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Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Second Edition

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Title: WRAML Subject: Age & Admin Time Author: Adams & Sheslow Last modified by: Jamie Goland Created Date: 3/2/1995 9:50:58 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Second Edition


1
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and
LearningSecond Edition
  • David Sheslow, PhD
  • Wayne Adams, PhD

2
About the authors
  • Dr. David Sheslow
  • PhD in Clinical Psychology, University of North
    Carolina at Greensboro
  • 29 years at the DuPont Hospital for Children as
    chief psychologist and co-director of the
    Division of Behavioral Health, Department of
    Pediatrics
  • Teaches at the DuPont Hospital Pediatric and
    Psychology Residency Programs
  • Private, Clinical Psychology practice
  • Published over 48 professional articles

3
About the authors
  • Dr. Wayne Adams
  • PhD in Developmental and Child Clinical
    Psychology from Syracuse University
  • 23 years at DuPont Hospital for Children,
    Director of the Division of Psychology, Chief
    Psychologist within the Division of Behavioral
    Medicine
  • Associate Professor at Jefferson Medical College
  • Published gt30 articles, gt60 presentations at
    conventions of professional organizations
  • Diplomat status, Clinical Psychology, American
    Board of Professional Psychology
  • Currently a tenured professor and chairperson of
    the APA accredited Graduate Department of
    Clinical Psychology at George Fox University,
    Newberg, OR

4
About the authors
  • Drs. Adams and Sheslow have co-authored 5
    instruments. They have extensive experience
    working with children and teens with mild to
    severe neurological disorders such as Learning
    Disabilities, ADHD, and Traumatic Brain Injury.
    It is this clinical involvement that lead to the
    development of a memory battery when there was
    none normed on children.

5
  • Evaluation of Memory
  • Our Clinical and
  • Empirical Roots

6
Historical Roots
  • Hans Ebbinghaus (1850 1909)
  • Immediate memory (digit span)
  • Chunking
  • Nonsense syllables
  • Meaningfulness
  • Rehearsal
  • Interference
  • Disadvantage of age
  • Memory illusions

7
Historical Roots
  • Alfred Binet (1857 1911)
  • Qualitative analysis
  • Serial position effect
  • Importance effect
  • Acoustic vs. semantic recall effects
  • Frederic Barlett (1886-1969)
  • Visual and motor memory

8
Historical Roots
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Repressed memory effects
  • Theodule Ribot (1839-1916)
  • Encoding, storage, retrieval
  • Procedural and volitional memory
  • Study of amnesias
  • Developmental aspects of memory
  • Immediate memory improves during school years
  • Declining long-term retention with age

9
Historical Roots
  • Associationism
  • Function of habit strength
  • Simple association between external stimulus and
    observable response
  • Introduction of the Computer
  • People are active information processors
  • Memory is a storage system with stages

10
Historical Roots
  • Broadbent (1958)
  • serial processing
  • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
  • Sensory register, short-term store, long-term
    store
  • Control processes
  • Craik and Lockhart (1972)
  • levels of processing

11
Historical Roots
  • Developmental Aspects
  • Immediate recall improves during school years
  • Improvement on immediate memory tasks is
    particularly noticeable until 13 years of age
  • Childrens performance across ages does differ
  • Long-term retention declines with increasing age
  • Gender differences are small or non-existent
  • Memory performance is related to IQ but the
    correlation is not very high

12
Historical Roots
  • Neuropsychological Influences
  • H.M. (hippocampal lesion)
  • Intact short-term, severely impaired long-term
  • Support for multi-store model?
  • Non-localized dimension?
  • Executive processes

13
Contemporary Status
  • Neuroimaging studies
  • Computational/connectionist models
  • Multi-system nature, active, dynamic
  • Interaction of
  • Memory
  • Executive functions that control and regulate
  • Knowledge and skills of learner

