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Professor Dr Anne Bamford

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Title: Reading the pictures: Interactive media and the N-Gen. Author: Faculty of Education Last modified by: annstr Created Date: 10/9/2002 3:32:04 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Professor Dr Anne Bamford


1
  • Professor Dr Anne Bamford
  • International Research Agency
  • anne_at_annebamford.com

2
Outline
  • Creativity?
  • The child
  • The school
  • The world

3
Why? The child
4
Everyone has the right freely to participate in
the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the
arts
5
Road Map Recommendations
  • Advocacy
  • Government ministries must work together
  • Research
  • Continuity of provisions
  • Partnerships and cooperation
  • Professional formation
  • Evaluation
  • Publication and sharing

6
Seoul Agenda Three Core Goals
  • Arts education as the foundation for the balanced
    development of all children
  • Assure that arts education activities and
    programmes are of the highest quality in
    conception and delivery
  • Apply arts education principles and practices to
    contribute to resolving the social and cultural
    challenges facing todays world

7
Brain activation
  • Highly creative individuals had significantly
    higher activation in both the left and right
    cerebral hemispheres, specifically in the areas
    associated with fluency, originality and
    flexibility
  • Higher activation in these areas is related to
    the vivid experience of insight, emotions and
    perceptions present in highly creative
    individuals.
  • These combined with higher symbolic abilities
    possessed mainly in the activated frontal lobes
    might enable highly creative individual to
    translate their experiences into creative works.
  • Rosa Aurora Chavez-Eakle 2009

8
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9
Better brains...
  • Process visual information more quickly (visual
    experts)
  • Have better fine motor skills
  • Are more likely to learn by trial and error
  • Dont start at the beginning
  • Multi task
  • Are quicker at scanning, navigating and analysing
  • More creative (learning by experiment, role play,
    creation)
  • More intelligent (distributed cognition,
    immersion)

10
  • Dance is the art form that communicates through
    the body. Roland Barthes, My body is a thought

11
Why? The school
12
  • 92.7

13
Negative impact
  • There seemed to be between 17-28 (averaged at
    around 22) negative impacts of poor quality
    programmes. Put crudely, this meant that in a
    global sense about ¼ of all the arts and cultural
    education a child receives is likely to have a
    negative impact

14
Some thoughts
  • Education in the arts (music, visual arts, lesser
    drama, lesser dance, little media)
  • Education through the arts (visual literacy,
    drama, new technology)
  • Art as education (as a medium or environment for
    learning)
  • Education as art (a cultural and aesthetic
    understanding of education)

15
  • SO WHAT WORKS

16
1. Active partnership and collaboration
17
2. Flexible organizational structures
18
3. Accessibility to all
19
4. Ongoing professional development
20
5. Reflection and evaluation strategies
21
6. Local
22
7. Project-based, research-based
23
8. Active creation, performance and exhibition
24
9. The languages of the arts
25
10. Take risks
26
Arts rich schools
  • Less likely to lecture to pupils
  • Less serious behaviour problems
  • Less lateness and absenteeism
  • More emphasis on problem solving than rules in
    Maths
  • More likely to teach in smaller groups
  • More likely to read literature
  • More likely to get pupils to write
  • Happier students
  • Happier teacher

27
Portrait of an arts-rich 20 year old Catterall
2009 USA
  • More likely to enrol in college/higher education
    (gt 17.6)
  • More likely to volunteer (15.4)
  • More likely to have strong friendships (8.6)
  • More likely to vote (20)
  • 10 less likely to not be in either employment or
    education at aged 20.

28
Portrait of an arts-rich 26 year old Catterall
2009 USA,
  • Continue to do better than people who attended
    non-arts-rich schools.
  • Found better jobs
  • (Arts poor students were 5 times as likely to
    report dependence on public assistance at age
    26.)

29
Education out of step
  • Increased effort has to be made to establish
    synergies between knowledge, skills and
    creativity. With few exceptions educational
    politics gets no further than paying lip service
    to these ideas.

30
The problem has got worse
  • In 2006 the EU average school dropout rate was
    27. It is now 34 (2011)
  • In all EU countries, except Austria, boys are
    more than 12 more likely to dropout than girls.
  • The nature of school dropouts is changing. In
    2006, it was mainly children from lower socio
    economic groups with parents without a higher
    degree and mainly within the southern EU nations.
    The trend is reversing with increasing numbers of
    pupils dropping out from more affluent
    backgrounds, high achieving pupils and pupils
    with educated parents. The greatest growth in
    dropout rates have occurred in the Nordic
    countries.

