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CHAPTER 8: LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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Title: CHAPTER 8: LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY


1
Chapter 8 Life at the Turn of the
20th Century
Columbian Exposition Machinery hall
2
FUN FACTThe first Ferris Wheel, Columbian
Exposition 1893 Nothing to do with City Plans
but interesting nonetheless.
3
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4
First skyscraper
  • Made by Louis Sullivan

 
 
 
 
What two developments led to the skyscraper? 1.
Steel 2. Elevators
Wainwright Building, St. Louis, MO
?
5
Home Insurance Building, Completed 1885, 138, 10
stories
More examples of skyscrapers
Flatiron building NYC 285 Feet
?
6
750
630
Tower of the Americas
Gateway Arch
?
7
Electric streetcar, Richmond, VA
8
City Life and Urban Parks
  • Frederick Law Olmstead
  • -planned Central Park in NY
  • why?

9
Central Park
10
Back Bay includes another of Olmsteads Designs
11
New Technologies
  • Web-Perfecting Press
  • Print on both sides of paper
  • -penny copies

Wisconsin Paper Mill
12
New Technologies
  • Wright Bros first powered airplane
  • Kitty Hawk, NC
  • Airmail by 1920

Wilbur Orville Wright
13
Wright Brothers First Flight at Kitty Hawk,
North Carolina
14
First flights
15
George Eastman
. He developed dry plates, film with flexible
backing, roll holders for the flexible film, a
Kodak camera (a convenient form of the camera for
novices), and an amateur motion-picture camera.
16
New Technologies
  • George Eastman Kodak Camera
  • -dry plates to rolled film
  • -good advertiser

17
  • Photography Explosion

George Eastman You press the button, we do the
rest.
18
  • What were newspapers now able to do at this
    point, that they were unable to do prior to the
    invention of the portable Kodak camera?

19
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20
Section Two Expanding Public Education
KEY IDEA
  • The impulses of moral uplift and economic
    necessity spur changes in education, a rise in
    national literacy, and the promotion of high
    culture.

21
  • -By 1895, 31 states had compulsory education
  • -They emphasized the 3 Rs
  • Reading, wRiting, and aRithmetic

22
Expanding Public Education
Log cabin school 1900
  • Schools for Children
  • The focus was on memorization and discipline was
    harsh.

23
William T. Harris
  • Kindergartens became more popular (think daycare)
    finally Harris add it to public schools
  • Attendance by race unbalanced
  • 62 white
  • 34 black (went to elementary school)
  • And most African Americans went to private schools

24
Reason schools were needed.
  • In an advanced economy employers need employees
    with some skills.
  • To provide ladders upon which the aspiring can
    rise. Carnegies quote referring to the idea
    that getting people in society to buy into the
    capitalist system is/was important.

25
Expanding Public
  • Racial Discrimination
  • Most African Americans were excluded from public
    secondary school only, 3 attended by 1910.

Lyles, IN 1900
26
Education for Immigrants
  • Immigrants were encouraged to go to school
  • Many were Americanized at school and
    assimilated

27
Italian Immigrants
28
College enrollment quadruples between 1880 and
1920 (2.3)
Today according to the last census data in 2000
16
29
Expanding Higher Education
  • Higher Education for African Americans

Booker T. Washington
Howard University Atlanta University Fisk
University (Still out of 9 million blacks only
3880 attend college in 1900.)
30
Booker T. Washington in fact was head of the
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.
31
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON'S MESSAGE WAS POPULAR WITH
MANY WHITES AND THEODORE ROOSEVELT INVITED HIM TO
THE WHITE HOUSE FOR DINNER IN 1901 WHICH SHOCKED
SOME WHITE SOUTHERNERS.
Washington, Taft and Carnegie
Washington and TR
32
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, the first black person to get a
    PhD from Harvard, thought Washingtons philosophy
    was hurting the blacks. He charged that the
    Negro burden belongs to the nation.
  • In fact, Du Bois started the Niagara Movement
    which stated that the most talented tenth, help
    mainstream black America in to society.

