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CLASSIFICATION

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CLASSIFICATION & DIVERSITY * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 3B)HOMOPTERA Mouthparts modified into beak Antennae short, bristle-like. Both pairs of wings of uniform ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLASSIFICATION


1
CLASSIFICATION DIVERSITY
2
Why we need to identify group organism??
  1. Recognition of dissimilar organism easier if we
    can put them in predefined categories

3
  • Lantern bug (never seen before??!!)
  • Insects (through experience)

4
  • b) Grouping allows us to make prediction
  • Looks different
  • But distinguishing features group them together
  • Mammals give birth

5
How to group living organism??
  • Not based only on ONE CHARACTER alone
  • Eg animals can fly cannot fly
  • Insects -fish
  • Birds -rodents
  • Bats
  • So need to look the overall plan of the organism

6
TAXONOMY
  • Greek taxis - 'order' nomos - 'law' or
    'science'.
  • the practice and science of classification
  • Classification placing an object into sets of
    categories based on properties/characters of the
    object

7
SERIES OF SETS
  • KINGDOM (Plants, Animals, Fungi, Bacteria,
    Protoctista)
  • PHYLUM (approx. 36 phyla)
  • CLASS (Crustacea, Myriapoda, Arachnida, Insecta)
  • ORDER
  • FAMILY (in animals end with -dae)
  • GENUS
  • SPECIES

8
EG. CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS
  • KINGDOM ANIMALIA
  • PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
  • CLASS INSECTA
  • ORDER DIPTERA
  • FAMILY TEPHRITIDAE
  • GENUS Bactrocera
  • SPECIES dorsalis

9
ADDITIONAL SUBSETS
  • KINGDOM
  • PHYLUM
  • CLASS
  • ORDER
  • Suborder
  • Superfamily -oidea
  • FAMILY -dae
  • Subfamily -nae

10
  • Tribe -inii
  • Subtribe
  • GENUS
  • Subgenus
  • SPECIES
  • Subspecies

11
  • KINGDOM ANIMALIA
  • PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
  • CLASS INSECTA
  • ORDER HYMENOPTERA
  • SUPERFAMILY ICHNEUMONOIDEA
  • FAMILY ICHNEUMONIDAE
  • SUBFAMILY CRYPTINAE
  • TRIBE CRYPTINII
  • GENUS Goryphus
  • SPECIES mesoxanthus
  • SUBSPECIES mesoxanthus

12
NOMENCLATURE (TATANAMA)
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HOW ARE LIVING THINGS NAMED??
  • (A) COMMON NAMES
  • Nyamuk tiruk, lalat buah (fruit fly, kumbang
    badak (rhinocerus beetle), kersing/kepinding
    (true bugs), sorok-sorok (mole cricket),
    kelip-kelip (firefly), riang-riang (cicada), kutu
    beras (rice weevil)
  • Problem
  • Not consistent
  • Doesnt portray the actual insects

17
  • (B) SCIENTIFIC NAMES
  • consistent around the world
  • one species with single valid name

18
SPECIES
  • FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF CLASSIFICATION
  • DEF groups of natural populations that can
    interbreed. They are reproductively isolated from
    all other species

19
SPECIES NAME
  • Binomial
  • Consists of Genus and Specific names
  • Eg. Bactrocera dorsalis
  • Written in italic
  • Genus start wih capital letter
  • Species small letters
  • If hand written underline both names seperately
    (Bactrocera dorsalis)

20
  • Goryphus jendul Azura
  • Azura the person who first described and named
    the species for science
  • Sometime outhor name in bracket
  • The author got the genus wrong

21
COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INSECT
22
CLASS INSECTA
  • SUBCLASS 1) APTERYGOTA
  • ALL ADULTS WINGLESS LIKE IMMATURE STAGE
  • NO TRUE METAMORPHOSIS
  • PRIMITIVE
  • 5 ORDERS

23
1) PROTURA
  • ProtFirst, UraTail
  • Eyeless
  • No antennae
  • Styli on 1st-3rd abdominal segments
  • First pair of legs sensory

24
2) DIPLURA
  • Ditwo uratail
  • Refers to two cerci
  • Styli on abdominal segments 1-7 or 2-7 B. Two
    cerci
  • C. Eyeless
  • D. Antennae present

25
3) COLLEMBOLA(SPRINGTAIL)
  • Furcula (4th abdominal segment ventrally)
  • Eyes small with no more than 8 facets (ommatidia)
    on each side of the head.
  • D. Antennae present

26
4) THYSANURA (silverfish)
  • Short styli on abdominal segments 2-7
  • Two cerci and a median caudal filament
  • Compound eyes small or absent
  • flattened
  • Antennae present
  • Gegat
  • (old papers, high humid place)

27
5) MICROCORYPHIA (BRISTLETAILS)
  • micro, small coryphia, head
  • Styli on abdominal segments 2-9
  • Two cerci and a median caudal filament
  • Antennae present
  • by day hiding in rock crevices or under bark.
    They feed at night.