31
C I F L G Z
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Development Categories Creativity - Innovation
Communication Skills Attitude Values
Practical Skills Comprehension/knowledge
Pedagogical Procedures
34
Pedagogical Procedures
35
Teachers Results Screen A wide range of visual
comparisons can be used. For Example
benchmark teachers averages identify weak
performance in a category (eg Communication)
identify best performers in creativity -
innovation view boys against girls performance
Pedagogical Procedures
36
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38
In Malta
  • The National Curriculum Conference (2000)
    identified a series of national and international
    measures which had negatively impacted upon
    creativity . E.g. a rigid timetable, formal
    class-management protocol, syllabus overload,
    discouragement of students from taking ownership
    of learning, emphasis on competition and external
    rewards and teachers' own limitations in the
    creative sector
  • In 2002, the Education Division introduced the
    post of "creativity teachers" with the aim of
    accelerating artistic development in schools.
    There are currently around 150 creativity
    teachers in schools in Malta.

39
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40
Creative PISA?
  • Sub-category within PISA (i.e. more creative
    questions)
  • The development of an instrument to test
    creativity in all European Member States could be
    considered
  • This feasibility study provides the green light
    to start the process of developing a tool to
    measure creativity (internationally). Such a
    project would require an important amount of
    investment and political will. Ernesto Villalba
    2008

41
Why Global reasons
42
Cultural capital
  • Studies have shown that a lack of familiarity
    with particular forms of culture and a lack of
    sophisticated cultural vocabulary can limit
    peoples confidence in certain social settings
    and deny them access to opportunities that might
    contribute to upward social mobility.

43
Employment growth
  • The National Endowment for Science (UK),
    Technology and the Arts suggests that between
    2009 and 2013 the UK creative industries, which
    are responsible for films, music, fashion, TV and
    video games production, will outstrip the rest of
    the economy in terms of growth by 4 on average.
    By 2013, the sector is expected to employ 1.3
    million people.

44
Employability
  • Surveys show that soft skills such as
    adaptability were more valuable to employers than
    education or qualifications
  • NESTA have received evidence that suggests the
    soft skills employers are looking for are (in
    order of stated importance)
  • Communication skills
  • Team working skills
  • Confidence
  • The Russell Group of Universities (UK) state
    that universities and employers are using such
    extra-curricular activities to differentiate
    between candidates for places and jobs.

45
World Economic Forum, Davos 2006
  • The arts will be a major force in economic
    development. The so-called creative industries
    are emerging as the largest single sector of
    economic activity in many countries and as the
    driving force of the tiger economies of India,
    China and Korea.

46
European Year of Creativity 2009
  • The Communication of March 2008 (European
    Commission, 2008a, 2) puts it simply Europe
    needs to boost its capacity for creativity and
    innovation for both social and economic reasons.

47
Little and big c
  • Everyday or little c creativity. The type of
    creativity that makes people adapt to the
    constantly changing environment, reformulate
    problems, and take risks to try new approaches to
    problems.
  • Big C creativity, the kind that changes some
    aspects of the culture, is never only in the mind
    of a person.

48
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49
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50
Innovation
  • Innovation is defined by the Oslo manual as The
    implementation of a new significantly improved
    product (good or service), or process, a new
    marketing method, or a new organisational method
    in business practices, workplace organisation or
    external relations (OECD and Eurostat 2005, 146).

51
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53
Education for innovation OECD
  • Pedagogies and curricula that try to foster
    simultaneously three categories of individual
    skills for innovation
  • Subject-based skills (know-what and know-how),
  • Skills in thinking and creativity (critical
    thinking, imagination, etc.), and
  • Behavioural and social skills (curiosity,
    communication, etc.).

54
Pillars of Innovation The European Innovation
Scoreboard (EIS) based on 29 indicators of
innovation
  • Human capital
  • Openness and diversity
  • Cultural environment
  • Technology
  • Institutional and regulatory environment
  • Creative outputs

55
Human Capital
  • Hours on arts and cultural education in schools
  • Number of arts schools per million people
  • Tertiary students studying in the field of
    culture
  • Cultural employment as a of overall employment

56
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57
Ranking
  • Innovation Scoreboard 2008
  • (EU15 Countries)
  • Sweden
  • Finland
  • Denmark
  • Germany
  • Netherlands
  • France
  • Austria
  • Uk
  • Belgium
  • Luxemburg
  • (EU average)
  • Active artistic participation
  • (Eurobarometer 2007)
  • Sweden
  • Luxemburg
  • Finland
  • France
  • Denmark
  • Netherlands
  • Belgium
  • Germany
  • UK
  • Austria
  • (EU average)

58
Welfare
  • Cultural participation is only second to absence
    of serious illness in predicting psychological
    well being and more important than income, place
    of residence, age, gender or occupation.

59
Sustainability
  • Cultural participation increases social
    mobilization and awareness of social consequences
    of individual action

60
Crime prevention
  • Cultural projects produce strong and significant
    effects in cases of juvenile crime prevention.

61
Entrepreneurship
  • The cultural and creative field is the most
    powerful incubator of new forms of
    entrepreneurship and makes a major contribution
    in Europes competitiveness.

62
Local identity
  • Cultural facilities substantially increase the
    global visibility of a place and improve urban
    and regional milieu

63
Soft power
  • Increase the visibility, reputation and
    authoritiveness of a country at all levels of
    international relationships.

64
Quality? Or
65
The necessity of taking culture more seriously
and to fully exploit its strategic potential
66
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