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Pioneer Life

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Jefferson Davis Mexican-American War Causes: 1. Disputes over the U.S. annexation of Texas 2. Boundary disputes between U.S. and Mexico 3. Mexico s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pioneer Life


1
Chapter 13
  • Pioneer Life

2
Immigration 1836-1845
  • Population tripled
  • Immigrants came from U.S. and Europe
  • Immigrant Agents same as empresarios
  • 2,000 families from Missouri, Illinois and
    Tennessee settle through W.S. Peters and
    Associates. (Sounds like a modern Real Estate
    Agency, doesnt it?)

3
Europeans
  • Henri Castro, French Immigrant Agent over 2000
    families from France, Switzerland and Germany
  • Established town of Castroville
  • German Emigration Company settled about 7,000
    Germans.
  • Many Germans settled in the hill country around
    Austin New Braunfels, Fredericksburg, Gruene,
    Schulenberg

4
Slave Population grew
  • By 1845, African Americans made up 1/3 of the
    population of Texas and most were slaves.
  • Free African Americans required to petition
    Congress to stay in Texas during Republic
  • Not all slaves worked on plantations or farms and
    some were skilled laborers such as blacksmiths
    and carpenters.

5
Tejanos faced prejudice
  • Tejanos were viewed with suspicion by settlers
    and even those who fought for Texas were treated
    poorly.
  • The new settlers assumed they had sided with
    Mexico.
  • This is called stereotyping.

6
Farming and Ranching
  • Most Texans had agricultural jobs.
  • Corn was most important subsistence crop for
    human and animal consumption
  • Cotton was most important cash crop for
    profit, and was grown in East Texas during this
    time period.
  • Ranching was easy to start because wild cattle
    roamed all over South and East Texas left over
    from Spanish days.

7
Tradesmen such as carpenters and blacksmiths
came. Businesses, doctors, lawyers came. Towns
grew, new towns started!
8
Transportation improved
  • Stagecoaches Butterfield Overland Line crossed
    Texas all the way to El Paso for passengers and
    mail.
  • Roads were dirt. Goods were transported over
    roads by mule and oxen driven freight wagons
    often using Tejano drivers. (The term
    teamsters as in Teamsters Union comes from
    this.)
  • Railroads started coming to Texas, connected
    towns around Houston
  • Steamboats were difficult to operate in Texas due
    to crooked rivers, few rivers large and deep
    enough.

9
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10
Communications Improved
  • Telegraph came to Texas in 1854 (Marshall, Texas)
    and connected East Texas towns first. This helped
    business and law enforcement.
  • Houston produced the first influential
    newspapers, but by 1860, there were 70 newspapers
    in Texas, most produced weekly.

11
Education
  • No public schools
  • Towns and families hired teachers.
  • 1854, legislature to set aside 2,000,000.00 as a
    permanent school fund and the interest was
    divided between counties according to the number
    of school-age children they had living there.

12
Chapter 14 Texas as a New State
13
New State Government
  • New Constitution constitutional convention of
    1845
  • Governor 2 year terms
  • Legislature
  • House of Representatives2 year terms
  • Senate---4 year terms
  • Supreme Court and District Courts

14
First Governor
  • Pinkney Henderson from San Augustine, Texas
  • His wife, Frances Cox Henderson was one of the
    first women lawyers in Texas
  • Henderson, Texas named in his honor

15
First U.S. Senators from Texas
  • Sam Houston
  • Thomas Rusk
  • Rusk, Texas named for him

16
First U.S. Representatives from Texas
  • David Kaufman lawyer,Indian fighter,
  • politician, Jewish Texan
  • Kaufman and Kaufman County
  • Timothy Pillsbury ?

17
Political Parties
  • Whig Party
  • Represented interests of business
  • Party opposed Texas annexation and expansion of
    slavery into new states and territories
  • Democratic Party
  • Most Texans joined this party
  • They were the strongest party in
  • the South
  • Represented interests of farmers
  • and laborers

18
Know Nothing Party
  • Also called the American Party
  • Tried to keep immigrants from holding office or
    voting
  • Only lasted a few years in Texas
  • I know nothing
  • Started the practice of electing candidates at
    conventions

19
U.S. forts in Texas
  • Many U.S. forts were built in West Texas to
    prevent clashes between Indians and settlers
  • Indian reservations set up for Wacos, Comanches
    and Tonkawas in Texas
  • The reservations in Texas were not successful and
    Indians were moved to Indian Territory, now
    Oklahoma.

