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Introduction to Biosensors

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Title: Slide 1 Author: weiwei Last modified by: Ye Tian Created Date: 1/15/2007 4:54:29 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Biosensors


1
Introduction to Biosensors
  • Prof. Xingwei Wang

1
2
Brain Storm
  • What do you think of biosensor?

2
3
Brain Storm
  • What do you think of biosensor?

3
4
Significance Great Demands
Civil defense
Food safety
Criminology
Environmental Monitoring
Public Health
Pathology
4
5
Brief History
  • 1956, Prof. Clark, Father of biosensor concept,
    Invention of the oxygen electrode
  • 1962, First description of a biosensor
  • 1972/5, First commercial biosensor Yellow
    Springs Instruments glucose biosensor
  • 1975, First immunosensor
  • 1980, First fibre optic pH sensor for in vivo
    blood gases
  • 1983, First surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
    immunosensor
  • 1987, Launch of the MediSense ExacTech blood
    glucose biosensor
  • 1990, Launch of the Pharmacia BIACore SPR-based
    biosensor system
  • 1992, i-STAT launches hand-held blood analyser
  • 1996, Abbott acquires MediSense for 867 million
  • 1998, Launch of LifeScan FastTake blood glucose
    biosensor
  • 1998, Merger of Roche and Boehringer Mannheim to
    form Roche Diagnostics
  • 2001, LifeScan purchases Inverness Medical's
    glucose testing business for 1.3billion

5
6
What is a Biosensor
  • A device that uses biological components e.g.
    enzymes to indicate the amount of a biomaterial
  • Trace biomaterial?

Unnecessary (Eg. Metal ion, etc.)
  • Quantitative results?

Unnecessary (Eg., Pregnancy test)
6
7
Components
Requires Simple read out and data
interpretation Easy to use Quick response.
Requires Sample Immobilization
7
8
Performance Factors
  • Sensitivity Concentration weight
  • Specificity/Selectivity discriminate between
    substrates
  • Speed Bench-gtChip-gtReal Time
  • Accuracy False signal
  • Cost
  • Easy to use
  • Life time

8
9
Biosensing for Macromolecules
  • Steps
  • Immobilization
  • Mixing
  • Washing the non-specific bindings
  • Signal transduction
  • Markers
  • Enzymes
  • Fluorescence tags
  • Radioactive tags
  • Molecular
  • Waston-Crick Base pairing
  • Antibody-Antigen binding

9
10
Immunosensor
  • Antibody can be against
  • Bacteria
  • Complex carbohydrates
  • Smaller organic molecules

10
11
DNA Complementary Chains
  • Four nitrogen bases
  • Complementary chains

11
12
Six Steps
  1. Select the single-stranded capture DNA sequence
  2. Attach the capture DNA strand to a probe
  3. Introduce the samples to be identified to the
    probes
  4. Hybridization will occur if the sample is
    complementary with the capture sequence on the
    probe
  5. Wash away the remaining unattached samples
  6. Judgment

12
13
Transducer
  • Electrochemical (Potentiometric, Voltammetric,
    Amperometry, Conductimetric)
  • Optical (Fluorescence, Absorbance, Light
    scattering, Refractive index)
  • Mechanical, Thermal, Piezoelectric, Magnetic

13
14
Glucose Sensor
14
http//www.ul.ie/elements/Issue6/Biosensors-20Ele
ments.htm
15
Microcantilevers
From http//www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev29_3/t
ext/biosens.htm
15
16
Medical Telesensor
  • Military Locate wounded soldiers
  • Domestic Intensive patients
  • An array of chips to monitor body functions
  • Wireless transmission

16
From http//www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev29_3/t
ext/biosens.htm
17
Miniaturization
  • Infrared microspectrometer
  • Size of a sugar cube

From http//www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev29_3/t
ext/biosens.htm
17
18
Broad Potential Applications
  • Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring
    (WPSM) remote triage of injured Soldiers
  • Heart rate, breaths taken, skin temperature and
    ballistic impact
  • Foster-Miller (Waltham, Mass.) Putting these
    sensors on a belt that's sewn into a shirt

(Picture from www.primordial.com/.../Hardware_Sold
ier_w640.png)
18
19
Benefits
19
20
Challenges and Trend
  • Cheap
  • Sensitive
  • Selective
  • Speed
  • Portable
  • Simple
  • Cost
  • Sensitivity
  • Selectivity
  • Speed
  • Small?
  • Ease to use?
  • Integrated
  • Mass produced
  • Multiple analytes

20
21
Multidisciplinary Nature
21
22
Worldwide Biosensor Vendor Market, 2003
22
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