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METHODS AND APPROACHES in TEACHING ENGLISH AS A second LANGUAGE

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The Communicative Approach The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) was developed in the 1970s, and in critical reaction to the formal and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: METHODS AND APPROACHES in TEACHING ENGLISH AS A second LANGUAGE


1
METHODS AND APPROACHES inTEACHING ENGLISH AS A
second LANGUAGE
2
Before clt
3
Approaches, methods, procedures, and techniques
  • Approach this refers to theories about the
    nature of language and language learning that
    serve as the source of practices and principles
    in language teaching.
  • It offers a model of language competence.
  • An approach describes how people acquire their
    knowledge of the language and makes statements
    about conditions which will promote successful
    language learning.

4
Approaches, methods, procedures, and techniques
  • Method a method is the practical realization
    of an approach. Methods include various
    procedures and techniques as part of their
    standard fare.
  • Procedure a procedure is an ordered sequence
    of techniques. A procedure is a sequence which
    can be described in terms such as first you do
    this, then you do that Smaller than a method and
    bigger than technique.

5
  • Technique
  • Is a classroom device or activity and thus
    represents the narrowest of the four concepts
  • Some examples dictation, imitation , and
    repetition
  • a common technique when using video material is
    called silent viewing. This is where the
    teacher plays the video with no sound.
  • Silent viewing is a single activity rather than a
    sequence, and as such is a technique rather than
    a whole procedure.

6
  • A term that is also used in discussions about
    teaching is model used to describe typical
    procedures, usually for teachers in training.
    Such models offer abstractions of these
    procedures, designed to guide teaching practice.

7
The Grammar Translation Approach/Method
  • This is a method that has been used by language
    teachers for many years.
  • At one time it was called Classical Method,since
    it was first used in the teaching of the
    classical languages,Latin and Greek.
  • Earlier in this century,it was used for the
    purpose of helping students read and appreciate
    foreign language literature.

8
The Grammar Translation Method
  • Classes are taught in the students? mother
    tongue,with little active use of the target
    language
  • Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated
    word lists
  • Elaborate explanations of grammar are always
    provided
  • Reading of difficult text is begun early in the
    course of study
  • Little attention is paid to the content of
    text,which are treated as exercises in
    grammatical analysis.

9
Direct Approach
  • A reaction to the Grammar Translation Approach
    and its failure to produce learners who could
    communicate in the foreign language they had been
    studying
  • No use of the mother tongue is permitted
  • Lessons begin with dialogues and anecdotes in
    modern conversational style
  • Actions and pictures are used to make meanings
    clear
  • Grammar is learned inductively.

10
Direct Approach
  • Literary texts are read for pleasure and are not
    analyzed grammatically
  • The target culture is also taught inductively
  • The teacher must be a native speaker or have
    nativelike proficiency in the target language

11
Reading Approach
  • A reaction to the problems experienced in
    implementing the Direct Approach
  • Reading was viewed as the most usable skill to
    have in foreign language since not many people
    traveled abroad at that time
  • Also few teachers could use their foreign
    language well enough to use direct approach
    effectively in class.

12
Reading Approach
  • Only the grammar useful for reading comprehension
    is taught
  • Vocabulary is controlled at first and then
    expanded
  • Translation is once more a respectable
    classroom procedure.
  • Reading comprehension is the only language skill
    emphasized
  • The teacher does not need to have good oral
    proficiency in the target language.

13
Audiolingualism or the Audio-lingual Approach
  • Audio-lingual methodology owes its existence to
    the Behaviourist models of learning using the
    Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement model, it
    attempted, through a continuous process of such
    positive reinforcement, to engender good habits
    in language learners.
  • Audio-lingualism relied heavily on drills like
    substitution to form these habits.
  • Habit-forming drills have remained popular among
    teachers and students, and teachers who feel
    confident with the linguistic restriction of such
    procedures

14
Presentation, Practice, and Production
  • A variation on Audio-lingualism in British-based
    teaching and elsewhere is the procedure most
    often referred to as PPP, which stands for
    Presentation, Practice, and Production.
  • In this procedure the teacher introduces a
    situation which contextualizes the language to be
    taught. The students now practice the language
    using accurate reproduction techniques such as
    choral repetition, individual repetition, and
    cue-response drills.

15
PPP and alternatives to PPP
  • The PPP procedure came under a sustained attack
    in the 1990s.
  • Michael Lewis suggested that PPP was inadequate
    because it reflected neither the nature of
    language nor the nature of learning.
  • Jim Scrivener advanced what is perhaps the most
    worrying aspect of PPP,the fact that it only
    describes one kind of lessonit is inadequate as
    a general proposal concerning approaches to
    language in the classroom.
  • In response to these criticism many people have
    offered variations on PPP and alternative to it
    ARC, OHE/III, ESA.

16
ARC
  • put forward by Jim Scrivener
  • stands for Authentic use, Restricted use and
    Clarification and focus
  • Communicative activity will demonstrate authentic
    use elicted dialogue or guided writing will
    provoke restricted use of language by students
    finally clarification language is that which the
    teacher and students use to explain grammar,give
    examples,analyse errors,elict or repeat things.

17
OHE/III
  • Michael Lewis claims that students should be
    allowed to Observe (read or listen to language)
    which will then provoke them to
  • Hypothesize about how the language works
  • before going on to the Experiment on the
  • basis of that hypothesis.

