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Appositives

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Appositives & Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun. An appositive phrase is made up of an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Appositives


1
Appositives Appositive Phrases
  • An appositive is a noun or pronoun that
    identifies or renames another noun or pronoun.
  • An appositive phrase is made up of an appositive
    plus its modifiers.
  • Gail Devers, a champion sprinter, was born in
    Seattle in 1966.
  • Barcelona, a large city in Spain, hosted the
    Olympics in 1992.

2
Essential Appositives
  • An essential appositive is an appositive that
    provides information that is needed to identify
    the preceding noun or pronoun.
  • It is sometimes called a restrictive appositive.
  • The American sprinter Gail Devers won an Olympic
    gold medal in the 100-meter dash in 1992.
  • Note that NO COMMAS are needed with an essential
    appositive.

3
Nonessential Appositives
  • A nonessential appositive adds information about
    a noun or pronoun in a sentence in which the
    meaning is already clear.
  • It is also called a nonrestrictive appositive.
  • Nonessential appositives are set off with commas.
  • Devers, a survivor of Graves disease, overcame
    many obstacles to achieve athletic success.

4
Lets Practice
  • Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, also
    overcame a disability.
  • Rudolph was born with the disease polio.
  • Rudolph, a determined child, ignored doctors
    predictions about never being able to walk again.
  • A basketball star at age 13, she was known for
    her speed.
  • The coach Edward Temple invited her to a track
    camp.
  • In 1956, Rudolph, only a 16-year-old, made the
    U.S. Olympic team.
  1. She and three other women, members of the womens
    400-meter relay team, won a bronze medal.
  2. Four years later, Rudolph achieved her greatest
    personal triumph, three gold medals in a single
    Olympics.

5
How Did You Do?
  • Wilma Rudolph, another champion sprinter, also
    overcame a disability.
  • Rudolph was born with the disease polio.
  • Rudolph, a determined child, ignored doctors
    predictions about never being able to walk again.
  • A basketball star at age 13, she was known for
    her speed.
  • The coach Edward Temple invited her to a track
    camp.
  • In 1956, Rudolph, only a 16-year-old, made the
    U.S. Olympic team.
  1. She and three other women, members of the womens
    400-meter relay team, won a bronze medal.
  2. Four years later, Rudolph achieved her greatest
    personal triumph, three gold medals in a single
    Olympics.

6
Verbals
  • A verbal is a verb form that acts as a noun, an
    adjective, or an adverb. They DO NOT act as the
    verb/simple predicate in the sentence.
  • There are three types of verbals
  • Participles (adjectives)
  • Gerunds (nouns)
  • Infinitives (nouns, adjectives, and
    adverbs)

7
Participial Phrases
  • Played for more than 100 years, high school
    football has a rich tradition.
  • Large crowds attend games featuring rival high
    schools.
  • A participle is a verb form that acts as an
    adjective.
  • There are two kinds past and present
    participles.
  • A participial phrase consists of a participle
    plus its modifiers.

8
Some Literary Examples
  • From Robert Cormiers The Chocolate War
  • The coach looked like an old gangster broken
    nose, a scar on his cheek, a stitched
    shoestring.
  • Inhaling the sweet sharp apple air through his
    nostrils - he was afraid to open his mouth wide,
    wary of any movement that was not absolutely
    essential - he walked tentatively toward the
    sidelines, listening to the coach barking at the
    other guys.

9
Lets Practice
  1. In many parts of the country, steadily declining
    interest has damaged high school football.
  2. Preferring soccer or basketball, many students do
    not sign up for football.
  3. Parents concerned about football injuries suggest
    other sports.
  4. Reacting to a lack of interest, school officials
    have cut football funds.
  1. Remaining popular in many urban areas, however,
    high school football wont be dying out anytime
    soon.

10
How Did You Do?
  1. In many parts of the country, steadily declining
    interest has damaged high school football.
  2. Preferring soccer or basketball, many students do
    not sign up for football.
  3. Parents concerned about football injuries suggest
    other sports.
  4. Reacting to a lack of interest, school officials
    have cut football funds.
  1. Remaining popular in many urban areas, however,
    high school football wont be dying out
    anytime soon.

11
Why It Matters In Writing
  • Many writers have trouble placing participial
    phrases in sentences. Putting words in the wrong
    place can result in a misplaced or dangling
    phrase that will confuse the reader. This is
    often called a dangling participle.
  • A misplaced participial phrase is closer to some
    other noun than it is to the noun it actually
    modifies.
  • Beginning in the 1890s, Thanksgiving Day was
    when top high school football teams from
    different regions paired off in major games.
  • Responding to changes in the rules of football,
    the forward pass was used more often in high
    school games in the 1920s.

