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The National Climate Change Response Policy

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Title: The National Climate Change Response Policy


1
The National Climate Change Response Policy The
Policy Development Process
2
Presentation Overview
  • The early days 1994 to 2005
  • The first national climate change conference,
    October 2005
  • Building the science-policy interface 2005 to
    2008 the LTMS case study
  • Cabinets 2008 policy directions
  • The national climate change response policy
    conference, March 2009
  • The policy development process from 2009 to
    November 2010
  • The Green Paper and the policy finalisation
    process Nov 2010 to October 2011

3
The early days 1994 to 2005
  • The 1st IPCC Assessment Report published in 1990
    presented sufficient scientific evidence of
    climate change to elicit world wide concern and
    the negotiation of the United Nations Framework
    Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • In 1994, in response to the growing international
    concerns around climate change, the Department of
    Environmental Affairs and Tourism established the
    National Climate Change Committee (NCCC)
  • The 2nd IPCC Assessment report published in 1995
    demonstrated that the actions outlined in the
    UNFCCC were insufficient and this motivated the
    negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol which was
    finalised in 1997
  • In response to the findings of the IPCCs 2nd
    Assessment Report and supported by
    recommendations from the NCCC, the South African
    Government ratified the UNFCCC in August 1997.

4
The early days 1994 to 2005 (Continued)
  • By 2001, South African researchers had also
    started taking a serious look at climate change
    and its implications.
  • Arguably, climate change rose up the political
    agenda when, in 2002 the Heads of State of over
    180 countries met at the World Summit on
    Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. In July
    of 2002 the South African Government acceded to
    the Kyoto Protocol.
  • By 2003, South Africa had concluded its Climate
    Change Country Studies and 1990 and 1994
    greenhouse gas inventories and had submitted
    these in the form of its Initial National
    Communication (INC) to the UNFCCC Secretariat. In
    compiling and finalising the INC it became clear
    that South Africa was not only a potentially
    significant victim of the negative impacts of
    climate change, but was also a significant
    contributor to greenhouse gases.

5
In 2005, with the 3rd IPCC Assessment Report, it
also became clear that South Africa, along with
other more advanced developing countries (e.g.
China, India, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea and
Saudi Arabia), would have to start seriously
considering its responsibility for climate change
and, that, as a fossil-fuel-powered nation, this
would have important policy implications.By June
2005 the departments of environment and science
and technology starting organising a unique
climate change conference consisting of two
components The 1st, starting on a Monday, was
a Climate Change Science conference involving the
top South African and African scientistsThe
2nd, starting one day later, was a Climate Change
Policy conference with its programme aligned
with, and informed by, the Climate Change Science
conferenceAt the time, this concept was
regarded as revolutionary and a real initiation
of pragmatic science-policy dialogue
  • In 2005, with the 3rd IPCC Assessment Report, it
    also became clear that South Africa, along with
    other more advanced developing countries (e.g.
    China, India, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea and
    Saudi Arabia), would have to start seriously
    considering its responsibility for climate change
    and, that, as a fossil-fuel-powered nation, this
    would have important policy implications.
  • By June 2005 the departments of environment and
    science and technology starting organising a
    unique climate change conference consisting of
    two components
  • The 1st, starting on a Monday, was a Climate
    Change Science conference involving the top South
    African and African scientists
  • The 2nd, starting one day later, was a Climate
    Change Policy conference with its programme
    aligned with, and informed by, the Climate Change
    Science conference
  • At the time, this concept was regarded as
    revolutionary and a real initiation of pragmatic
    science-policy dialogue

6
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7
The 2005 National Climate Change Conference
  • Held in Midrand from17 to 20 October 2005 under
    the banner of Climate Action Now.
  • Over 600 representatives from government,
    business, the scientific and academic
    communities, and civil society
  • Opened by the Deputy President and involving the
    active participation of 5 Cabinet Ministers and
    Deputy Ministers, the gathering was broadly
    considered a reflection of Governments
    commitment and determination to act on climate
    change and to shape policy informed by the
    best-available science.
  • The conference unanimously agreed that climate
    change was a reality
  • Amongst the many commitments outlined in the
    Midrand Plan of Action
  • Initiating a detailed scenario building process
    to map out how South Africa could meet its UNFCCC
    Article 2 commitment to greenhouse gas
    stabilisation whilst ensuring its focus on
    poverty alleviation and job creation
  • Initiating a participatory climate change policy
    development process

