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Pioneer Life


Jefferson Davis Mexican-American War Causes: 1. Disputes over the U.S. annexation of Texas 2. Boundary disputes between U.S. and Mexico 3. Mexico s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pioneer Life

Chapter 13
  • Pioneer Life

Immigration 1836-1845
  • Population tripled
  • Immigrants came from U.S. and Europe
  • Immigrant Agents same as empresarios
  • 2,000 families from Missouri, Illinois and
    Tennessee settle through W.S. Peters and
    Associates. (Sounds like a modern Real Estate
    Agency, doesnt it?)

  • Henri Castro, French Immigrant Agent over 2000
    families from France, Switzerland and Germany
  • Established town of Castroville
  • German Emigration Company settled about 7,000
  • Many Germans settled in the hill country around
    Austin New Braunfels, Fredericksburg, Gruene,

Slave Population grew
  • By 1845, African Americans made up 1/3 of the
    population of Texas and most were slaves.
  • Free African Americans required to petition
    Congress to stay in Texas during Republic
  • Not all slaves worked on plantations or farms and
    some were skilled laborers such as blacksmiths
    and carpenters.

Tejanos faced prejudice
  • Tejanos were viewed with suspicion by settlers
    and even those who fought for Texas were treated
  • The new settlers assumed they had sided with
  • This is called stereotyping.

Farming and Ranching
  • Most Texans had agricultural jobs.
  • Corn was most important subsistence crop for
    human and animal consumption
  • Cotton was most important cash crop for
    profit, and was grown in East Texas during this
    time period.
  • Ranching was easy to start because wild cattle
    roamed all over South and East Texas left over
    from Spanish days.

Tradesmen such as carpenters and blacksmiths
came. Businesses, doctors, lawyers came. Towns
grew, new towns started!
Transportation improved
  • Stagecoaches Butterfield Overland Line crossed
    Texas all the way to El Paso for passengers and
  • Roads were dirt. Goods were transported over
    roads by mule and oxen driven freight wagons
    often using Tejano drivers. (The term
    teamsters as in Teamsters Union comes from
  • Railroads started coming to Texas, connected
    towns around Houston
  • Steamboats were difficult to operate in Texas due
    to crooked rivers, few rivers large and deep

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Communications Improved
  • Telegraph came to Texas in 1854 (Marshall, Texas)
    and connected East Texas towns first. This helped
    business and law enforcement.
  • Houston produced the first influential
    newspapers, but by 1860, there were 70 newspapers
    in Texas, most produced weekly.

  • No public schools
  • Towns and families hired teachers.
  • 1854, legislature to set aside 2,000,000.00 as a
    permanent school fund and the interest was
    divided between counties according to the number
    of school-age children they had living there.

Chapter 14 Texas as a New State
New State Government
  • New Constitution constitutional convention of
  • Governor 2 year terms
  • Legislature
  • House of Representatives2 year terms
  • Senate---4 year terms
  • Supreme Court and District Courts

First Governor
  • Pinkney Henderson from San Augustine, Texas
  • His wife, Frances Cox Henderson was one of the
    first women lawyers in Texas
  • Henderson, Texas named in his honor

First U.S. Senators from Texas
  • Sam Houston
  • Thomas Rusk
  • Rusk, Texas named for him

First U.S. Representatives from Texas
  • David Kaufman lawyer,Indian fighter,
  • politician, Jewish Texan
  • Kaufman and Kaufman County
  • Timothy Pillsbury ?

