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Classroom-Based Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

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Classroom-Based Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Joseph Wehby Associate Professor Special Education, Peabody College – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classroom-Based Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders


1
Classroom-Based Interventions for Students with
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
  • Joseph Wehby
  • Associate Professor
  • Special Education, Peabody College

2
Overview
  • Interaction patterns in classrooms
  • Child effects on adult teaching behaviors
  • Academic problems associated with
    emotional/behavioral disorders
  • Recommend treatment of emotional/behavioral
    disorders in classrooms

3
Classroom instruction for students with EBD
  • Several descriptive studies on children with or
    at-risk for EBD have shown that teacher behavior
    may occasion and maintain some of the problem
    behaviors that are characteristic of these
    children.

4
Descriptive Classrooms Studies of Children with
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
  • Less than 2 praise statements per hour
  • More engaged students received more positive
    teacher behaviors, less engaged students received
    more neglect and coercion from teachers, and were
    treated with less consistency
  • Twice a many negative statement to students with
    or at-risk for EBD
  • Over sixty percent of to do statements are
    social in nature
  • High risk students received more reprimands, more
    behavior requests, and few opportunities to
    respond academically
  • Students rated as aggressive are twice as likely
    to receive reprimands following inappropriate
    classroom behavior
  • Compared to students with EBD, students without
    EBD are treated less harshly when committing
    similar behavioral offenses.

5
Child Effect on Adult Behavior
  • In effective schools literature, practices
    highlight the role teacher plays in directing
    students.
  • This adult focus suggests that children play a
    passive role in these interactions.
  • However, research has shown that children may
    actively influence the behavior of adults.

6
An Emerging Model of Deprivation within Classrooms
  • Students with emotional and behavioral disorders
    enter school with poor self-control, inadequate
    social skills, and above average levels of
    inappropriate behavior.
  • Current classroom interactions focus primarily on
    behavior (not academics) however, this focus is
    typically punitive and somewhat inconsistent.
  • When interactions occur, most often around
    non-academic issues.
  • Instructional interactions the teachers do
    initiate often involved less challenging tasks
    that typically elicited lower levels of student
    problem behavior.
  • Correct academic responses by a student does not
    occasion teacher praise above chance levels.
  • Curriculum of non-instruction.

7
  • This deprivation model suggest that a molar
    perspective of the causes of classroom
    misbehavior should be incorporated within the
    more tradition molecular focus by looking at
    generalized patterns of teacher-student
    interactions.
  • A molar perspective assumes the need for
    assessing the relation between problem behaviors
    and events that may be seemingly unrelated (at
    least on a temporal basis).

8
  • How do children who exhibit significant behavior
    problems behavior respond when more consistent
    and appropriate teacher interactions occur?

9
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10
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11
  • It appears that one solution to addressing the
    relationship between school performance and
    students with EBD is to change the nature of
    teacher-student interaction patterns within
    classrooms.

12
Instructional Interactions
  • Teaching Behaviors Targeted for Intervention
  • Instructional Talk
  • Opportunities to respond
  • Feedback
  • Contingent Praise

13
Opportunities to Respond
  • Studies indicate increased OTR leads to
  • increased academic outcomes
  • increased task engagement
  • decreased inappropriate behavior

14
Teacher Praise
  • Studies indicate increased praise leads to
  • increased academic outcomes
  • increased task engagement
  • decreased inappropriate behavior
  • It has been suggested that ratios of praise to
    reprimands should range from 31 to 41
  • Descriptive research indicates ratios of praise
    to reprimands of 12 to 14

15
Possible Solutions
  • Determine ways to help teachers monitor their
    instructional behavior toward students who engage
    in problem behavior.

16
Self-Evaluation
  • Prediction
  • Sharing of observed rates of praise.
  • Examples of effective praise.
  • Training
  • Goal setting.

17
Total Praise
18
Total OTR
19
Students Correct Responses
20
Academic Characteristics of Students with EBD
  • Relationship between behavioral problems and
    academic underachievement has been well
    documented in research literature
  • Prognosis for students who have both behavioral
    and learning problems is extremely poor they
    experience school failure and drop out of school
    at much higher rates than any other disability
    group

21
Ineffective Classrooms As a Cause of Antisocial
Behavior
  • Academic failure leads to little reinforcement
    for students.
  • School begins to take on aversive properties.
  • Increase in negative behavior.
  • Students influence teacher instructional behavior
  • If this cycle continues, may lead to more
    delinquent acts and school failure or dropout.
  • With increased academic standards, an increasing
    number of children who are at-risk for academic
    problems may show problem behavior.

22
  • Overemphasis on behavior control
  • Teacher reliance on ineffective strategies
  • Inadequate teacher preparation and support
  • Lack of an effective on academic instruction

23
Conclusions from Classroom Interactions Research
  • It seems clear that children with
    emotional/behavioral disorders actively influence
    the behavior of adults in classrooms.
  • Yet, when appropriate adult instructional
    patterns are observed, students seem to engage in
    higher levels of engagement and lower levels of
    inappropriate behavior.
  • An unanswered question is what levels of support
    are needed to maintain good teaching when
    working with students who display
    emotional/behavioral disorders.

24
Keys to Effective Support
  • Early intervention is key, before behavioral and
    academic deficits become too pronounced.
  • Target both child and adult behavior in order to
    promote development and maintenance of new
    skills.
  • Emphasize the importance of addressing both
    academic and social behaviors simultaneously.
  • Provide ongoing support for both teachers and
    students.
  • Increase the frequency of critical teaching
    behaviors like praise and opportunities to
    respond.
  • Interventions should be comprehensive.

25
Vanderbilt Behavior Research Center
  • The purpose of the project is to focus on
    assessing the impact of a classroom- and
    teacher-focused intervention. More specifically,
    using research sites across three states, random
    assignment of participants, and multiple
    behavioral and academic measures, we will assess
    the impact of an empirically-valid classroom
    management program supplemented with teacher
    self-evaluation, a group contingency
    reinforcement system, and academic tutoring on
    the social and academic performance of students
    identified as having emotional and behavioral
    disorders.

26
Intervention Components
  • Classroom Organization and Management Program
    (COMP)
  • Teacher Self-Monitoring
  • Good Behavior Game
  • 3-5 hours of behavior consultant in classrooms
    each week.
  • Reading tutoring 3 times per week

27
Vanderbilt Behavior Research Center
  • Vanderbilt University
  • Virginia Commonwealth University
  • University of Minnesota

28
Participants
  • 90 elementary and special education classrooms.
  • 217 elementary age students
  • 67 1st graders
  • 81 2nd graders
  • 69 3rd graders
  • 83 students identified as at-risk
  • 134 students receiving special education students
    for behavior problems (e.g. emotional
    disturbance, learning disabilities, mild mental
    retardation)

29
VBRC
  • Intervention is designed to last 12 months
  • Assessment will take place at 5 time points plus
    a 1 year follow-up.
  • Data will include evaluation of intervention for
    sample as a whole as well as special education
    classrooms versus general education classrooms.
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