18
ESA
  • In the ESA model three components will usually be
    present in any teaching sequence,whether of
    five,fifty or a hundred minutes
  • E stands for Engage - students have to be engaged
    emotionally
  • S stands for Study
  • A stands for Activate - any stage at which
    students are encouraged to use all and/or any of
    the language they know

19
Oral situational Approach
  • A reaction to the Reading Approach and its lack
    of emphasis on oral-aural skills
  • Was dominant in Britain during the 1940s, 1950s
    and 1960s
  • It draws from the Reform Movement and the Direct
    Approach but adds features from Firthian
    linguistics and the emerging professional field
    of language pedagogy.

20
Oral situational Approach
  • The spoken language is primary
  • All language material is practiced orally before
    being presented in written form
  • Only the target language should be used in the
    classroom.
  • Efforts are made to ensure that the most general
    and useful lexical items are presented

21
Oral situational Approach
  • Grammatical structures are graded from simple to
    complex
  • New items are introduced and practiced
    situationally (e.g., at the post office, at the
    bank, at the dinner table)

22
Cognitive Approach
  • A reaction to the behaviorist features of the
    Audiolingual Approach
  • Influenced by cognitive psychology (Neisser 1967)
    and Chomskyan linguistics (Chomsky 1959, 1965)
  • Language learning is viewed as rule acquisition,
    not habit formation
  • Instruction is often individualized learners are
    responsible for their own learning

23
Cognitive Approach
  • Grammar must be taught but it can be taught
    deductively (rules first practice later) and/or
    inductively (rules can either be stated after
    practice or left as implicit information for the
    learners to process on their own)
  • Pronunciation is de-emphasized perfection is
    viewed as unrealistic and unattainable
  • Reading and writing are once again important as
    listening and speaking

24
Cognitive Approach
  • Vocabulary instruction is once again important,
    especially at intermediate and advanced levels
  • Errors are viewed as inevitable, to be used
    constructively in the learning process
  • The teacher is expected to have good general
    proficiency in the target language as well as an
    ability to analyze the target language

25
Affective-Humanistic Approach
  • A reaction to the general lack of affective
    considerations in both Audiolingualism and the
    Cognitive Approach e.g., Moskowitz 1978 and
    Curran 1976
  • Respect is emphasized for the individual ( each
    student, the teacher) and for his or her
    feelings
  • Communication that is meaningful to the learner
    is emphasized

26
Affective-Humanistic Approach
  • Instruction involves much work in pairs and small
    groups
  • Class atmosphere is viewed as more important than
    materials or methods
  • Peer support and interaction are viewed as a
    self-realization experience
  • The teacher is a counselor or facilitator

27
Affective-Humanistic Approach
  • The teacher should be proficient in the target
    language and the students native language since
    translation may be used heavily in the initial
    stages to help students feel at ease later it is
    gradually phased out.

28
Comprehension-Based Approach
  • An outgrowth of research in first language
    acquisition that led some language methodologists
    to assume that second or foreign language
    learning is very similar to first language
    acquisition e.g., Potovsky 1974 Winitz 1981
    Krashen and Terrell 1983)

29
Comprehension-Based Approach
  • Listening comprehension is very important and is
    viewed as the basic skill that will allow
    speaking, reading, and writing to develop
    spontaneously over time, given the right
    conditions.
  • Learners should begin by listening to meaningful
    speech and by responding nonverbally in
    meaningful ways before they produce any language
    themselves.

30
Comprehension-Based Approach
  • Learners should not speak until they feel ready
    to do so this results in better pronunciation
    than if the learner is forced to speak
    immediately.
  • Learners progress by being exposed to meaningful
    input that is just one step beyond their level of
    competence.
  • Rule learning may help learners monitor what they
    do, but it will not aid their acquisition or
    spontaneous use of the target language.

31
Comprehension-Based Approach
  • Error correction is seen as unnecessary and
    perhaps even counterproductive the important
    thing is that the learners can understand and can
    make themselves understood.
  • If the teacher is not a native (or near-native)
    speaker, appropriate materials such as
    audio-tapes and videotapes must be available to
    provide the appropriate input for the learners.

32
Then
33
The Communicative Approach
  • The communicative approach or Communicative
    Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was
    given to a set of beliefs which included not only
    a re-examination of what aspects of language to
    teach but also a shift in emphasis on how to
    teach!

34
The Communicative Approach
  • The communicative approach or Communicative
    Language Teaching (CLT) was developed in the
    1970s, and in critical reaction to the formal and
    boring types of exercises used under the
    audiolingual approach (drill-and-kill
    exercises).

35
The Communicative Approach
  • The communicative approach or Communicative
    Language Teaching (CLT) puts the focus on
    communicative interaction in class, not on a
    correct but mind- and meaningless reproduction of
    the linguistic forms prescribed for a specific
    lesson.

36
The Communicative Approach
  • The communicative approach or Communicative
    Language Teaching (CLT) is an outgrowth of the
    work of anthropological linguists (e.g. Hymes
    1972) and Firthian linguists (e.g. Halliday 1973)
    who view language first and foremost as a system
    for communication.

37
  • Non-communicative activities Communicative
    activities
  • The communication continuum

No communicative desire No communicative
purpose Form not content One language item
only Teacher intervention Materials control
A desire to communicate A communicative
purpose Content not form Variety of language No
teacher intervention No materials control
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