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The Berlin Wall

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The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) By Anne Mary (Anja) Camara Erected by East German government / August of 1961. Separated East Berlin from West Berlin Divided for 28 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Berlin Wall


1
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer)
By Anne Mary (Anja) Camara
2
Erected by East German government / August of
1961. Separated East Berlin from West
BerlinDivided for 28 years
The Wall
3
Why the Wall?
  • Closed border in 1952
  • Between 1942 and 1962, about 2.5
  • million East Germans (skilled workers,
  • intellectuals and professionals) fled to
  • West Germany, threatening to destroy
  • East Germanys economy
  • Wall was erected because of the
  • number of East Germans escaping
  • to West Germany
  • West Germany was better off
  • than East (Marshall Plan)
  • East Berlin was communist-lead

4
Building of the Wall
5
Building of the Wall
  • Built during a weekend where most Berliners
    slept while the
  • East Germans began to close the border
  • East German troops installed barbed wire fences
    (original Wall)
  • Fences later replaced by concrete walls topped
    with barbed wire
  • The Wall running through the city center, which
    separated East
  • and West Berlin from one another, was 43.1km
    (almost 27mi) long

6
Security
  • Concrete wall, 12 feet high
  • Barbed wire
  • Hundreds of guard dogs
  • Randomly placed mines buried under the ground
  • 16 foot ditch to stop vehicles from attempting
    escape
  • Electric fences
  • Death Strip of barren land

7
Checkpoint Charlie
  • President John F. Kennedy ordered checkpoints
  • Three checkpoints at different points in the
    wall
  • Charlie because of the American alphabet
  • Other walls were Alpha Bravo
  • Most famous checkpoint

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10
Casualties
  • An estimated 940 people died trying
  • to escape
  • A number of others died by jumping
  • off of buildings or drowning
  • Most shocking failed attempt
  • 18 year old, Peter Fechter

11
Fall of the Wall
  • Mass demonstrations against the government and
    the system in East
  • Germany began at the end of September, until
    November 1989
  • The government prepared a new law to lift
    travel restrictions,
  • effective immediately
  • On November 9th, 1989, Gunter Schabowski
    announced private trips
  • This caused massive gatherings of citizens
  • Wall woodpeckers began
  • tearing down parts of wall
  • immediately
  • On November 10th and
  • December 22nd, checkpoints
  • were opened for pedestrians
  • Not until July 1st, 1990, did the
  • East and West finally reunite

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