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Research Methodology Workshop

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Research Methodology Workshop 1 Introduction to Writing Research Proposal by Binam Ghimire * * * * * * * * * * * * triangulation is often used to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research Methodology Workshop


1
  • Research Methodology Workshop 1
  • Introduction to Writing Research Proposal
  • by Binam Ghimire

2
Learning Objectives
  • Understand research proposal
  • Basic skills for generating research ideas,
    title, aim, research questions and research
    objectives
  • Convert an area of research into a research title
  • Be familiar with the contents of a research
    proposal
  • Prepare Gantt Chart using Microsoft Project/
    Excel

3
Welcome
  • Venue/ Timetable

4
Dates
  • Room No
  • Four sessions of . hrs each (total . hours)

5
Submission
  • Email

6
Proposal
  • This is part of Alices conversation with the
    Cheshire Cat. In this Alice asks the cat
    (Carroll, 198963-4)
  • Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to
    walk from here?
  • That depends a good deal on where you want to
    get to, said the Cat.
  • I dont much care where, said Alice.
  • Then it doesnt matter which way you walk, said
    the Cat. (Saunders et al, 2003)

7
Proposal What is it?
8
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9
The Proposal is
  • A brief document!
  • The first stage of your dissertation
  • Requires some reading and thought but NOT
    intended to be a stumbling block
  • Ensures you start with a realistic and feasible
    dissertation topic
  • Helps you plan your work and visualise what your
    research project will look like
  • A work in progress your plans will probably
    evolve as you work on your dissertation

10
The Proposal is
  • Good when it is a work

11
Proposal
  • An investigation into the causes of the global
    financial crisis and the sub-prime crisis and the
    after-effects

12
Proposal
  • Above was an example of what is not doable

13
Proposal Headings
  • Title
  • Background
  • Industry Background
  • Research aim, research questions or hypotheses
    and objectives
  • Research Methodology
  • Timescale
  • Resources
  • References

14
Title
15
Title
  • Areas of interest
  • Title/ Topic same here
  • What do you think this book is about? War and
    Peace

16
Title
  • MINIER, J. 2009. Opening a Stock Exchange.
    Journal of , 90, 1, 135-143.
  • What do you think the above article is about?

17
Title
  • A large body of theoretical and empirical
    literature has established a positive
    relationship between levels of stock market
    development and economic growth. However,
    previous empirical work has been based on samples
    of approximately 40 countries with the most
    highly developed financial systems. Since 1950,
    over 70 countries have opened their first
    national stock exchanges. Can such exchanges
    increase economic growth? I present a data set of
    my construction that describes the exchange
    openings that occurred between 1960 and 1998, and
    find that these exchanges have generated
    increases in growth during their first 5 years of
    existence, although the longer-term results are
    ambiguous.

18
Title
  • Corporate Social Responsibility at
    Tescos/BP/Shell etc.
  • A Case Study of BPs Oil Crisis in 2010
  • An examination of the use of Facebook in
    marketing campaigns for teenage clothes
  • The Causes of the Global Banking Crisis
  • Delivering the 2012 Olympics on Time and in
    Budget
  • A study of stock market performance or A study of
    employee performance

19
Title
  • Topic An empirical study on Capital Structure
    and Profitability Relationship and its Impact on
    the Value of Firm
  • What do you think about the above?

20
Title
21
Title
  • Feedback on title Title could be worded better

22
Title
  • A similar work in a journal
  • The Research on the effects of Capital Structure
    on Firm Performance and Evidence from the
    Non-Financial Industry of Taiwan 50 and Taiwan
    Mid-Cap 100 from 1987 to 2007

23
Title
  • Redefining the title
  • An empirical study on Capital Structure and
    Profitability Relationship and its Impact on the
    Value of Firm Evidence from large non-finance
    companies listed in FTSE 100

24
Title
  • Flying High? The evolution of British Airways
    corporate strategy 2000-2010
  • Shopping Around Credit Card Switching Behaviour
    in the UK 2000-2010
  • Supply Chain Management in the UK Clothing
    Business Next Plcs future strategy
  • Also note the use of ?,

25
Title
  • Budgeting and Budgetary Control System as a
    Management Control Tool A case study of footwear
    retail sector of Pakistan
  • A Critical Evaluation of Budgeting as a Tool for
    Management control A case study of footwear
    retail sector of Pakistan

26
Title
  • The Implementation of Principles of Sound
    Corporate Governance in Emerging countries
  • An investigation into the nature of corporate
    governance and its affect to major stakeholders
    with reference to companies in UAE. 
  • An investigation into the nature of corporate
    governance and its relationship to firm
    performance with reference to 50 listed companies
    in UAE

27
Title
  • MYERS, S. C. (1984) The capital structure puzzle.
    Journal of Finance, 39, 34, 575 - 592.
  • What do you think the above article is about?