28
  • SUBCLASS 2) PTERYGOTA
  • With wings
  • 2 groups
  • 1) Exopterygota (18)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis (no pupa)
  • Develop wings outside of body
  • 2) Endopterygota (9)
  • Complete metamorphosis (with pupa)
  • Develop wings inside body (visible when adult)

29
EXOPTRYGOTA
  • 1) BLATTARIA
  • Body flattened and oval
  • head concealed from above by pronotum
  • Wings usually present
  • Tarsi five-segmented.
  • Antennae long and slender
  • Cockroaches

30
  • 2)ORTHOPTERA
  • Body usually linear in shape
  • Antennae conspicuous
  • Fore wing straight, narrow
  • Hind wing broad, membranous and
    fan-like
  • Hindlegs adapted for jumping
  • Grasshoppers crickets

31
3)HEMIPTERA
  • Subdivided into 2 suborder
  • A) heteroptera
  • B) homoptera

32
  • 3A)HETEROPTERA (TRUE BUGS)
  • Mouthparts modified into
  • Forewing hemielitron
  • Wings, when at rest, held flat over
    body and overlap each other.
  • Some wingless
  • C. Typically triangular scutellum (feature shared
    with Coleoptera).
  • D. Antennae consist of 4-5 segments.

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  • 3B)HOMOPTERA
  • Mouthparts modified into beak
  • Antennae short, bristle-like.
  • Both pairs of wings of uniform texture and held
    roof-like over body.
  • Considerable variation in body form (winged,
    wingless, degenerate legs).

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  • 4)PHASMIDA/PHASMATODEA
  • Stick-like or leaf-like
  • Legs long and slender and not enlarged for
    jumping, diging, or capturing prey.
  • Abdomen long and slender
  • Antennae with 8-80 segments
  • Stick insects, leaf insects

37
  • 5)MANTODEA
  • Fore legs adapted for grasping prey
  • Tarsi five-segmented.
  • Antennae short
  • Praying mantis
  • Female ats male after mating

38
  • 6) ODONATA
  • DRAGONFLY AND DAMSELFLY

39
  • 7) ISOPTERA
  • Iso equal ptera wings
  • Anai-anai
  • Soft bodied
  • No constriction of waist
  • Chewing Mouthparts
  • Monoliform or filiform antenna
  • Fontanelle - secretions from top of head glue
    soil to gather

40
  • 8) DERMAPTERA (TEMPIRING)
  • Front wings short, similar to elytra in beetles
  • Hind wings membranous
  • Mouthparts chewing
  • Prominate cerci
  • Nocturnal
  • Under bark, cracks
  • Scavengers - dead and
    decaying plant material

41
  • 9) PLECOPTERA (STONEFLIES)
  • Adults near aquatic habitat don't fly that
    much hiding in vegetation, debris
  • Adults feed soft vegetation such as flowers,
    fruits, pollen, lichens, algae Nymphs feed on
    invertebrates or plant detritus

42
  • 10) GRYLLOBLATTODEA
  • gryllo, relating to crickets, blattaria, relating
    to cockroaches
  • Wingless, Compound eyes small or absent
  • D. Body leathery
  • E. Abdmen oval and cylindrical
  • F. Antennae 23-40 segments
  • Habitat high altitude
  • Food debris of insects
    that died on snow
    fields at high altitudes.

43
  • 11) EPHEMEROPTRA
  • Two-pair of triangular, membranous
    wings with many veins
  • Ten-segmented abdomen with two to three caudal
    filaments (cerci)
  • Fragile-looking
  • Near water
  • Adults dont feed
  • Immature algae, plants
  • bioindicator

44
  • 12) ZORAPTERA
  • Winged, wingless (lack eyes)
  • B. 2-Segmented tarsi
  • C. Chewing mouthparts
  • D. Cerci present
  • E. Moniliform 9-segment antenna
  • Feed on fungus and dead insects

45
  • 13) PSOCOPTERA
  • 2- to 3-Segment tarsi
  • B. Roof-like wing position
  • C. No cerci
  • D. Overall appearance - bulbous head, long
    antennae
  • E. "Gnawing" mouthparts
  • Damp areas
  • Feed ob old books, lichen, fungus on wood

