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Global Environmental Issues: A Case Study on Global Warming

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Global Environmental Issues: A Case Study on Global Warming OOOPS Presented by: Amr S Algarhi Azza A Shafei Econ 506 17th May 2005 Global Environmental Problems ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Environmental Issues: A Case Study on Global Warming


1
Global Environmental IssuesA Case Study on
Global Warming
OOOPS
Presented by Amr S Algarhi Azza A Shafei
Econ 506 17th May 2005
2
Global Environmental Problems
  • Global warming
  • Acid rain
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Biodiversity loss
  • Infectious disease

3
Global Warming
  • refers to an increase in average global
    temperature, also called
  • Climate Change
  • Greenhouse Effect

4
Greenhouse Effect
  • Solar radiation
  • some is reflected by the earth and the atmosphere
  • some passes through the atmosphere and is
    absorbed by the earth, warming it
  • Infrared radiation
  • Some passes through the atmosphere
  • Some is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions
    by greenhouse gas modules

5
Causes of Global Warming GHG - due to Natural
and Human Economic Activities
Gases Source

carbon dioxide (CO2) fossil-fuel burning, de-forestation
methane (CH4) agriculture activity, decomposition and disposal of waste
nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, and during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) industrial activities
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) industrial activities
sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) industrial activities
6
Human activities have changed the composition of
the atmosphere since the pre- industrial era
7
Characteristics of GHG
  • Atmospheric life time.
  • Global warming potential.
  • Atmospheric concentration.

8
Greenhouse Gases
  • Concentration vs. Emissions.
  • Forecasts about emissions are very sensitive.

9
Qualitative scenarios for different indicators
Scenario Population Economy Environment Technology Globalization
A1F1          
A18        
A1T          
B1          
A2          
B2          
10
Impacts of Global Warming- physical
  • Shrinking glaciers thawing permafrost
  • Later freezing and earlier break up of river and
    lake ice
  • Sea level rise
  • Higher incidence of floods and droughts in some
    regions

11
Impacts of Global Warming- biological
  • Longer growing seasons
  • Poleward and altitude shifts of plants and animal
    ranges
  • Decline of some plant and animal population (
    Drive 15 - 37 of living species toward
    extinction by the middle of the century)
  • Early tree flowering, emergence of insects and
    birds eggs laying
  • Damage to natural systems
  • Many of these impacts are irreversible

12
Impacts of Global Warming- human system
  • Systems at risk include
  • water resources
  • Agriculture and forestry
  • Coastal zones and marine systems
  • Decreasing water availability in regions where
    water is already scarce
  • Human health and risk of disease

13
Game theory
A 2-player pollution abatement game
Ys strategy Xs strategy Pollute Abate
Pollute 0, 0 5, -2
Abate -2, 5 3, 3
14
Toronto Conference (1988)
  • Carbon dioxide targets.
  • Carbon dioxide emissions.
  • GHG control (quantitative incentives rather than
    price incentives).

15
Rio de Janeiro Conference (1992)
  • Plans for controlling emissions.
  • No commitments on
  • A particular emissions reduction.
  • A timetable for any such reduction.

16
Kyoto Protocol (1997)
  • Conditions to be in force.
  • Industrialized nations.
  • Developing countries.

17
Kyoto ProtocolsFlexible Mechanisms
  1. Emissions Trading or HOT AIR TRADING
  2. Joint Implementation (JI)
  3. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

18
Steps Towards Action on Climate Change
Event Date and place Principal achievements
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - First report 1990 Broad international scientific consensus that human actions are influencing the climate
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Entered into force 1994) Committed the global community to stabilising the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Entered into force 1994) Recognised the primary responsibility of industrialised countries, and the differentiated responsibilities of developing countries
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Entered into force 1994)  
IPCC - Second report 1995 Confirmed human influence on climate
IPCC - Second report 1995 Stated that risk from climate change is severe enough to justify preventive actions (Governments which have signed the Convention have to accept the findings of the IPCC).
IPCC - Second report 1995  
Conference of Parties (COP) 1 1995, Berlin Established budget, secretariat and institutional mechanisms
Conference of Parties (COP) 1 1995, Berlin Established pilot phase of "Activities Implemented Jointly" to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Conference of Parties (COP) 1 1995, Berlin Agreed timetable for setting specific reduction targets for industrialised countries
Conference of Parties (COP) 1 1995, Berlin  
Conference of Parties (COP) 2 1996, Geneva Endorsed IPCC2 and COP1 agreements
Conference of Parties (COP) 2 1996, Geneva US announced its commitment to binding targets "medium-term", with "flexibility, in implementation measures"
Conference of Parties (COP) 2 1996, Geneva OPEC dropped its opposition to action
Conference of Parties (COP) 2 1996, Geneva  
19
Steps Towards Action on Climate Change
Event Date and place Principal achievements
Conference of Parties (COP) 3 1997, Kyoto Agreed the Kyoto Protocol, with targets for industrialised country greenhouse gas reductions
Conference of Parties (COP) 4 1998, Buenos Aires Agreed a "Plan of Action" for following up on the Kyoto Protocol, including processes for stimulating technology transfer
Conference of Parties (COP) 5 1999, Bonn Further progress on implementing the Kyoto Protocol
Conference of Parties (COP) 6 2000, The Hague
IPCC - Third report 2000/2001  
Rio plus Ten Earth Summit 2002 Many people hope the Kyoto Protocol will be ratified and will enter into force by this the time. This didn't happen. It DID now come into force February 2005
Negotiations begin for a second round of emissions reductions 2005 This is the target date to start negotiations for the second period of the Kyoto Protocol
Agreed cuts in greenhouse gases 2008-2012 This is the period in which emissions cuts agreed in the Kyoto Protocol have to be achieved and measured
20
Global Warming will affect Egypt
Egypt is potentially one of the countries
most at risk from the effects of climate change.
  • water resources
  • coastal zones

21
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement
  • Increase the capacity of pools that absorb
    carbon dioxide and other GHG from the
    atmosphere.
  • Decrease the rate of emissions of GHG (reducing
    GHG inflows).

22
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement
  • stop using burning fuels and changes in fuel mix
    (from fossil to renewable energy)
  • use the new technologies that are now available,
    like better filters.

23
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement
  • Stabilizing population growth worldwide.
  • power stations should not be permitted to
    discharge warm cooling waters into rivers and
    oceans.

24
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement
  • Financial and technological transfers from
    developed to developing nations.
  • helping low-income nations develop cleanly.

25
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement
  • learn and use good ideas and solutions from other
    countries that help us eliminate global warming.
    For example, a country that is fighting global
    warming and producing less polluting fuels is
    Brazil. Instead of gasoline Brazilians use
    alcohol, which is made from sugar cane and
    cassava. The exhaust fumes from this alcohol fuel
    are almost clean enough to breathe.

26
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