28
Title
  • Attributes of a good dissertation title/topic

29
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30
Title
  • Need for research
  • Amenable to research methods
  • Achievable in a reasonable time
  • Symmetry of potential outcomes
  • The research topic should match both your
    interests and capabilities
  • Area for professional development
  • Contribution to knowledge
  • Attractive for funding

31
Title
  • Key words may be useful a critical
    evaluation, a case study, a longitudinal
    study

32
Title
  • Should be explanatory, short and snappy
  • colons are useful
  • look at book or journal article titles for ideas
  • Born to buy the commercialised child and the
    new consumer culture by Juliet Schor (2004)

33
Title
  • Finance, Firm Size, and Growth
  • Finance, Inequality and the Poor
  • Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth

34
Title
  • Financial Intermediation and Growth Causality
    and Causes
  • Internal Finance and Growth Microeconometric
    Evidence on Chinese Firms.
  • Financial Development and Economic Growth
    International Evidence
  • Modern Economic Growth Rate, Structure and
    Spread
  • Bank-Based or Market-Based Financial Systems
    Which is Better?
  • Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare
    What the Long-Run Data Show
  • Stock Markets, Banks, and Growth Panel Evidence

35
Title
  • Topic is not too topical, but has been explored
  • Not set in stone it may change as the research
    progresses
  • Remember a subject area (or a couple of key
    words) is not a topic!
  • Related to your course

36
Background
  • Need for research
  • Background section Review of Literature (no more
    than 2000 words)

37
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38
Background
  • Why is research that you are planning worth the
    effort?
  • Use of academic journals
  • Identify your area of research
  • Demonstrate your knowledge of the relevant
    literature
  • Clarify where your proposal fits into the debate
    in the literature
  • Identify gaps in existing literature
  • Show a clear link between the previous work that
    has been done in your field of research interest
    and the content of your proposal etc
  • Identify relevant academic theory, models,
    frameworks and concepts.

39
Background
  • This also requires knowledge on how to review the
    literature
  • The section on Review of literature will be
    explained separately

40
Industry Background
  • No more than 250 words

41
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42
Industry Background
  • Place the research into context
  • This should clarify further why the research is
    being done, under what conditions it is being
    done and what its impact is hoped to be

43
Research aim, research questions or hypotheses
and objectives
  • What does this research aim to explore/find out?
  • Hypotheses
  • Objectives
  • Research questions

1, 2, 3 4, 1-2
44
Research aim, research questions or hypotheses
and objectives
  • Research Ideas Title Aim Hypotheses
    Questions Objectives
  • Visit and refine as needed

45
Research Ideas
  • Generating Research Ideas (Saunders et al, 2007)
  • Examining own strengths and interests
  • Looking at past project titles
  • Discussion
  • Searching the literature
  • Keeping a notebook of ideas
  • Exploring personal preferences using projects
  • Relevance trees
  • Brainstorming

46
Turning Research Ideas into Research Projects
  • Writing Research Questions
  • Writing Research Objectives

47
Research Questions
48
Research Questions
  • Writing Research Questions

49
Research Questions
  • One or a maximum of two general focus research
    question
  • The question(s) may lead to several more detailed
    questions (or the definition of research
    objectives)

50
Research Questions
  • Beware of questions that are too easy to answer
    and avoid the difficult ones (Saunders, 2007)

51
Research Questions
  • What is the proportion of graduates entering the
    civil service who attended the old established UK
    universities?

52
Research Questions
  • Why are graduates from old-established UK
    universities more likely to enter the civil
    service than graduates from other universities

53
Research Questions
  • Saunders et al (2007)
  • Unofficial processes that go on at staff
    selection which may favour one type of candidate
    over another.
  • Over-reaching yourself in the definition of
    research questions is a danger

54
Research Questions
  • Clough and Nutbrown (2002) Goldilocks test
  • Too big
  • Too small
  • Too hot

55
Research Questions
  • Clough and Nutbrown (2002) Goldilocks test
  • Just right

56
Research Questions
  • Match Too big, too small, too hot, just the
    right
  • with the followings
  • insufficient, sensitivities that may be aroused
    as a result of doing the research, investigation
    at this time by this researcher and in this
    setting, funding problem

57
Research Questions
  • Research idea into research questions

58
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Research idea
  • Volatility in stock market

59
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Research Question
  • Why does stock market volatility change over
    time? (Schwert, 1989)

60
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Research idea
  • Developed countries developed stock market and
    developed intermediaries

61
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Research Question
  • Do countries with well-developed stock markets
    also have well-developed banks and nonbank
    financial intermediaries? (Kunt and Levine, 1996)

62
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Turn the following research ideas into research
    questions
  • Advertising and share prices
  • Job recruitment via the internet
  • The use of aroma as a marketing device
  • The use of internet banking
  • The use of mobile banking

63
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Advertising and share prices
  • How does the running of a TV advertising campaign
    designed to boost the image of a company affect
    its share price?