33
  • Du Bois- We are Americans, not only by birth
    and by citizenship, but by our political ideals.
    And the greatest of those ideals is that ALL MEN
    ARE CREATED EQUAL.

34
TWO DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES AS TO WHAT BLACK
PEOPLE SHOULD DO TO SECURE THEIR RIGHTS

BLACKS SHOULD WAIT FOR SOCIAL EQUALITY AND WORK FOR SOCIAL RIGHTS THROUGH ECONOMIC PROGRESS BLACKS WILL MAKE NO REAL PROGRESS AS LONG AS THEY WERE DENIED EQUAL RIGHTS NO MATTER HOW DOCILE THEY ACTED
SEGREGATION AND 2ND-CLASS CITIZENSHIP WERE TO BE ACCEPTED HOPING THEY WOULD BE ACCEPTED BLACKS SHOULD WORK FOR EQUALITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE NOW AND NOT ACCEPT 2ND CLASS CITIZENSHIP
CIVIL RIGHTS WOULD COME FROM WHITES WHEN BLACKS PROVED THEMSELVES READY BLACK PEOPLE SHOULD NOT WAIT FOR WHITES TO ACCEPT THEM FOR THEY WERE AMERICANS LIKE EVERYONE ELSE
W.E.B. Du Bois, the first black person to get a
PhD from Harvard, thought Washingtons philosophy
was hurting the blacks. He charged that the
Negro burden belongs to the nation. Du Bois-
We are Americans, not only by birth and by
citizenship, but by our political ideals. And
the greatest of those ideals is that ALL MEN ARE
CREATED EQUAL.
Booker T. Washington wanted his fellow blacks to
focus temporarily on economic advancement and
temporarily accept a lower status. It is at the
bottom of life we must begin, not the top.
WASHINGTON
35
Section Three (Cont) Segregation and
Discrimination or
AFRICAN AMERICAN S AND PROGRESSIVISM
KEY IDEA African Americans lead the fight against
institutionalized racism in the form of voting
restrictions and Jim Crow laws.
36
Section Three Objectives
  • Trace the historical underpinnings of legalized
    segregation and the African-American struggle
    against racism in the US
  • Summarize turn-of-the-century race relations in
    the North and South and
  • Identify discrimination against minorities in the
    American West

37
OVERVIEW
MAIN IDEA
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
African Americans led the fight against voting
restrictions and Jim Crow laws.
Today, African Americans have the legacy of a
century-long battle for civil rights.
TERMS NAMES
38
Ida B. Wells
  • Teacher
  • Journalist (Newspaper Editor)
  • Pushed for Anti-lynching laws
  • Also helped found the NAACP
  • Sided with W.E.B. Du Bois

39
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON'S MESSAGE WAS POPULAR WITH
MANY WHITES AND THEODORE ROOSEVELT INVITED HIM TO
THE WHITE HOUSE FOR DINNER IN 1901 WHICH SHOCKED
SOME WHITE SOUTHERNERS.
Washington, Taft and Carnegie
Washington and TR
40
HARVARD UNIVERSITY EDUCATED W.E.B. DuBOIS BROKE
WITH BOOKER T. WASHINGTON OVER THE TACTIC OF
TEMPORARILY FORGOING EQUALITY . HE WAS
INSTRUMENTAL IN HELPING FORM THE NATIONAL
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE
IN 1909. THIS GROUP OF BLACKS AND WHITE LIBERALS
WORKED FOR FULL CITIZENSHIP AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY
FOR BLACK AMERICANS.
W.E.B. DuBOIS
41
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42
The fight against institutionalized
discrimination and racism practiced by White
Southerners against African-American took many
forms as there were many abusive local, state,
and federal policies to face including
  • State and local voting restrictions such as poll
    taxes, grandfather clauses, and literacy tests
  • Federal court decisions such as the landmark
    Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    This decision determined that separate but equal
    facilities for blacks and whites was legal.
  • Jim Crow laws

43
African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination
  • Voting Restrictions

literacy test (must pass test to vote) poll tax
(annual tax) grandfather clause (January
1, 1867)
44
Jim Crow Laws
  • Verse 1
  • Come listen all you galls and boys I's jist from
    Tuckyhoe,
  • I'm going to sing a little song, my name's Jim
    Crow,
  • Weel about and turn about and do jis so,Eb'ry
    time I weel about and jump Jim Crow.

