
Torgesen, J. K., (2004) Lessons Learned from
Research on Interventions for Students who have
Difficulty Learning to Read.
(No Transcript)
Essential Instructional Delivery Components
Boyles, N. (2001) Chapter 4 Understanding
explicit instruction. In N. Boyles, Teaching
Written Response to Text Constructing Quality
Answers to Open-Ended Comprehension Questions.
Require Frequent Student Responses
  • When students actively participate in their
    learning, they achieve greater success.
  • The teacher must elicit student responses several
    times per minute, for example ask students to
    say, write, or do something.
  • Highly interactive instructional procedures keep
    students actively engaged, provide students with
    adequate practice, and help them achieve greater

Appropriate Instructional Pacing
  • Pacing is the rate of instructional presentations
    and response solicitations.
  • The pace of instruction is influenced by many
    variables such as task complexity or difficulty,
    relative newness of the task, and individual
    student differences.
  • When tasks are presented at a brisk pace, three
    benefits to instruction are accomplished
  • (a) students are provided with more information
  • (b) students are engaged in the instructional
  • (c) behavior problems are minimized (students
    stay on-task when instruction is appropriately

Provide adequate processing time
  • Think time (adequate processing time) is the
    amount of time between the moment a task is
    presented and when the learner is asked to
  • Time to pause and think should vary based on the
    difficulty of the task relative to the
  • If a task is relatively new, the amount of time
    allocated to think and formulate a response
    should be greater than that of a task that is
    familiar and in the learners' repertoire.

Monitor Responses
  • This is an essential teacher skill to ensure that
    all learners are mastering the skills the teacher
    is presenting.
  • Watching and listening to student responses
    provides the teacher with key instructional
  • Adjustments may be made during instruction.
  • Teachers should be constantly scanning the
    classroom as students respond in any mode.

Provide feedback for correct and incorrect
  • Students should receive immediate feedback to
    both correct and incorrect responses.
  • Corrective feedback needs to be instructional and
    not accommodating. Feedback to reinforce correct
    responses should be specific.
  • Feedback should not interfere with the timing of
    the next question/response interaction of the
    teacher and student.
  • Feedback that does not meet these criteria can
    interrupt the instructional episode and disrupt
    the learner's ability to recall.

Characteristics of Explicit Instruction
  • Explicit Instruction is characterized by
  • Intentional teaching of well defined skills or
    strategies that are broken down and taught
    directly in a series of carefully sequenced steps
  • Clear and consistent teacher wording OR clear and
    consistent teacher instructions
  • Extensive teacher modeling or demonstration of
    skills and strategies before students are asked
    to perform them independently
  • Thinking aloud procedures that draw attention
    to the step-by-step process of applying skills
    and strategies that is eventually internalized
    during proficient reading

Coyne, M. D., et.al. (2009). Direct instruction
of comprehension Instructional examples from
intervention research on listening and reading
Explicit Instruction Instructional Routine
Explicit Instruction
  • I DO Explain, model, think-aloud
  • WE DO Student engagement
  • Practice
  • Immediate corrective feedback
  • small, flexible group instruction
  • They Do Students Collaborate to gain a deeper
    understanding of the concepts-Student
    Accountable Talk
  • YOU DO Independent application

Explicit Instruction The I DO
  • Set the purpose
  • Why do we need to learn this.
  • This is crucial for older students.
  • Do not ask questions during the I do
  • This is the time to show your brain thinking
    through the process.

I DO-Teacher Talking (3-5 mins)
  • The teacher provides the background knowledge
    necessary for student success.
  • During this portion of the lesson, the teacher
    models the expectation through a step by step

WE DO- Teacher and Students Talking
  • This is the time to ask questions and give
    explicit feedback.

  • This portion of the lesson occurs once the
    teacher has modeled and believes students are
    ready to practice the presented skill.
  • Students are fully engaged in this portion of the
    lesson. The student is participating in guiding
  • Students may be working in small, flexible groups
    or pairs.
  • The teacher is continuously monitoring student
    attainment of skill through formative assessments

They DO Together Students talking
  • This is the time for students to practice
    cooperatively together to practice the new
    knowledge through student accountable talk and
    active student learning.

YOU DO Students Working
  • Independent Practice
  • During this portion of the lesson, students must
    now work independently at showing their
    attainment of the skill.
  • The teacher must ensure that every student is
    able to meet with success.
  • This is the time to be the coach and cheerleader.
  • Circulate to make sure students are successful.

Explicit Instruction is NOT
  • Replacing the Inquiry method, there is a time and
    a place for inquiry, when students have learned
    the skill or to engage the learner in a topic
  • Ditto or activity based instruction
  • Independent work
  • Lecture Based- teacher stand and deliver
  • Only for whole group, explicit instruction must
    be used in the teacher directed group as well

Explicit Instruction is
  • The way to strategically deep teach the State
    Standards, strategies and skills students need in
    their learning
  • A gradual release of responsibility for students
  • Modeled
  • Guided
  • Independent

Revisiting the Essential Question
  • As a coach, how can I build the capacity of a
    teacher struggling with explicit instruction?
    What are some specific strategies I can provide
    to support teachers as they become more explicit
    in their instruction?
  • Think Pair Share Exit Slip
  • Write, turn and talk, whole group share

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