14
A sampling of historical memory concepts found
on WRAML2
  • Primacy/Recency
  • List Learning
  • Learning Trials and Learning Curve
  • Recognition Memory
  • Immediate vs. Delayed Recall
  • Sustained Attention
  • Working Memory
  • Gist vs. Verbatim
  • Verbal vs. Visual
  • Rote vs. Meaningful

15
Early Memory Measures
  • Rey (list learning of 15 words) 1958
  • Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Task (1944)
  • Wechsler Memory Scale (1945)
  • Wechsler Memory Scale Revised (1987)
  • Wechsler Memory Scale III (1997)
  • Wide Range Assessment of Memory and
  • Learning (1990)

16
Test Revision
  • WRAML WRAML2
  • (1990) (2004)

17
Major ModificationsWRAML to WRAML2
  • Upper age range extended from 17 to 90 years
  • Indexes better reflect factor structure Verbal
    Memory, Visual Memory, Attention/Concentration
  • Number of Core Subtests (6 vs. 9)

18
Major ModificationsWRAML to WRAML2
  • Delay Memory Tasks (7 vs. 4)
  • 2 Working Memory
  • Recognition Memory (4 vs. 1)
  • Qualitative Analyses (25 vs. 0)
  • Updated stimulus materials

19
WRAML2 Structure
  • Core Subtests
  • Optional Subtests
  • Qualitative Analyses

20
Core Indexes and Subtests
21
Psychometric Properties of the WRAML2
22
Test Development
  • Focus group meetings, research
  • Inclusion of working memory and recognition
  • Item tryout (n 140)
  • Item Response Theory, Rasch analysis
  • Development of Standardization Edition

23
Standardization
  • Stratified Sampling Using
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Geographic Region
  • Education Level
  • Ethnicity
  • N1,200, 80 for each of 15 age groups

24
Reliability Core Subtests
r values
Person Separation .85 - .94
Item Separation .99 1.0
Internal Consistency .81 92 GMI .93
Test-Retest (median interval 49 days) .59 - .77 GMI .82 (?6.7 pts)
Subtest Interscorer Reliability .98
25
Internal Validity
  • Item separation .98 to 1.00
  • Factor Analysis
  • Three-factor Core Model Verbal Memory, Visual
    Memory, Attention/Concentration
  • Applies to all demographic groups
  • Working Memory Attention/Concentration r .99
  • Three-factor Optional Model Working Memory,
    Verbal Recognition, Visual Recognition
  • Differential Item Functioning most in high .90s,
    .88 on Story Memory between Hispanic and White

26
External Validity
Wechsler Memory Scale-III Childrens Memory Scale Test of Memory and Learning California Verbal Learning Test-II .60 (GMI w/ GMI) .49 (GMI w/ GMI) .69 (CMI w/GMI) .68 (Trial 1-5 Index w/ Verbal Learning)
WAIS-II WISC-III .67 (FSIQ w/ GMI) .44 (FSIQ w/ GMI)
WRAT3 WJ-III .11 to .60 (w/ GMI)
27
Pediatric Clinical Groups
Clinical Group WRAML2 Verbal MI Visual MI GMI
Reading Disordered (n24) 91.2 91.3 89.2
ADHD (n23) 102.5 97.8 97.4
LD/ADHD (n23) 89.2 91.0 84.3
28
(No Transcript)
29
Adult Clinical Groups in Manual
Clinical Group WRAML2 GMI
Alcohol Abuse 91.4
Parkinson Disease 98.6
Traumatic Brain Injury 82.0
Alzheimers Disease 79.1
30
Administration
  • General Points
  • Clipboard
  • Pronunciation
  • Practice
  • Organize Forms
  • Administration Time
  • Core Subtests 30 - 40 minutes

31
Age-Based Normative Scores
  • Scaled Scores - Subtests
  • Mean 10, SD 3
  • Standard Scores - Indexes
  • Mean100, SD 15
  • Percentiles - Indexes
  • Age Equivalents
  • 5 16 years