64
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • Job recruitment via the internet
  • How effective is recruiting for new staff via the
    internet in comparison with traditional methods

65
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • The use of aromas as a marketing device
  • In what ways does the use of specific aromas in
    supermarkets affect buyer behaviour?

66
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • The use of internet banking
  • What is the affect of internet banking into the
    uses customers had on branch facilities
  • What is the affect of growth of internet banking
    into the uses customers had on branch facilities

67
Research QuestionsResearch Idea Research
Question
  • The use of mobile banking
  • What is the affect of consumers knowledge about
    mobile banking into the uses customers had on
    branch facilities
  • How does the consumers knowledge about mobile
    banking affect its adoption in XXX?

68
Research Objectives
69
Research Objectives
  • Greater specificity than research questions

70
Research ObjectivesQuestion Objective
  • Example
  • Why have organisations introduced team briefing?
  • To identify organisations objectives for team
    briefing schemes

71
Research ObjectivesQuestion Objective
  • Example
  • How can the effectiveness of team briefing
    schemes be measured
  • To establish suitable effectiveness criteria for
    team briefing schemes

72
Research ObjectivesQuestion Objective
  • Example
  • Has team briefing been effective?
  • To describe the extent to which the effectiveness
    criteria for team briefing have been met

73
Research ObjectivesQuestion Objective
  • Objectives are good when they pass the SMART Test
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Timely

74
Research Methodology
75
Research Methodology
  • Longest after Literature Review, but more than
    1500 words
  • This section will detail how you intend to go
    about achieving your research objectives
  • It will explain your choice of research
    philosophy (inductive /deductive)
  • It will also justify your choice of method in the
    light of the research objectives
  • It will also detail which sectors of the market
    you have chosen to research and why you chose
    these sectors
  • It will explain how you will ensure validity and
    reliability
  • Discuss the appropriateness of triangulation to
    your research

76
Research Methodology
  • Include an explanation of the general way in
    which you intend to carry out the research.
  • Will it be based, for example, on questionnaires,
    interviews, examination of secondary data or use
    of a combination of data collection techniques?
  • Explain why you have chosen your approach?

77
Research Methodology
  • If you are using a survey strategy you should
    specify your population and sample size
  • You should also clarify how the survey instrument
    such as questionnaire will be distributed and how
    the data will be analysed
  • If you are using interviews you would explain how
    many interviews will be conducted, their intended
    duration, whether they will be audio-recorded and
    how they will be analysed
  • But it is not necessary to include precise detail
    of the method you will employ, for example the
    questionnarie questions.
  • Include how you are going to adhere to any
    ethical guidelines (medical patients and children)

78
Research Methodology
  • This requires knowledge various methodologies
  • It will not be in the scope of this RM sessions
  • However few more common methodologies will be
    explained separately

79
Timescale
  • This section needs to be very detailed and
    realistic
  • You must produce a detailed schedule that
    illustrates weekly activities and allows time for
    unexpected delays.
  • A GANTT Chart might help!!
  • See separate file on how to make Gantt chart
    using Microsoft Project

80
Resources
  • What resources do you need
  • Will you be able to access the data that you need
    to conduct your research?
  • Do you have the required skills to perform the
    analysis
  • Limitations

81
References
  • How many?
  • Style?

82
Writing Proposal Best suggestion
83
Sample
  • Binams brief proposal
  • Student work 1
  • Student work 2

84
Activity
  • 1. Write down a list of topics associated with
    your Masters Degree that interest you enough for
    you to focus on
  • 2. Once you have located your area of interest
    narrow it down to a central question that you
    would like to find the answer to or problem that
    you would like to find the solution to
  • 3. Now write these down as a series of
    questions that you can try to answer during your
    research
  • 4. Now try to work out what kinds of
    methodology you could use to do this

85
Report your conclusions to your group members
86
What am I expected
  • ?

87
What am I expected?
  • Identification of a field of study
  • Formulation of research questions
  • Problem solving
  • Data collection and analysis
  • Inference (assumption, conclusion, conjecture,
    consequences, deduction, etc.)
  • Proof (confirmation, substantiate)
  • Dissemination (broadcasting, publication),and
  • Communication.

88
Thank you
  • ?
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