8
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9
The LTMS
  • In March 2006, Cabinet mandated a national
    process of building scenarios of possible
    greenhouse gas emission futures, informed by the
    best available research and information, to
    define not only South Africas position on future
    commitments under international treaties, but
    also to shape the countrys climate change policy
    for the longer-term future.
  • This process became known as the Long-Term
    Mitigation Scenarios (LTMS) development process.
  • Government appointed the Energy Research Centre
    at the University of Cape Town to project manage
    the entire process and they convened and
    contracted the process specialists and set up the
    personnel of four focussed Research Support Units
  • The multi-stakeholder Scenario Building Team
    (SBT) was established in August 2006 to carry out
    the technical aspects

10
The LTMS (Continued)
Government DEAT Environment DME Minerals
Energy DST Science Technology DoT Transport
Treasury Foreign Affairs DTI Trade
Industry DPE Public Enterprises DWAF Water
Affairs Forestry Presidency SAWS Weather
Service CEF / SA Natl Energy Research
Institute NERSA Energy Regulator W Cape Province
(DEADP) City of Johannesburg Dept of
Agriculture ARC
Business SASOL Eskom EIUG Energy Intensive Users
Group Engen Grain SA Anglo Coal BHP
Billiton Chamber of Mines Aluminium AFSA
Kumba Resources Chemical CAIA Engen Forestry
SA AgriSA Business Unity SA Sappi Envirotech
(Waste)
Civil society EcoCity/CURES Groundwork SESSA Labo
ur (COSATU) SEA SACAN COSATU SALGA WWF-SA Earthli
fe Africa NEDLAC
11
The LTMS (Continued)
  • On 24 October 2007, after a year of intense work,
    the initial technical work of the LTMS was signed
    off by the SBT at their sixth meeting. This work
    is reflected in the following documents
  • The Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios - Strategic
    options for South Africa, a 27 page document
    that synthesizes the findings of the technical
    research into a tool for informed decision-making
  • The Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios Technical
    Summary, a 17 page document that provides the
    technical basis, in abridged form, for the
    Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios - Strategic
    options for South Africa document
  • The Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios Technical
    Report, a 153 page report on the LTMS research.
    This document is also supported by technical
    reports on Energy emissions Non-energy
    emissions Macro-economic analysis and Climate
    impacts.

12
The LTMS (Continued)
13
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14
The LTMS (Continued)
  • The SBT consensus
  • Growth Without Constraints is an unacceptable
    trajectory
  • Current Development Paths will not
    significantly change the unacceptable Growth
    Without Constraints trajectory
  • Required By Science should be our
    aspirational goal
  • The LTMS was a broadly supported piece of
    research with findings that are policy relevant
    not policy prescriptive
  • The LTMS process has been peer-reviewed by
    international experts and its methodology is
    considered robust and has been replicated
    internationally
  • During the LTMS process, apart from an
    accelerated upswing in climate change related
    research, another extremely significant
    policy-related development was the ANCs strong
    climate change resolution made at its 52nd
    National Conference in Polokwane at the end of
    2007.

15
Cabinets 2008 Policy Directions
  • South Africas response to climate change was
    considered during Cabinets July 2008 Lekgotla
    and Cabinets decisions were presented to the
    public on 28 July 2008
  • Apart from agreeing a process and timetable for
    the development of a national climate change
    response policy, Cabinet also directed, among
    others, that
  • Climate change mitigation interventions should be
    informed by, and monitored and measured against
    the following plateau and decline emission
    trajectory
  • Greenhouse gas emissions stop growing (start of
    plateau) in 2020-25
  • Greenhouse gas emissions begin declining in
    absolute terms (end of plateau) in 2030-35.

16
Cabinets 2008 Policy Directions (Continue)
  • The Socio-economic transition - Transition to
    climate resilient and low-carbon economy and
    society
  • balance our mitigation and adaptation response
  • In the long-term, redefine our competitive
    advantage and structurally transform the economy
    by shifting from an energy-intensive to a
    climate-friendly path as part of a pro-growth,
    pro-development and pro-jobs strategy
  • Adapt to the inevitable - Continue to
    pro-actively build the knowledge base and our
    capacity to adapt to the inevitable impacts of
    climate change, most importantly by enhancing
    early warning and disaster reduction systems and
    in the roll-out of basic services, infrastructure
    planning, agriculture, biodiversity, water
    resource management and in the health sector

17
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18
The 2009 Climate Change Summit
  • From 3-6 March 2009, nearly 900 representatives
    from government, business, the scientific and
    academic communities, and civil society and over
    150 virtual participants linked through the
    Internet came together in Midrand to initiate a
    consultative process to develop the South African
    Climate Change Response Policy.
  • Areas of consensus
  • Pursue required by Science
  • Transition to low carbon economy in the context
    of equity, sustainable development and poverty
    eradication
  • A strengthened science-policy interface
  • Balance adaptation and mitigation integrate
    adaptation into development planning
  • Build local level climate resilience and access
    to energy for the poor
  • Scale up renewables and energy efficiency