32
Other Data Available
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Index Discrepancy Data
  • Statistical significance
  • Prevalence data
  • Scaled and/or Cut Scores for qualitative analyses
  • Qualitative Analyses (with quantitative support)
  • Age-based descriptive statistics and clinical
    base rates (prevalence) are provided
  • Computer scoring program available

33
Core Indexes and Subtests
34
Story Memory SubtestCore Subtest (1), Verbal
Memory Index
  • Two Stories read to Participant
  • A B 5-8 years
  • B C 9 years and older
  • Immediate Recall Trial
  • Upper case scoring criteria requires an exact
    response
  • Lower case scoring criteria acceptable gist
    responses listed in manual

35
Story Memory SubtestCore Subtest (1), Verbal
Memory Index
  • Tips
  • Practice reading stories out loud
  • Use a pencil to point to each word as it is read
  • Note unusual gist responses so can score later
  • Transfer to Verbatim and Gist columns later

36
Story Memory SubtestAssociated Optional Subtests
and Qualitative Measures
  • Story Memory Delay Recall
  • Story Memory Retention
  • Individual Story Comparison
  • Verbatim and Gist Measures
  • Story Memory Delay Recognition

37
Verbal Learning SubtestCore Subtest (3), Verbal
Memory Index
  • List-learning task
  • 13 words, 8 years and younger
  • 16 words, gt 9 years
  • Common words
  • Four learning trials

38
Verbal Learning SubtestCore Subtest (3), Verbal
Memory Index
  • Tips
  • One second pause between words
  • Number repetition order IF have time
  • Write first letter of word in free space

39
Verbal Learning SubtestAssociated Optional
Subtests and Qualitative Measures
  • Verbal Learning Delay Recall
  • Trials 1 4
  • Verbal Learning Slope
  • Verbal Learning Retention
  • Verbal Learning Intrusion Errors
  • Verbal Learning Recognition
  • Semantic vs. Phonological Error analysis for
    Recognition

40
Design Memory Subtest Core Subtest (2), Visual
Memory Index
  • 5 Design Memory Cards
  • Design Memory Response Form
  • Copying aid for judging accuracy
  • Young examinees
  • Any age with poor visual-motor skills
  • Drawing task
  • 5 second exposure
  • 10 second pause before drawing

41
Design Memory Subtest Core Subtest (2), Visual
Memory Index
  • Tips
  • Take back the pencil each time after drawing is
    complete
  • Hold the pencil to deter grabbing
  • Let clock run and note time vs. resetting
  • Scoring guidelines in manual
  • Associated Optional Subtest
  • Design Memory Recognition

42
Picture Memory SubtestCore Subtest (4), Visual
Memory Index
  • 4 Memory Stimulus Cards
  • Picture Memory Response Form
  • Red China Marker
  • 10 second exposure
  • Put an X on each part of the picture that has
    been changed, moved or added.
  • Correct Zoo card only

43
Picture Memory SubtestCore Subtest (4), Visual
Memory Index
  • Tips
  • Put Memory Stimulus Cards in order
  • Can use a crayon liquid markers typically bleed
  • Familiarize yourself with the Zoo responses, in
    particular, so can quickly correct if needed
  • Associated Optional Subtest/Qualitative Measure
  • Commission Errors
  • Picture Memory Recognition

44
Finger Windows SubtestCore Subtest (7),
Attention/Concentration Index
  • Finger Windows Card
  • Start places determined by age
  • 5-8 years A
  • 9 years older 4
  • 1 second in window, 1 second between windows
  • Correct A, B, and C only
  • If 4 is incorrect, go to A

45
Finger Windows SubtestCore Subtest (7),
Attention/Concentration Index
  • Tips
  • May be easier to write numbers in order while
    looking at card
  • Can place pencil on table between windows to aid
    timing

46
Number Letter SubtestCore Subtest (9),
Attention/Concentration Index
  • 1 per second
  • Examinee repeats the sequence in the same order