20
Camels in Texas
  • In May of 1856, at Powderhorn, Texas, the US
    Army's most successful experiment in overland
    transportation before the development of
    four-wheel-drive vehicles powered by internal
    combustion engines began. By the end of May,
    1866, the experiment was dead.

21
Why camels didnt last
  • This was the idea of U.S. Secretary of War
    Jefferson Davis
  • When the South seceded, Jefferson Davis became
    President of the Confederate States
  • Once the war was over, the U.S. stopped the
    experiment because anything involving the South
    or Jefferson Davis was not popular!

22
Jefferson Davis
23
Mexican-American War
  • Causes
  • 1. Disputes over the U.S. annexation of Texas
  • 2. Boundary disputes between U.S. and Mexico
  • 3. Mexicos refusal to negotiate with the U.S.
  • Effects
  • Santa Anna Flees to Jamaica
  • Mexico ceddes almost 50 percent of its land to
    the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

24
General Zachary Taylor
25
How it started
  • Mexico claimed the boundary between Mexico and
    Texas was the Nueces River.
  • Texas claimed the Rio Grande, as Santa Anna had
    agreed in the Treaty of Velasco.
  • A battle between Mexico and Texans occurred north
    of the Rio Grande at Palo Alto in Texas.
  • President Polk treated this as an invasion,
    causing American casualties and declared war.

26
Routes of U.S. soldiers
27
  • Gen. Zachary Taylors U.S. forces were successful
    in occupying Northern Mexico
  • They captured the Mexican city of Monterrey.
  • A large Mexican force under Santa Annas command
    was defeated at the battle of Buena Vista.

28
  • American troops landed in Veracruz and marched to
    Mexico City.
  • Mexico City was captured, and American forces
    occupied California.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo settled the conflict.

29
Terms of Treaty
  • Rio Grande became boundary
  • Mexico abandoned all claims to Texas
  • The U.S. paid Mexico 15 million for the lands
    between Texas and the Pacific Ocean owned by
    Mexico.
  • U.S. covered claims of U.S. citizens against
    Mexico due to Texas Revolution
  • Mexicans living in the territories gained by the
    U.S. were guaranteed U.S. citizenship, right to
    keep land.

30
Land acquired by U.S.
31
Compromise of 1850
  • The disputed territory was now a part of the
    U.S., but Texas did not keep all of it.
  • Under this compromise, Texas surrendered the part
    that became New Mexico in return for 10 million.
  • This allowed Texas to pay off her debts!

32
Texas boundaries are settled
33
Texas grows rapidly
  • The population grew
  • 1847 106,000
  • 1850 212,000
  • 1860 604,000
  • Under Homestead Act, settlers living on the land
    and improving it owned the land
  • Southerners used the term GTT
  • Gone to Texas!

34
G.T.T.
35
New Counties and local governments
  • Texas grew from 36 to 122 counties by 1860.
  • Towns competed to become the county seat.

36
Mexicans and Europeans
  • Mexicans crossed the border and settled along the
    Rio Grande and in the San Antonio-Goliad area.
  • South Texas towns grew rapidly.
  • Most Mexican Americans were farmers and ranchers.
  • Prejudice continued
  • Tejanos retained their cultural heritage.

37
Germans
  • By 1860 over 20,000 Germans lived in Texas
  • Migrated to escape economic hardships and famine

38
Many cultures of Texans
  • Polish, Irish, British, French, Czech, Danish,
    Swedish, Norwegian, Dutch, Scottish, etc. also
    migrated in large numbers
  • Also, Chinese, Lebanese and Syrians, Jews and
    Japanese came during the 1800s.

39
Indian Reservations
  • Alabama Coushatta Reservation near Woodville in
    deep East Texas only 1,280 acres.

40
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