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The History of the Star-Spangled Banner

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Major Smith convinced the ship owners to sink their own ships in the water. ... The British had captured their friend, Dr. William Beanes. Mr. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The History of the Star-Spangled Banner


1
The History of the Star-Spangled Banner
2
  • Britain had signed a Treaty to end the Revolution
    in 1783. America became a country. The British
    also agreed to give up their forts and allow
    settlers to move west.

3
  • The British were fighting Napoleon and their vast
    Navy was in need of sailors. Napoleon wanted to
    conquer Europe.

Napoleon
America
British forces
4
  • In order to keep their forces strong, the British
    began the process of impressment. Impressment
    is rather like kidnapping. When the British
    boarded an American ship, the British commanders
    would take the sailors with them to fight on
    their ships.
  • THIS ANGERED THE AMERICANS.

5
  • The British also decided NOT to give back the
    forts in America. Therefore, the settlers
    couldnt move west.
  • THIS ANGERED THE AMERICANS EVEN MORE.

6
  • The British also urged the Indians to fight the
    Americans. They gave the Indians arms and money
    to fight.
  • THIS ANGERED THE AMERICANS EVEN MORE!!!

7
  • America was a new country and many did not think
    it could protect itself.
  • Shipping was very important to the early
    Americans. Business was dependent upon shipping
    to other countries.
  • Those that were involved in sea trade, did not
    want to go to war against Britain. They didnt
    want to see trade disrupted.

8
  • President James Madison (Little Jemmy) asked the
    Congress to declare war on England in 1812. Many
    were against the war, but Madison got Congress to
    sign on and the war began.

Madison was a small man about 5 ft. 4 inches
and weighed about 120 pounds. He had enormous
intelligence and was often underestimated by
others.
9
  • WHAT were they thinking???
  • The American army invaded Canada, still a British
    colony, hoping to conquer this British territory.
  • The Indians joined the British and the Americans
    were not prepared for the battle.
  • The Americans burned the Parliament building in
    York (now known as Toronto) and retreated.

10
  • Meanwhile, in Europe, the British defeated
    Napoleon. This left the British free to
    concentrate on their war with America.
  • They came in full force the largest, most
    professional group of soldiers in the whole
    world.
  • They sailed towards America.

11
  • To get revenge for the burning of York in Canada,
    the British attacked Washington, D.C.
  • Thinking that the British might be on their way
    to Washington, Madison and other political and
    military leaders left town.
  • Dolley, Madisons wife, remained behind. No one
    truly believed the British would attack
    Washington.

12
  • The British focused their energy on Washington
    and attacked ferociously. First they burned the
    Capitol. Then they destroyed all of the books in
    the Library of Congress.
  • Then, they headed for the Presidents house.
  • The army and militia of America was nowhere to be
    seen.

13
  • The people of Washington watched in horror as the
    British army destroyed the Capitol. Many
    civilians were killed. The British lost very few
    soldiers.
  • They headed to the Presidents house, where
    Dolley was about to give a dinner party.
  • Dolley ran for her life, but only after she had
    managed to save many important historical items,
    including the portrait of George Washington,
    velvet curtains, and important papers.

14
  • Portrait of George Washington, 1799

Our kind friend, Mr. Carroll, has come to hasten
my departure, and is in a very bad humor with me
because I insist on waiting until the large
picture of Gen. Washington is secured, and it
requires to be unscrewed from the wall. This
process was found to be too tedious for these
perilous moments I have ordered the frame to be
broken, and the canvas taken out it is done
and the precious portrait placed in the hands of
2 gentlemen of New York for safekeeping. Dolley
Madison
15
  • Before the British burned Madisons home, they
    sat down and enjoyed the dinner Dolley had
    prepared for her guests.
  • Then they set fire to the Presidents mansion.

16
  • The British could not know that a hurricane was
    on its way to Washington.
  • To the citizens of Washington it seemed that the
    hand of God reached out and punished the British.
  • The hurricane hit and many soldiers lost their
    lives. Tornadoes touched down.
  • Washington was in ruins.

17
  • A picture of the Battle of Washington

18
  • After the destruction of Washington, the British
    headed for Baltimore.
  • Baltimore was a very important port, the home of
    many American ships.
  • Baltimore patriots were not going to give up
    their city without a fight.
  • The British called Baltimore The City of
    Pirates.

19
  • Baltimore today!