46
  • 14) THYSANOPTERA
  • Very tiny, lt 2mm
  • Mouthpart stylet
  • Narrowed wings
    with fringes
  • Veins greatly
    reduced/absent
  • Flowers, under bark,
    leaf litter

47
  • 15) EMBIIDINA
  • embid, lively (run backward quickly when
    disturbed)
  • No ocelli
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Males- winged
    Females - not winged
  • leaf litter, under stones, bark
  • Fooddried plant material, dried grasses

48
  • 16) PHTHIRAPTERA (KUTU)
  • Wingless, ectoparasite
  • 1 Tarsi - modified for a claw
  • Mouthparts - stylets for sucking lice, mandibles
    for chewing lice
  • Dorso - ventally flattened
  • Eggs glue to hair or feather

49
  • Host-specific
  • Birds and mammalschewing lice (MALLOPHAGA)
  • Mammals sucking lice (ANOPLURA)

50
  • 17) MANTOPHASMATODEA
  • discovered 2002
  • South Africa
  • Carnivorous
  • Related to Phasmatodea, Grylloblattodea and
    Mantodea

51
ENDOPTERYGOTA
  • 1) COLEOPTERA
  • The largest insect group
  • Fore wings thickened (elytra)
  • usually meeting in a straight line down the
    middle of the back and covering the hind wings.
  • Hind wings usually longer than the elytra, folded
    up under the elytra.
  • C. Chewing type mouthparts.

52
  • 2) DIPTERA (FLIES, MOSQUITOES)
  • Fore wings membranous
  • Hind wings reduced to small knoblike structures
    called halteres.
  • Antennae variable, often short and inconspicuous.
  • Mouthparts sucking (sponging).

53
  • 3) LEPIDOPTERA
  • Head - large compound eye
  • most with proboscis
  • Scaly wings
  • Butterfly vs moth

54
BUTTERFLY VS MOTH
  • mostly comb-like or feathery
  • Present
  • caterpillars spin a cocoon made of silk
  • plain brown, grey, white or black
  • ANTENNAE thin slender filamentous antennae, club
    shaped at the end
  • FRENULUM none
  • PUPAE. exposed pupa chrysalis.
  • WINGS bright colours

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BUTTERFLY VS MOTH
  • BODY slender and smoother abdomens.
  • ACTIVITY diurnal
  • RESTING exposed pupa chrysalis.
  • WINGS fold their wings above their backs
  • stout and hairy or furry-looking bodies
  • Crepuscular, nocturnal
  • caterpillars spin a cocoon made of silk
  • rest with their wings spread out to their sides

REMARKS THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS
58
  • 4) HYMENOPTERA (wasp. ants, bees)
  • Greek - hymeno, god of marriage ptera, wings
  • Four membranous wings, hind wings smaller
  • Primarily chewing type mouthparts except for the
    bees where the labium and maxillae form a
    tonguelike structure through which liquid food is
    taken.
  • Antennae with 10 or more segments.
  • Ovipositor well developed
  • sometimes modified into a sting

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  • 5) STREPSIPTERA
  • Latin - strepsi, twisted ptera, wings
  • Relates to the form of the hind wings membranous
    and appearing twisted and wrinkled.
  • Males - forewings reduced to clublike structures
  • Males - with the hind wings large and fanlike.
  • Mouthparts vestigial
  • Small insects 0.5-4 mm.
  • Females are generally saclike without appendages
    or bedbuglike

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  • 6) NEUROPTERA (LACEWING)
  • Wings membranous
  • Fore and hind wings similar in shape and
    veination. Held rooflike over the
    body at rest.
  • Soft-bodied
  • Mouthparts mandibulate
  • Antennae long
  • Predator (mostly)

63
  • 7) MECOPTERA
  • Slender body, head prolonged into a beak or
    rostrum
  • most have four long narrow membranous wings which
    are similar in size and venation.
  • Some species are wingless (e.g., Boreidae)
  • Chewing type mouthparts.
  • Antennae threadlike about
    one-half the length of
    the body.

64
  • 8) SIPHONAPTERA (PINJAL/FLEAS)
  • Latin - siphon, pipe aptera, wingless
  • Small, wingless, lt 5mm
  • Body laterally flattened, bristly, heavily
    sclerotized
  • Sucking type mouthparts
  • Legs relatively long with large coxae.
  • Usually jumping insects.
  • Parasite of cats, dogs, rodents

65
  • 9)TRICHOPTERA
  • both wings membranous, covered with short hairs
  • wings fold flat but held rooflike
  • tarsi 4 or 5 segmented
  • mandibles greatly reduced
  • long, many segmented antennae
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