19
The 2009 Climate Change Summit (Continue)
  • Areas of consensus (cont.)
  • Energy efficiency standards
  • Government coordination and policy alignment
  • Price on carbon mix of instruments requires
    further work
  • Fast track CDM tax incentives
  • Massively upscale public awareness
  • Gender mainstreaming
  • Mobilise resources including for RD
  • Efficiency
  • Areas of divergence
  • Energy mix
  • Transparency in energy planning and decision
    making
  • What economic instruments and how

20
From 2009 Summit to the Green Paper
  • UNFCCCs 2009 COP 15 in Copenhagen
  • Round Table on 17 May 2010
  • Provide key climate change response stakeholders
    with an update on the National Climate Change
    Response Policy development process
  • Provide a platform for key climate change
    response stakeholders to respond to, and discuss,
    the most recent Climate Change Policy Discussion
    Document
  • Draft Green Paper compiled and initial
    discussions initiated in July 2010
  • Final Draft Green Paper approved for publication
    and published in November 2010

21
From 2010 Green Paper to 2011 White Paper
  • Following Cabinets approval to publish for
    public comment, the National Climate Change
    Response Green Paper was published in the
    Government Gazette, departmental web site and in
    a hard copy version on 27 November 2010.
  • A Green Paper web site was established to
    facilitate access to all the relevant
    documentation, provide updates on the process and
    to provide an electronic means for submitting
    comments (www.climateresponse.co.za)
  • Productive and fruitful public workshops on the
    Green Paper were held in each and every province
  • A series of focussed stakeholder workshops were
    held on specific policy themes identified during
    the policy development process including Climate
    Finance Human Resource and Technology
    Adaptation Mitigation and Governance
  • Further policy relevant research on the above
    themes was also commissioned to feed into and
    inform the discussions at the focussed workshops
  • The department formally engaged on the policy
    within the National Economic Development and
    Labour Council (NEDLAC)

22
From Green Paper to 2011 White Paper (Continued)
  • The department conducted many bilateral
    engagements and made numerous policy
    presentations at various forums, seminars and
    conferences.
  • Parliament hosted a public hearing process on the
    draft policy stretching over three weeks of
    stakeholder presentations and robust discussions
    and debates.
  • The inputs during this period that raised over
    4,000 individual issues on the Green Paper, were
    captured in a detailed comment/response database
  • The department hosted a drafting retreat from
    13-15 April 2011, where the Intergovernmental
    Committee on Climate Change (IGCCC) members had
    an opportunity to review the emerging issues and
    comments (Rev 1)
  • Following the drafting retreat, a working draft
    of the White paper was compiled (Rev 2),
    circulated and presented to the IGCCC on 27 and
    31 May 2011 respectively and departments were
    requested to submit comments on the document by
    17 June 2011.
  • By 24 June 2011, comments had been received from
    the departments of Energy, Environment, Health
    (food and malaria control sections) and Trade and
    Industry the Ekurhuleni and eThekwini Metros
    and the Western Cape Provincial environment
    department.

23
From Green Paper to 2011 White Paper (Continued)
  • A drafting team meeting was held on 27 June 2011
    to agree on the final proposed response to the
    various comments received as well as to propose a
    policy finalization process (Rev 3).
  • A further iteration of the draft White Paper was
    completed on 21 July 2011 and received a senior
    management edit from 25 to 27 July 2011 (Rev 4)
  • Continued intensive intergovernmental engagements
    through IGCCC to mid-September 2011
  • High-level (DG to DG and CEO) consultations from
    August to September 2011.
  • Forum of South African Directors-General (FOSAD)
  • Presented to FOSAD Social Protection Community
    Development (SPCD) Cluster on Wednesday 24
    August 2011
  • Presented to FOSAD Management Committee (MANCO)
    on Monday 5 September 2011
  • Tabled at FOSAD Economic Sectors Employment
    (ESE) Cluster for approval to submit to Cabinet
    on Wednesday 7 September 2011

24
From Green Paper to 2011 White Paper (Continued)
  • Cabinet
  • Rev 5 tabled in the Cabinet Committee for the
    Economic Sectors and Employment and
    Infrastructure Development (ESEID) for approval
    to submit to Cabinet on Wednesday 28 September
    2011
  • Rev 6 tabled and approved by Cabinet on Wednesday
    12 October 2011
  • White Paper to be formally published in a special
    Gazette on Wednesday 19 October 2011
  • White Paper launched by the Minister of Water and
    Environmental Affairs on Tuesday 18 October 2011

25
Thank You for your kind attention
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