47

48
Verbal Working MemoryOptional Subtest (14),
Working Memory Subtests
  • Only administer to 9 and older
  • 9 to 13 years Level A and B
  • 14 to adult Level B and C
  • A Repeat animals first, then non-animals
  • B Repeat animals small to large first, then
    non-animals
  • C Repeat animals small to large first, then
    non-animals small to large

49
Verbal Working MemoryOptional Subtest (14),
Working Memory Subtests
  • Example Level B, Item B-6
  • Examiner nail, elephant, lake, crab, kangaroo
  • Participant crab, kangaroo, elephant, nail,
    lake
  • Scoring 1 for animal grouping, 1 for non-animal
    grouping, bonus of 1 if both groupings are
    correct intrusions are not accepted
  • Can teach on items A-1, A-2, A-3, B-1 but score
    first response

50
Verbal Working MemoryOptional Subtest (14),
Working Memory Subtests
  • Tips
  • Directions are lengthy and wordy so must practice
    frequently before administering to ensure correct
    pronunciation. Use inflection to aid
    understanding.
  • If size dimensions are questioned (i.e. nose to
    scissors) say, Think of the most usual size.

51
Symbolic Working MemoryOptional Subtest (16),
Working Memory Subtests
  • Administered to 9 years and older only
  • Auditory input, non-verbal response
  • 2 Levels
  • A Numbers in order
  • Number Stimulus Card
  • B Numbers order, then letters in order
  • Number-Alphabet Stimulus Card
  • Training items for each level

52
Symbolic Working MemoryOptional Subtest (16),
Working Memory Subtests
  • Tips
  • Stress numerical and alphabetical order when
    reading directions
  • Remove or flip card after every item response
  • Subjects often point very quickly so may want to
    remember visually or write series on paper while
    watching

53

Sound Symbol Optional Subtest (13), Additional
Subtests
  • 5 8 years only
  • Phonemes paired with visual symbols
  • Sound Symbol Booklet
  • Learning Trial
  • 4 Test Trials (I to IV)
  • Provide positive feedback or correct responses on
    the first 3 Test Trials
  • If no response in 5 seconds, provide response and
    flip or just flip if Trial IV

54
Sound SymbolAssociated Optional Subtest and
Qualitative Measures
  • Sound Symbol Delay Recall
  • Trial 1 4
  • Sound Symbol Retention
  • Sound Symbol Slope

55
Sentence MemoryOptional Subtest (15), Additional
Subtests
  • 8 and younger Begin with Item 1
  • 9 to adult Begin with Item 8 (go back if
    necessary)
  • Say each sentence once only
  • 2 points 0 error
  • 1 point 1 error
  • 0 point 2 errors or more
  • Can teach 1 until they understand but score
    first attempt

56
Sentence MemoryOptional Subtest (15), Additional
Subtests
  • Scoring
  • Response must be verbatim
  • Additions, omissions, changing word form, and
    contracting are one error
  • Tips
  • Place pencil on each word to decrease error
  • Record incorrect response for scoring and analysis

57

58
Story Memory Delay RecallOptional Subtest (5),
Delay Recall Subtests
  • Return to Story Memory (1) scoring pages
  • Administer same story set as Story Memory
  • Do not read story to examinee
  • Indicate performance in the Delay Recall column
  • No Verbatim or Gist columns for delay but must
    comply with same scoring guidelines

59
Verbal Learning Delay RecallOptional Subtest
(8), Delay Recall Subtests
  • Return to Verbal Learning (3) scoring pages
  • Do not read the list to the examinee

60
Sound Symbol Delay RecallOptional Subtest (17),
Delay Recall Subtests
  • Return to Sound Symbol (13) scoring pages
  • Sound Symbol Booklet
  • Do not name any symbols
  • Delay Recall Trial is the same set as the
    Learning Trial

61
Story Memory RecognitionOptional Subtest (6),
Recognition Subtests
  • Administer same story set as Story Memory
  • Give automatic credit for any correct detail
    given during Story Memory Recall