20
  • Now, imagine the port filled with ships. Houses
    lined the waterfront.
  • Baltimore was under the command of Major General
    Samuel Smith.
  • Major Smith convinced the ship owners to sink
    their own ships in the water.
  • This turned out to be a great plan the British
    warships couldnt come into the harbor because of
    the sunken vessels.

21
  • Baltimore also was home to Fort McHenry.
  • This fort was commanded by Major George
    Armistead.
  • The fort was shaped like a star, with cannons
    mounted at every point.
  • It was located on Baltimore Harbor.

22
  • Fort McHenry Star-shaped citadel

23
  • Fort McHenry today

24
  • In 1813, a year before the British attacked,
    Major Armistead had hired Mary Pickersgill to sew
    a huge flag, 30 feet high and 42 feet wide.
  • Mary had never made such a huge flag.
  • Her workshop wasnt big enough!
  • She,her daughter Caroline, and seven other women
    sewed the giant flag in the brewery, after
    working hours. They sewed until midnight every
    night by the light of an oil lamp.

25
  • When it was done, it had 15 stripes and 15 stars.
    Each star was two feet across.
  • Major Armistead had one of the biggest flags in
    the country.

26
  • A year later, in September 1814, the British
    prepared to attack Baltimore. The Americans were
    ready.

27
  • An American lawyer named Francis Scott Key and
    another American, John Skinner, who was in charge
    of prisoner exchanges sailed up to the British
    fleet in a small boat.
  • The British had captured their friend, Dr.
    William Beanes.
  • Mr. Key and Mr. Skinner had come to ask the
    Admiral for the release of their friend.

28
  • Mr. Key argued that the British should release
    Dr. Beanes because he was not a soldier.
  • Dr. Beanes had helped many people, including
    British soldiers and didnt deserve to be kept as
    a prisoner.
  • While the Admiral thought about the release of
    Dr. Beanes, Mr. Key and Mr. Skinner quickly
    realized that the British were going to attack
    Baltimore.

29
  • Because Francis Scott Key and John Skinner knew
    of the British plans, they were held on board a
    truce ship while the British attacked the city of
    Baltimore.
  • All they could do was watch while the British
    bombed the fort with 200 pound bombs and rockets.
  • Because of the sunken ships, the warships could
    not get close enough to land.

30
  • The Battle rages at Ft. McHenry

31
  • The British warships fired on Fort McHenry for 25
    hours.
  • The three men Beanes, Key, and Skinner were
    helpless as they watched the fort being
    destroyed.
  • They could not see through all the smoke and the
    dark night.

32
  • Finally at dawn, on September 14, 1814, Mr. Key
    looked through his telescope.
  • He saw the huge American flag waving proudly over
    Ft. McHenry.
  • The Americans had won the battle!
  • He was so overcome with joy, that he sat down and
    scribbled his poem The Defense of Fort McHenry
    which was published in a few days.

33
(No Transcript)
34
  • The words were then set to a popular song and the
    title was changed to The Star-Spangled Banner.
  • In 1931 Congress named it the official American
    National Anthem.

35
  • In later years, Major Armistead gave away small
    pieces of the flag to widows who had lost their
    husbands in the war. The flag got smaller.
  • Later, it was given to the Smithsonian Museum in
    Washington.
  • The flag is currently undergoing renovations.
    Workers are trying to treat the material that is
    slowly falling apart.

36
  • Currently the flag can only be viewed in a room
    in the Smithsonian where it is undergoing
    extensive renovation.

37
DID YOU KNOW?????????
  • Nearly 61 percent of Americans do not know all of
    the words to the Star Spangled Banner.
  • More than 70 percent of Americans learned the
    Star-Spangled Banner at school during music
    class.
  • Among teens, 38 percent do not know the name of
    our National Anthem.
  • Less than 35 percent of teens can name the author
    of the National Anthem.

38
LETS CHANGE THIS..
  • AS FEW AS 15 PERCENT OF AMERICAN YOUTH CAN SING
    THE WORDS TO THE ANTHEM.

39
  • O say, can you see, by the dawns early light.
  • What so proudly we hailed at the twilights last
    gleaming?
  • Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the
    perilous fight,
  • Oer the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly
    streaming!

40
  • And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in
    air.
  • Gave proof through the night that our flag was
    still there
  • O say does that Star-Spangled Banner yet wave
  • Oer the land of the free, and the home of the
    brave?

41
THE END Patricia Oeste
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