45
?
46
EXAMPLES OF JIM CROW LAWS
  • Restaurants It shall be unlawful to conduct a
    restaurant or other place for the serving of food
    in the city, at which white and colored people
    are served in the same room, unless such white
    and colored persons are effectively separated by
    a solid partition extending from the floor upward
    to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless
    a separate entrance from the street is provided
    for each compartment.
  • Intermarriage All marriages between a white
    person and a Negro person or between a white
    person and a person of Negro descent to the
    fourth generation inclusive, are hereby forever
    prohibited. (Florida)
  • Education The schools for white children and
    the schools for Negro children shall be conducted
    separately. (Florida)
  • Textbooks Books shall not be interchangeable
    between the white and colored schools, but shall
    be continued to be used by the race first using
    them. (North Carolina
  • Burial The officer in charge shall not bury, or
    allow to be buried, any colored persons upon
    ground set apart or used for the burial of white
    persons. (Georgia
  • Parks It shall be unlawful for colored people
    to frequent any park owned or maintained by the
    city for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white
    persons. and unlawful for nay white person to
    frequent any park owned or maintained by the city
    for the use and benefit of colored persons.
    (Georgia)
  • The Blind The board of trustees shall. maintain
    a separate building. on separate ground for the
    admission, care, instruction, and support of all
    blind persons of the colored or black race.
    (Louisiana)
  • Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or
    corporations, who or which furnish meals to
    passengers at station restaurants or station
    eating houses, in times limited by common
    carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said
    meals to white and colored passengers in the same
    room, or at the same table , or at the same
    counter. (South Carolina)

47
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) -Homer Plessy sits in
whites only car of a train -Arrested for
breaking segregation law -Supreme Court said,
  • As long as Accomodations
  • Were Equal, Separating the races was ok.
  • separate but equal was born

48
Close to 60 years of legalized segregation
  • This established the doctrine of _________ ____
    ____________?

49
??? Question ???
  • WHAT DOES THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT STATE?

50
Read the section in your book on page 290.
  • What problems do you see with not only Justice
    Browns majority opinion, but with the realities
    of the separate but equal clause?

51
The Legacy of Plessy v. Ferguson
52
Racial Etiquette
  • Blacks were expected to refer to white males in
    positions of authority as "Boss" or "Cap'n"--a
    title of respect that replaced "Master" used in
    slave times. to show special respect. If a white
    person was well known, a black servant or hired
    hand or tenant might speak in somewhat intimate
    terms, addressing the white person as "Mr. John"
    or "Miss Mary."
  • All black men, on the other hand, were called by
    their first names or were referred to as "Boy,"
    "Uncle," and "Old Man"--regardless of their age.
    If the white person did not personally know a
    black person, the term "nigger" or
    "nigger-fellow," might be used. In legal cases
    and the press, blacks were often referred to by
    the word "Negro" with a first name attached, such
    as "Negro Sam." At other times, the term "Jack,"
    or some common name, was universally used in
    addressing black men not known to the white
    speaker. On the Pullman Sleeping cars on trains,
    for example, all the black porters answered to
    the name of "boy" or simply "George" (after the
    first name of George Pullman, who owned and built
    the Pullman Sleeping Cars).

53
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54
Turn-of-the-Century Race Relations
  • Violence - lynchings?

