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Title:

Steering System

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Steering System Ackerman Linkage geometry Road wheel geometry Caster Kingpin inclination Compliance effects Ackerman Steer Ackerman Truck Steering System Ackerman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Steering System


1
Steering System
  • Ackerman
  • Linkage geometry
  • Road wheel geometry
  • Caster
  • Kingpin inclination
  • Compliance effects

2
Ackerman Steer
L

L
d tan-1 ----- -----
o
d
Rt/2
Rt/2
o
L
L
d tan-1 ----- -----
i
R-t/2
R-t/2
For large radii, R gtgt t/2
L
d --
Ack
R
L
R
Turn Center
t/2
3
Ackerman Truck Steering System
Straight ahead
Right turn
Left turn
4
Ackerman Steer
50
Parallel
Ackerman
5
Car Steering Systems
Rack and pinion
Steering arm
Gearbox
Rack
Tire rod
Tire rod
Gearbox
Steering arm
Pitman arm
Relay link
Idler arm
6
Truck Steering Systems
Tire rod
Steering arm
Gearbox
Pitman arm
Drag link
7
Compliance in Steering System
8
Geometry at the Wheel
9
Lateral Inclination Angle
10
Torques from Lateral Inclination
11
Caster Angle
12
Torques from Caster Angle
13
Lateral Force
14
Tractive Force
15
4 Wheel Steer - Low Speed
L
R
16
4 Wheel Steer - High Speed
  • Four-wheel in-phase steering
  • Only at high speed (typically above 35 mph)
  • Rear steer angles less than front
  • Rear steer angles limited to a few degrees

17
Steering System Applications
  • Effect of steering geometry on performance
  • Understeer (linear range)
  • Limit cornering (non-linear range)
  • Steering torques and feel
  • On-center feel
  • Torque gradients
  • Linearity
  • Power assist characteristics
  • Friction and damping
  • Evaluate effects of asymmetry
  • Manufacturing tolerance

18
Steering Ratio
Steering Ratio Steering wheel angle (deg) /
Road wheel angle (deg) Steering ratio for cars
15 to 20 Steering ratio for trucks 20 to 40
19
Steering Ratio
20
Assignment
  • Design linkage geometry to meet requirement of
    the minimum turn radius and provide close to
    Ackerman geometry (X-Y plane is ok)
  • Design steering ratio with measurements on your
    car
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