Political Parties
  • Whig Party
  • Represented interests of business
  • Party opposed Texas annexation and expansion of
    slavery into new states and territories
  • Democratic Party
  • Most Texans joined this party
  • They were the strongest party in
  • the South
  • Represented interests of farmers
  • and laborers

Know Nothing Party
  • Also called the American Party
  • Tried to keep immigrants from holding office or
  • Only lasted a few years in Texas
  • I know nothing
  • Started the practice of electing candidates at

U.S. forts in Texas
  • Many U.S. forts were built in West Texas to
    prevent clashes between Indians and settlers
  • Indian reservations set up for Wacos, Comanches
    and Tonkawas in Texas
  • The reservations in Texas were not successful and
    Indians were moved to Indian Territory, now

Camels in Texas
  • In May of 1856, at Powderhorn, Texas, the US
    Army's most successful experiment in overland
    transportation before the development of
    four-wheel-drive vehicles powered by internal
    combustion engines began. By the end of May,
    1866, the experiment was dead.

Why camels didnt last
  • This was the idea of U.S. Secretary of War
    Jefferson Davis
  • When the South seceded, Jefferson Davis became
    President of the Confederate States
  • Once the war was over, the U.S. stopped the
    experiment because anything involving the South
    or Jefferson Davis was not popular!

Jefferson Davis
Mexican-American War
  • Causes
  • 1. Disputes over the U.S. annexation of Texas
  • 2. Boundary disputes between U.S. and Mexico
  • 3. Mexicos refusal to negotiate with the U.S.
  • Effects
  • Santa Anna Flees to Jamaica
  • Mexico ceddes almost 50 percent of its land to
    the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

General Zachary Taylor
How it started
  • Mexico claimed the boundary between Mexico and
    Texas was the Nueces River.
  • Texas claimed the Rio Grande, as Santa Anna had
    agreed in the Treaty of Velasco.
  • A battle between Mexico and Texans occurred north
    of the Rio Grande at Palo Alto in Texas.
  • President Polk treated this as an invasion,
    causing American casualties and declared war.

Routes of U.S. soldiers
  • Gen. Zachary Taylors U.S. forces were successful
    in occupying Northern Mexico
  • They captured the Mexican city of Monterrey.
  • A large Mexican force under Santa Annas command
    was defeated at the battle of Buena Vista.

  • American troops landed in Veracruz and marched to
    Mexico City.
  • Mexico City was captured, and American forces
    occupied California.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo settled the conflict.

Terms of Treaty
  • Rio Grande became boundary
  • Mexico abandoned all claims to Texas
  • The U.S. paid Mexico 15 million for the lands
    between Texas and the Pacific Ocean owned by
  • U.S. covered claims of U.S. citizens against
    Mexico due to Texas Revolution
  • Mexicans living in the territories gained by the
    U.S. were guaranteed U.S. citizenship, right to
    keep land.

Land acquired by U.S.
Compromise of 1850
  • The disputed territory was now a part of the
    U.S., but Texas did not keep all of it.
  • Under this compromise, Texas surrendered the part
    that became New Mexico in return for 10 million.
  • This allowed Texas to pay off her debts!

Texas boundaries are settled
Texas grows rapidly
  • The population grew
  • 1847 106,000
  • 1850 212,000
  • 1860 604,000
  • Under Homestead Act, settlers living on the land
    and improving it owned the land
  • Southerners used the term GTT
  • Gone to Texas!

New Counties and local governments
  • Texas grew from 36 to 122 counties by 1860.
  • Towns competed to become the county seat.

Mexicans and Europeans
  • Mexicans crossed the border and settled along the
    Rio Grande and in the San Antonio-Goliad area.
  • South Texas towns grew rapidly.
  • Most Mexican Americans were farmers and ranchers.
  • Prejudice continued
  • Tejanos retained their cultural heritage.

  • By 1860 over 20,000 Germans lived in Texas
  • Migrated to escape economic hardships and famine

Many cultures of Texans
  • Polish, Irish, British, French, Czech, Danish,
    Swedish, Norwegian, Dutch, Scottish, etc. also
    migrated in large numbers
  • Also, Chinese, Lebanese and Syrians, Jews and
    Japanese came during the 1800s.

Indian Reservations
  • Alabama Coushatta Reservation near Woodville in
    deep East Texas only 1,280 acres.

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