55
IN 1915 THE NAACP UNDERTOOK A CAMPAIGN AGAINST
THE IMMENSELY POPULAR D.W. GRIFFITH MOVIE BIRTH
OF A NATION WHICH GLORIFIED THE KU KLUX KLAN. IT
WAS ALSO SCREENED AT THE WHITE HOUSE.
56
In the South, lynching was one of the terrorist
tactics used to control and threaten the
African-American. Between 1889 and 1918, a total
of 2,522 black Americans were lynched, 50 of them
women. These people were hanged, burned alive, or
hacked to death. According to the mythology
popular at the time, black men were lynched
because they had raped white women, yet
historians find that in eighty percent of the
cases there were no sexual charges alleged, let
alone proved. People were lynched for petty
offenses such as stealing a cow, arguing with a
white man, or attempting to register to vote.
  • George Meadows 1889, South Carolina

?
57
(No Transcript)
58
THE NAACP WORKED HARD TO BRING THE HORRORS OF
LYNCHING TO THE AMERICAN PUBLIC
ANTI-LYNCHING EXPOSE
NAACP MAGAZINE THE CRISIS
59
Social critic H.L. Mencken described the practice
as one which "in sheer high spirits, some
convenient African is taken at random and
lynched, as the newspapers say, 'on general
principles.'" No one was punished in the South
for taking part in a lynching until 1918.
60
Turn-of-the-Century Race Relations
  • Discrimination in the North
  • Many African Americans headed north in search of
    higher wages and more equality found themselves
    forced into low pay jobs and segregated
    neighborhoods
  • Race riots ensue like that of the New York race
    riot of 1900.

61
THERE WAS A GROWING BLACK MIDDLE CLASS DURING THE
PROGRESSIVE ERA
62
Discrimination in the West
  • Mexican Workers
  • Excluding the Chinese

debt peonage
63
Mexican Workers
64
Reasons for employing Mexican labor.
  • Cheap labor
  • Accustom to hot, dry conditions (Southern Pacific
    Railroad)
  • Mining
  • Agricultural

65
DEBT PEONAGE
  • A system that bound laborers into slavery in
    order to work of debt to employer,
  • Many Mexicans and African Americans were forced
    into this system in the Southwest.

66
HOME
4. How did the challenges and opportunities for
Mexicans in the United States differ from those
for African Americans? Think About
the types of work available to each group
the effects of government policies on each
group
the effect of the legal system on each group
ANSWER
  • POSSIBLE RESPONSES
  • Mexicans in the United States faced
    discrimination, but it was not legalized as was
    discrimination against African Americans.
  • There were job opportunities for Mexicans, but
    they were low-paying.

End of Section 3
67
Chinese Exclusion Act (Review)
68
Practice
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your
thoughts. Review the section, and find four key
events that occurred between 1890 and 1900 to
discuss in further detail.
Early 1900s Mexicans settle in the Southwest.
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
1890s Ida B. Wells anti-lynching campaign
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois emerge
as leaders.
1900 New York City race riot
continued . . .
69
HOME
Practice
How did segregation and discrimination affect the
lives of African Americans at the turn of the
20th century?
ANSWER
African Americans were victimized by voting
restrictions, Jim Crow laws, and the separate
but equal doctrine established by Plessy v.
Ferguson.
continued . . .
70
HOME
Practice
What did some African-American leaders do to
fight discrimination?
ANSWER
Ida B. Wells fought lynching Homer Plessy took
his case to the Supreme Court Booker T.
Washington advocated a gradual approach to racial
equality W. E. B. Du Bois founded the NAACP.
continued . . .
71
Name two bands or artists you listen to today
72
???Why do you listen to music???
73
Section Four The Dawn of
Mass Culture
KEY IDEA
  • Americans have more time for leisure activities
    and a modern mass culture emerges, especially
    through newspapers and retail advertising.

74
Why It Matters Now
  • Today, the United States has a worldwide impact
    on mass culture.

75
Section Four Objectives
  • Give examples of turn-of-the-century leisure
    activities and popular sports
  • Analyze the spread of mass culture in the US and
  • Describe turn-of-the-century innovations in
    marketing and advertising

76
American Leisure
  • Amusement Parks
  • Bicycling and Tennis
  • Spectator Sports

77
Amusement Parks
  • "Coney Island is the Tom-Tom of America. Every
    nation has, and needs-and loves-its Tom-Tom. It
    has needs of orgiastic escape from
    respectability-that is, from the world of
    What-we-have-to-do into the world of
    What-we-would-like-to, from the world of duty
    that endureeth forever into a world of joy that
    is permitted for a moment."
    1905, Cosmopolitan Magazine

78
Opened its doors in 1903
79
Evolution of Bicycling
80
Women and Bicycles
  • Thanks to the bicycle women enjoyed more freedom
    (freed from chaperones and to come and go as they
    saw fit)
  • I think it (bicycling) has done more to
    emancipate women then anything else in the
    world. Susan b. Anthony

81
First Bar in 1900
82
  • John Pemberton a pharmacist originated the
    formula of the drink, originally used to cure
    headaches.
  • made with cocoa leaves,
  • Mr. pemberton never lived to see his product
    take off.

