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African ethnic groups and their Religions, Customs, and Traditions

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Africa is made up of 54 different countries and many ethnic groups. ... The Geography of Africa Author: ... and then they usually are taught in English after that. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African ethnic groups and their Religions, Customs, and Traditions


1
African ethnic groups and their Religions,
Customs, and Traditions
  • Africa is made up of 54 different countries and
    many ethnic groups.
  • A groups customs and traditions often come from
    religion, from where the group lives, or from the
    demands of daily life.
  • For example, nomadic Bedouin tribe must have
    customs that can be practiced while traveling.
  • Most Africans today are either Muslim or
    Christian, but traditional religions and customs
    still play a role in African culture.

2
Arab
  • The term Arab refers to a mixed ethnic
    group made up of people who speak
    the Arabic language.
  • Arabs mostly live in North Africa and the Middle
    East.
  • Some Jews, Kurds, Berbers, Copts, and Druze speak
    Arabic, but are not usually considered Arab.
  • The term Arab includes Arabic-speaking
    Christians in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan.
  • Overall, Arabs are divided into two groups
    nomadic Bedouins and settled Arabs.

3
  • Arab people began to spread into North Africa in
    the late 600s AD, when the first Muslim armies
    arrived in Egypt.
  • From there, Arab armies, traders, and scholars
    spread across northern Africa all the way to
    Morocco.
  • Wherever the Arabs went, they took Islam and the
    Arabic language with them.
  • Arabic was necessary of one
    was to be able to read the Quran,
    Islams holy book.
  • From North Africa, Arab traders
    began to lead caravans south
    across the Sahara Desert in the gold and
    salt trade.
  • This brought Islam and Arab culture
    to the Sahel region and beyond.

4
  • Along the east coast of Africa, Arab traders
    traveled by land and sea down to present day
    Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zanzibar.
  • They married local women and the process of
    blending cultures and religions began there as
    well.
  • The Arabic language, the religion of Islam, and
    many other aspects of Muslim culture became part
    of Africa.
  • Today Muslims are found throughout Africa.
  • They make up a majority of the people living
    along the Mediterranean coast and in some
    countries along the Indian Ocean in the east.

5
Arabs
  • Mostly found in Southwest Asia and NORTHERN
    Africa
  • Speak Arabic
  • Usually practice Islam

6
The souq in an Arab city is the market area or
shop district. The main souq in Cairo is the Khan
El-Khalili in the Old City. The winding streets
are home to a multitude of shops selling
everything from fine clothing to spices to
antiques. The Khan El-Khalili souq is nearly
seven hundred years old. (Cairo, Egypt, October
2006)
7
  • The Ashanti people live in central Ghana.
  • The family, especially the mothers family, is
    most important to the Ashanti.
  • The Ashanti believe that their kingdom was
    founded in 1701 with the help of a holy man who
    produced a Golden Stool from the heavens and gave
    it to the first Ashanti king.
  • The Ashanti people believe the strength of their
    nation depends on this safety of this stool.
  • It represents the unity of the Ashanti
    and the power of their chiefs.
  • The Ashanti honor kings after death, in
    a ceremony in which a stool is blackened.

8
  • The traditional Ashanti religion is centered on a
    belief in a supreme god, or Nayme.
  • His many children, the Abosom, represent all the
    natural powers and forces in the world.
  • The traditional Ashanti believe that all living
    things have souls.
  • They also believe that witches, demon spirits,
    and fairies have powers in the lives of men.
  • Ancestors are given great respect, and
    there are a number of family rituals
    associated with birth, puberty,
    marriage, and death.

9
Other religions in the Ashanti
  • Other religions are also practiced by many of the
    Ashanti.
  • Christianity has gained many followers in Ghana
    and along the west coast of Africa.
  • It was introduced by European and American
    missionaries beginning in the 1800s.
  • There are also a large number of Muslims.
  • Like so many other places in Africa, movement of
    people through the centuries has resulted in a
    great deal of diversity in nearly all aspects of
    life among the Ashanti.

10
Ashanti
  • Large ethnic group found off the west coast of
    Africa in Ghana
  • Speak mostly Twi as their main language
  • Live with extended family members
  • The Ashanti religion is a mixture of spiritual
    and supernatural powers. They believe that
    plants, animals, and trees have souls.
  • GOLDEN STOOL
  • They have many tribal ceremonies

11
In many parts of rural Africa, the chore of
collecting water is time consuming and labor
intensive. These women and children walk about 2
miles (3.2 km) each way in the morning and the
evening to transport water for cooking, cleaning,
and drinking. (Ghana, 1999)
12
Thousands of people come to Ghana's cities from
rural areas, hoping for employment. They often
find themselves living in slums similar to these.
Using scrap metal, discarded lumber, salvaged
tarps and tires, and mud bricks, this small
community has created a place to live. The men
and boys catch fish and search the beach for any
valuable items. The women sell soap, sweets, and
other goods. (Cape Coast, Ghana, 1999)
13
Ashanti
The Ashanti live in central Ghana in western
Africa approximately 300km. away from the coast.
Ghana, previously the Gold Coast, was a British
colony until 1957. It is now politically
separated into four main parts. Ashanti is in the
center and Kumasi is the capital. To the Ashanti,
the family and the mothers clan are most
important. The Ashanti live in an extended
family. The family lives in various homes or huts
that are set up around a courtyard.
14
Bantu
  • The Bantu originally came from southeastern
    Nigeria that spread east and south near
    Zambia.
  • Around 1000 CE, the Bantu reached present- day
    Zimbabwe and South Africa.
  • The Bantu traded many natural resources gold,
    copper, precious stones, animal hides, ivory, and
    metal goods.
  • They traded with Arab traders from the Swahili
    coast, as well as others.
  • Today the speakers of the hundreds of
    Bantu-related languages include many different
    ethnic groups, though they share a number of
    cultural characteristics.
  • From their earliest days, the Bantu were known as
    farmers and animal herders, and they learned
    iron-making crafts as well.

