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Introduction to Quantitative Research

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Title: Introduction to Quantitative Research


1
Introduction to Quantitative Research
  • Elin Driana, Ph.D

2
Research
  • a systematic attempt to provide answers to
    questions (Tuckman, 1999, p. 4)
  • the more formal, systematic, and intensive
    process of carrying on a scientific method of
    analysis (Best and Kahn, 1986, p. 18).

3
Quantitative Research
  • Quantitative research is Explaining phenomena
    by collecting numerical
  • data that are analyzed using mathematically
    based methods (in
  • particular statistics).
  • (Aliaga and Gunderson (2002) in Muijs (2004))

4
Types of Research
  • EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
  • Type of research that allows the researcher to
    establish a causal relationship between
    independent and dependent variables by
    controlling extraneous variables.

5
Types of Research
  • Correlational Research
  • to determine relationship among two or more
    variables.
  • Causal-Comparative Research
  • to determine the cause for or the consequences
    of differences between groups of people
  • Survey Research
  • to describe characteristics of a group by means
    of such instruments as interview questions,
    questionnaires, and tests.

6
Steps in Quantitative Research
  • Selecting a Problem
  • Reviewing the literature
  • Formulating Research Question
  • Constructing Hypotheses

7
Steps in Quantitative Research
  • 5. Identifying and Labeling Variables
  • 6. Constructing Operational definitions of
    Variables
  • 7. Constructing a Research Design
  • 8. Identifying population and sample

8
Steps in Quantitative Research
  • 9. Designing instruments
  • 10. Selecting statistical test for testing
    the hypothesis
  • 11. Collecting Data
  • 12. Analyzing Data
  • 13. Writing the Report

9
Population and Sample
  • Population
  • The entire elements of interest in a particular
    study
  • Sample
  • A subset of the population
  • Parameter
  • Numerical measures of a population
  • Statistic
  • Numerical measures of a sample

10
Variable
  • A characteristic that varies
  • Independent Variable
  • the factor that is measured, manipulated, or
    selected by the experimenter to determine its
    relationship with to an observed phenomenon
    (Tuckman, 1999, p.93)

11
Variable (2)
  • 2. Dependent Variable
  • a response variable or output (Tuckman, 1999,
    p. 93)

12
Variable (3)
  • 3. Moderator Variable
  • a special type of independent variable, a
    secondary independent variable selected to
    determine if it affects the relationship between
    the studys primary independent variable and it
    dependent variable (Tuckman, 1999, p. 97).

13
Variable (4)
  • 4. Control Variables
  • Factors controlled by the experimenter to cancel
    out or neutralized any effect they might
    otherwise have on observed phenomen(Tuckman,
    1999, p. 100)

14
Variable (5)
  • 5. Intervening Variable
  • a factor that theoretically affects observed
    phenomena but cannot be seen, measured, or
    manipulated its effect must be inferred from the
    effects of the independent and moderator variable
    on the observed phenomenon (Tuckman, 1999, p.
    101)

15
Main Types of Data
  • Different values that are associated with
    variable.
  • Qualitative or Categorical Data
  • are classified in categories and not numerically
    measured.
  • B. Quantitative or Numerical Data
  • are obtained either from a counting process
    (discrete data) or from a measuring process
    (continuous data)

16
Types of Scales (1)
  • A scale is a tool or mechanism to distinguish
    individuals on the variables of interest to our
    study (Sekaran, 1992).

17
Types of Scales (2)
  • There are four types of scales.
  • 1. Nominal Scale
  • is not intended to measure a variable, but to
    assign data into certain categories or groups.
  • does not imply order or rank
  • Example gender

18
Types of Scales (3)
  • 2. Ordinal Scale
  • Contains the properties of nominal scale
  • rank the categories in some meaningful way.
  • Example level of education.

19
Types of Scales (4)
  • 3. Interval Scale
  • contains the properties of a nominal and an
    ordinal scale
  • assumes the same interval among the points of
    scale
  • Example attitude scale.

20
Types of Scales (5)
  • D. Ratio Scale
  • contains the properties of nominal, ordinal, and
    interval scales.
  • the ratio between two values is meaningful
  • has an absolut zero point.
  • Example Salary

21
Scales of Measurement
Data
Qualitative
Quantitative
Numerical
Numerical
Nonnumerical
Nominal
Ordinal
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Source Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., and
Williams, T.A. (2008). Statistics for business
and economics, 10th Edition. Thomson
South-Western International Edition.
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