83
SPECTATOR SPORTS
84
BASEBALL
  • Baseball become a professional sport after humble
    beginnings
  • It started out with regional clubs playing each
    other and evolved into the National and American
    leagues after teams started to travel to play

85
Discrimination in Sports
  • African-American players were not allowed to play
    in the professional leagues
  • These players went on to form the Negro leagues ,
    which also had an American and National league.

86
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87
Boxing
  • Fans of boxing would flock to the arenas or to
    their radios to see or hear boxing champs like
    Jack Johnson and Jim Jeffries fight.

88
  • On July 4, 1910, more than twelve thousand
    people, mostly white men, gathered in a makeshift
    stadium in the little desert town of Reno,
    Nevada. They were gathered to see their hero, the
    retired white Heavyweight Champion of the World,
    Jim Jeffries, take back the title from the
    African-American current champion, Jack Johnson.

89
Boxing Film
  • ..\boxing.mpeg

90
The Spread of Mass Culture
  • Joseph Pulitzer owned The New York World and sold
    papers by emphasizing the 3 s
  • SIN, SEX, and SENSATION
  • William Randolph Hearst owned The New York
    Morning Journal and he competed with Pulitzer
    trying to sell more papers

91
Each reach about 1million readers
92
??? What Wireless device allowed people to
communicate???
93
Once the radio industry finally became
profitable, major corporations -- including the
American Telephone Telegraph Company, General
Electric and Westinghouse -- moved into the
field. Circa 1915
94
FINE ARTS
  • Ashcan School (realism)
  • Popular Fiction (Mark Twain)
  • Libraries (poor mans university)

95
Thomas Eakins
96
Robert Henri student of Thomas Eakins
97
Samuel Clemens
  • Wrote the great American novel
  • What is the novel that Clemens wrote?

98
Are you looking to buy?
  • Urban Shopping
  • The Department Store
  • Chain Store

99
Give the lady what she wants. (Dept. Store)
  • Marshall Fields 1865

100
Woolworth (Chain Store)
  • Five and Dime in (1911)
  • It was Wal-Mart before Wal-Mart

101
Sears Roebuck Montgomery WardCatalogs
102
By 1910 an est. 10 million people shopped by mail.
  • Rural Free Delivery (RFD)

103
New Ways to Sell Goods (Review)
  • Urban Shopping
  • The Department Store
  • The Chain Store
  • Advertising
  • Catalogs and RFD

rural free delivery (RFD)
104
How do you get people to buy?
105
Advertising
  • You need this product! It will make life easier!
  • Ad agencies business an est. 10 million in 1865
  • By 1900 it is an est. 95 million

106
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107
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108
Slightly out of time period but funny.
109
Vaudeville Theater
110
Dumb Acts
  • ..\Sisters.mpeg

111
Music
C\Documents and Settings\jharve\Desktop\overthere
1918_vbr.mp3
112
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125
  • You will get 2 pieces of white paper in which to
    design your 2 products that you are advertising.
    (1 per page)
  • Each Ad needs to have the product, a catchy
    slogan, descriptions of how this product will
    improve your life, etc.
  • These have to be products that were used in the
    early 1900s.
  • Due Today!!!

126
Example Products
  • Chocolate Guns
  • Soap radios
  • Vacuum gloves
  • Lamp Bicycles
  • Couches Games
  • Lemonade iron
  • Sporting goods sewing machine
  • Rice telephone
  • Ovens jewelry
  • Ice boxes chairs
  • Ham furniture
  • Shoes candy
  • Clothes (specifics) coffee
  • Soup food products
  • Cleaning supplies
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