15
  • As they spread south and east across the
    continent, following rivers and streams, they met
    many new people and learned new skills, even as
    they shared their own.
  • Bantu-speaking people settled as far south as the
    southern tip of Africa.
  • They intermarried with the people they met
    accepting new traditions and blending them with
    Bantu culture.
  • The Bantu migration was one of the largest
    movements of people in Africas history.
  • Today over 60 million people in central
    and southern Africa speak Bantu-based
    languages and share some part of Bantu
    culture.

16
Bantu Religion
  • Many Bantu who settled in areas where there was a
    strong Arab presence are Muslim.
  • Others, living in parts of Africa influenced by
    missionary efforts are Christian.
  • Still others follow traditional animist
    religions. Animists believe that sprits are found
    in natural objects and surroundings.
  • They may feel a spiritual presence in rocks,
    trees, a waterfall or particularly beautiful
    place in the forest.

17
Bantu
  • Mostly found in Central Southern Africa
  • They speak Bantu as their main language
  • Bantu is usually known more as a language than an
    ethnic group
  • Bantu is a mixture of over 400 different ethnic
    groups combined

18
A teacher instructs students at a high school in
Soweto, South Africa's biggest township. Teachers
are poorly paid, so schools struggle to attract
them. Africans receive instruction in their
native language until the seventh grade, and then
they usually are taught in English after that.
Afrikaans is also offered as a language of
instruction. In urban areas, an increasing number
of primary schools teach in English. (Soweto,
South Africa, 16 January 2008)
19
Bantu
  • Mostly found in Central Southern Africa
  • They speak Bantu as their main language
  • Bantu is usually known more as a language than an
    ethnic group
  • Bantu makes up over 400 different ethnic groups
    combined

20
The Bantu Migration
Today, close to 100 million people across the
southern half of Africa speak related languages,
collectively known as Bantu languages. Linguistic
evidence shows that the root Bantu language
emerged in what is now Nigeria and Cameroon by
2000 BC. By 1000 BC, in a series of migrations,
Bantu speakers had spread south to the savanna
lands of Angola and east to the Lake Victoria
region. Over the next 1500 years they scattered
throughout central and southern Africa,
interacting with and absorbing indigenous
populations as they spread.
21
Swahili
  • The Swahili people live on the East African
    coast from southern Somalia to northern
    Mozambique.
  • Swahili is a mixture of Bantu and Arab culture
  • Men wear amulets around their necks that contain
    verses from the Koran, which they believe will
    protect them.
  • Only teachers of Islam and prophets are permitted
    to become spritual healers.

22
  • The Swahili community developed along the coast
    of East Africa when Arab and Persian traders
    looking for profitable markets began to settle
    there and intermarry with the local
    Bantu-speaking population.
  • While the Swahili language is considered a Bantu
    language, there are many Arabic words and phrases
    included as well.
  • The word Swahili comes from the Arabic
    word Swahili, which means one who
    lives on the coast.
  • Most Swahili today are city dwellers
    rather than traditional farmers and
    herdsmen.
  • Many are engaged in fishing and
    trade, as their ancestors were.

23
  • Because contact with Arab traders was such a big
    part of their history, most of the Swahili today
    are Muslims.
  • Islam has been one of the factors that helped
    create a common identity for such a diverse group
    of people.
  • Many among the Swahili also follow local beliefs
    that have been part of the culture of eastern
    Africa since before Muslim traders arrived over a
    thousand years ago.
  • Many Swahili also see a close link between their
    religious beliefs and the practice of
    medicine and healing.
  • Herbal medicines are often given
    along with prescribed prayers and
    rituals that are all thought to be part
    of the cure.

24
Swahili
  • Mostly found in East Africa (especially in Kenya)
  • The language they speak is Swahili
  • -This is a mixture of Arabic Traditional
    African Languages
  • Most Swahili people are strict Muslims

25
Women of the Samburu ethnic group provide a
demonstration of traditional music and dance for
tourists in northern Kenya. The dance includes
stomping the ground with the feet and with wooden
sticks. Samburu traditional clothing includes
large colorful sarongs and beaded necklaces
normally worn for special ceremonies or
performances for tourists. (Kenya, 2004)
26
Swahili
  • Mostly found in East Africa (especially in Kenya)
  • The language they speak is Swahili
  • -This is a mixture of Arabic Traditional
    African Languages!
  • Most Swahili people are strict Muslims

27
African Literacy
  • The literacy rate in Africa is 50.
  • This means that half the population of African
    cannot read or write.
  • Literacy is good for individuals as well as their
    communities.
  • More developed countries tend to have a higher
    literacy rate.
  • Sudan and Egypt both have a literacy rate of only
    51.
  • South Africa, the most developed country in
    Africa, has a literacy rate of 83.

28
In their one-room school, students take part in a
lesson. in recent years, schools in general (and
especially rural schools) have suffered from
considerable underfunding. (Kenya, August 2001)
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