12
Make the Needed Corrections
  • treatment. She was tackled by large opposing
    players kicking extra points. Katie was not
    ready to give up the game after high school.
    Determined to play college football, Katies
    mother gave her full support.
  • A high school in Colorado had a homecoming
    queen who played football. There was a special
    ceremony at halftime of the homecoming game.
    Queen Katie smiled for the photographers taking
    off her helmet. Accepting a white rose, the
    crowd loudly cheered. Katie enjoyed the
    ceremony, but she was prouder of her performance
    on the field. With the game on the line, a field
    goal sailed through the goal posts kicked by
    Katie. During her four years on the team, Katie
    played well without receiving any special

13
How Did You Fix These?
  • treatment. She was tackled by large opposing
    players kicking extra points. Katie was not
    ready to give up the game after high school.
    Determined to play college football, Katies
    mother gave her full support.
  • A high school in Colorado had a homecoming
    queen who played football. There was a special
    ceremony at halftime of the homecoming game.
    Queen Katie smiled for the photographers taking
    off her helmet. Accepting a white rose, the
    crowd loudly cheered. Katie enjoyed the
    ceremony, but she was prouder of her performance
    on the field. With the game on the line, a field
    goal sailed through the goal posts kicked by
    Katie. During her four years on the team, Katie
    played well without receiving any special

14
Gerund Phrases
  • A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and acts
    as a noun.
  • A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus its
    modifiers.
  • She loves swimming.
  • She loves swimming in the ocean.
  • Next morning, when it was time for the routine
    of swimming and sunbathing, his mother said, Are
    you tired of the usual beach, Jerry? Would you
    like to go somewhere else?
  • - Doris Lessing, Through the Tunnel

15
Functions of Gerund Phrases
Subject Swimming competitively requires lots of practice.
Object of a Preposition Jeff got in shape by swimming at the YMCA.
Direct Object Mr. Kroesche coaches high school swimming.
Indirect Object Tamera gave competitive swimming a try.
Predicate Nominative Tameras specialty is swimming the backstroke.
16
Lets Practice
  1. Morales learned quickly, and soon he started
    winning junior championships.
  2. Competing in the 1984 Olympics brought him one
    gold medal and two silver medals.
  1. Pablo Morales became known as the comeback kid of
    Olympic swimming.
  2. One of the goals of Morales mother was having
    her children learn to swim at an early age.
  1. Morales surprised everyone by failing to qualify
    in 1988.
  2. He touched peoples hearts by making a comeback
    and winning a gold medal in the 100-meter
    butterfly in the 1992 Olympics.

17
How Did You Do?
  1. Morales learned quickly, and soon he started
    winning junior championships.
  2. Competing in the 1984 Olympics brought him one
    gold medal and two silver medals.
  1. Pablo Morales became known as the comeback kid of
    Olympic swimming.
  2. One of the goals of Morales mother was having
    her children learn to swim at an early age.
  1. Morales surprised everyone by failing to qualify
    in 1988.
  2. He touched peoples hearts by making a comeback
    and winning a gold medal in the 100-meter
    butterfly in the 1992 Olympics.

18
Infinitive Phrases
  • And were finally back to Shakespeare, To be or
    not to be, that is the question.
  • An infinitive is a verb form, usually beginning
    with the word to, that can act as a noun, an
    adjective, or an adverb.
  • An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive
    plus its modifiers and complements.

19
Uses of Infinitive Phrases
Noun To win tournaments on the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) tour is the goal of top women golfers.
Adjective In 1998, Se Ri Pak became the youngest player to win the U.S. Womens Open golf championship.
Adverb To become a champion golfer, Pak spent many hours practicing in her native land of South Korea.
20
Lets Practice
  1. Tiger Woods was the first person of
    African-American descent to win a major
    tournament in mens professional golf.
  2. To overcome golfs history of discrimination
    was no easy task.
  1. Woods is determined to help other persons of
    color become golf stars.
  2. To turn his dreams into reality, he founded a
    charitable organization, the Tiger Woods
    Foundation in 1997.

21
How Did You Do?
  1. Tiger Woods was the first person of
    African-American descent to win a major
    tournament in mens professional golf.
  2. To overcome golfs history of discrimination was
    no easy task.
  1. Woods is determined to help other persons of
    color become golf stars.
  2. To turn his dreams into reality, he founded a
    charitable organization, the Tiger Woods
    Foundation, in 1997.

22
Why It Matters In Writing
  • Using infinitive phrases, you can combine
    sentences in a way that eliminates unnecessary
    words and sharpens the relationship between
    ideas.

23
Try Combining These
  1. Golfers use many different types of clubs during
    a tournament. Different clubs are needed to hit
    good shots.
  2. Hale Irwin has displayed incredible skill. He
    has won the U.S. Open three times.
  3. Hale Irwin must have amazing physical endurance.
    He has won tournaments for 30 years.
  4. He had weeks of outstanding play on the Senior
    Tour. He earned nearly 3 million in one year.

24
How Did You Do?
  1. Golfers use many different types of clubs to hit
    good shots during a tournament.
  2. Hale Irwin has displayed incredible skill to win
    the U.S. Open three times.
  3. Hale Irwin must have amazing physical endurance
    to win tournaments for 30 years.
  4. He had weeks of outstanding play on the Senior
    Tour to earn nearly 3 million in one year.

25
Be careful
  • It is easy to confuse infinitives with
    prepositional phrases, since both can begin with
    to.
  • Remember that an infinitive is to a verb
    a prepositional phrase is to an object
    (noun or pronoun).
  • She wanted to eat some delicious ice cream, so
    she went to the grocery store.

26
Lets Practice
  1. The students were excited to work on their group
    project.
  2. They walked to the library so they could complete
    their research.
  3. While there, they were able to divide up the work
    evenly.
  1. They later returned to their homes to complete
    the work.
  2. They finally presented their project to the class.

27
How Did You Do?
  1. The students were excited to work on their group
    project.
  2. They walked to the library so they could complete
    their research.
  3. While there, they were able to divide up the work
    evenly.
  1. They later returned to their homes to complete
    the work.
  2. They finally presented their project to the class.
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