62
Design Memory RecognitionOptional Subtest (10),
Recognition Subtests
  • Design Memory Recognition Booklet
  • Pencil or Marker
  • Review directions until examinee independently
    understands
  • Make sure page is correctly oriented
  • Do not let examinee go back once a page is
    finished

63
Picture Memory RecognitionOptional Subtest (11),
Recognition Subtests
  • Picture Memory Recognition Booklet
  • Pencil or Marker
  • Review directions until examinee independently
    understands
  • Do not let examinee go back once a page is
    finished
  • Can clarify that picture can appear on either the
    Picture Stimulus Card (cards with scenes) or
    Picture Memory Response Form (marked changes)

64
Verbal Learning RecognitionOptional Subtest
(12), Recognition Subtests
  • Administer if Verbal Learning and Verbal Learning
    Delay Recall have been administered
  • Ask for recognition of each word on list
  • Optional Qualitative Analysis
  • Semantic Error Total
  • Phonological Error Total

65
WRAML2 Screening Form
  • 1st Four Core Subtests
  • Story Memory
  • Design Memory
  • Verbal Learning
  • Picture Memory
  • Administration Time 20 - 30 minutes
  • Memory Screening Index and General Memory Index
    correlation .91

66
Scores
  • Raw Scaled Sum of Scaled Index
  • Graphic Representation
  • Index Score Discrepancy Analyses
  • Core Subtest vs. Recognition Discrepancy
  • Retention Subtest minus Recall raw score

67
Qualitative Analyses - Scores
  • Story Memory
  • Individual Story/Verbatim and Gist Scale Score
  • Picture Memory
  • Commission Errors - Descriptive
  • Verbal Learning
  • Trials/Slope/Intrusion Errors Graph and
    Descriptive
  • Verbal Learning Recognition
  • Semantic and Phonological Errors - Descriptive
  • Sound Symbol
  • Trials/Slope/Retention Graph and Descriptive

68
Qualitative Analyses - Possible Implications
  • Story Memory
  • Forgetting chunks - Limited sustained attention
  • Delay better than recall - Need for memory
    consolidation
  • Reliance on Gist related to Reading Disability
  • Poor Delay Recall common in dementia or left
    temporal lobe head injury or stroke
  • Retention is particularly poor with moderate to
    severe brain injury, although immediate recall
    can be intact

69
Qualitative Analyses - Possible Implications
  • Verbal Learning
  • Flat curve could suggest adequate auditory memory
    but difficulty recalling rote information
  • Slight curve suggests subject may benefit from
    repetitive review
  • Variable curve could suggest attention/organizatio
    n issues
  • Poor slope suggests limited or decreased
    learning adequate slope suggests learning
    efficiency

70
Qualitative Analyses - Possible Implications
  • Verbal Learning, continued
  • Retention score lt the 5th percentile could
    suggest recent brain injury or progressive
    dementia
  • Frequent intrusion errors may suggest limited
    self-monitoring, difficulty using feedback to
    change performance, disorganized processing, or
    confusion
  • Poor recognition may be associated with
    congenital developmental delay or neurologically
    based illness or injury

71
Qualitative Analyses - Possible Implications
  • Picture Memory
  • Low Recognition and adequate Memory (rare) could
    suggest developmental delay, neurologically-based
    illness or injury, fatigue, poor
    motivation/attention, or malingering
  • Poor Memory and adequate Recognition may suggest
    early-to-mid-stage Alzheimers
  • High Commission Errors may be associated with
    poorly modulated work style, disinhibition, and
    poor impulse control as often seen in AD/HD, TBI,
    and mania

72
Qualitative Analyses - Possible Implications
  • Sound Symbol
  • Retention score lt the 5th percentile may suggest
    memory loss typical of phonologically-based
    reading disability, recent brain injury, or
    recent seizure disorder
  • Phonological/visual associates (tabe, wah, haa)
    are similar to the decoding aspects of reading
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