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Qualitative Research Process from Phenomenological, Ethnographic, and Action Research Perspectives

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Qualitative Research Process from Phenomenological, Ethnographic, and Action Research Perspectives Class 4 Judith Anne Shaw, Ph.D., R.N. October 7, 2009 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Research Process from Phenomenological, Ethnographic, and Action Research Perspectives


1
Qualitative Research Process from
Phenomenological, Ethnographic, and Action
Research Perspectives
  • Class 4
  • Judith Anne Shaw, Ph.D., R.N.
  • October 7, 2009

2
Overview of Class 4
  • Foundations of Qualitative Research
  • Purpose and meaning of a study design
  • Selecting an appropriate design
  • Using Phenomenological Approach
  • Using Ethnographic Approach

3
Foundations of Qualitative Research
  • Scientists felt
  • an inability to quantitatively measure certain
    phenomena
  • a dissatisfaction with quantitative measurement
    results of some phenomena
  • a desire to grasp the lived experience of another

4
Philosophical Underpinnings Qualitative Research
  • Counter movement to Positivist paradigm (based on
    19th Century thought)
  • Interpretive Perspective
  • Critical/Feminist Perspective

5
Philosophical Underpinnings Qualitative Research
  • 1. Interpretive Perspective

6
Interpretive Perspective
  • Philosophers, such as,
  • Max Weber

7
Researcher
  • Determine the interpretations
  • individuals
  • put on their actions
  • and
  • the actions and reactions of others

8
Interpretive Assumptions
  • Multiple realities
  • Reality based on perception
  • Meaning content bound

9
Critical Perspective
  • Theorists, such as,
  • Karl Marx
  • Kurt Lewin

10
Critical Perspective
  • Habermas (1971) described critical theory as a
    way to develop knowledge that is free,
    undistorted, and unconstrained.
  • Unfreezing law-like structures and to encourage
    self reflections for those whom the laws are
    about .

11
Researcher
  • Understand
  • how people communicate
  • how people develop symbolic meaning
  • (Habermas, 1971)
  • Try to
  • uncover constraints that limit full participation
    by all members in society
  • Empower those who are part of the process to act
    on their own behalf to solve real world problems

12
Critical Perspective Assumptions
  • Different groups attempting to enhance their own
    interests at the expense of less powerful groups
  • Obligation to act as advocates working for change
    in society
  • Work towards true egalitarian society

13
Understanding the Philosophic Position
  • It is essential
  • to understanding the
  • philosophic assumptions
  • that are the foundation
  • of the method

14
Understanding the Philosophic Position
  • Lack of understanding
  • the philosophic underpinnings of the chosen
    method
  • has the potential of leading
  • to sloppy science

15
Simultaneity Paradigm
16
Simultaneity Paradigm
  • mutual process- human and environment
  • open participation with the universe
  • greater than the sum of the parts
  • gained insights into human living

17
Ask
  • Why conduct a qualitative study?

18
Qualitative Research
  • An inquiry process

19
CHALLENGE
  • Compare
  • Qualitative
  • And
  • Quantitative
  • Research

20
Purpose and Meaning Study Design
  • The design is
  • the Blueprint of a study
  • a guide to answer questions or test hypothesis
  • the critical link between the researchers
    framework and questions with the resultant data.

21
REMEMBER
  • The research process is built from the research
    question

22
Characteristics Qualitative Research Designs
  • Multiple realities
  • Discovery- lead choice of techniques)
  • Committed to participants view point

23
Characteristics Qualitative Research Designs
  • Do not disturb the natural context
  • Researcher as instrument, part of the research
    study
  • Narrative style written report including
    participants comments

24
Qualitative Research Designs
  • Selection of a sample of participants (such as
    purposive/theoretical)
  • Research setting

25
Designing a Qualitative Study
  • Possible Data Collection Methods (decisions about
    and actual collection)
  • Participation in the setting
  • Direct observation
  • In-Depth Interviewing
  • Document Review

26
Designing a Qualitative Study
  • Ethical consideration

27
Data Analysis
  • Describe the strategies used to analyze the data
  • Issues of Trustworthiness
  • Credibility
  • Dependability
  • Transferability
  • Confirmability

28
Findings
  • Present within a context
  • Report of the findings provide the essence of the
    experience
  • Prepared by the stakeholders (Action Research)

29
Findings
  • Researchers conceptualizations are true to the
    data
  • Stakeholders construct new knowledge
  • A new way to deal with a practical problem
  • Placed within the context of what is already
    known about the phenomenon

30
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
  • Conclusions
  • Provide the reader with a context in which to use
    the findings
  • Reflect the study findings

31
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
  • Implications
  • Make specific the significance of the study to
    nursing

32
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
  • Recommendations
  • Offer recommendation for future study
  • Provide direction for long-term implementation of
    change

33
Examples Qualitative Research Designs
34
Phenomenological Design
  • to describe an experience lived by the person
  • to discover the meaning of a particular
    experience for participants

35
Phenomenological Design
  • Addresses questions, such as
  • What is the experience of living with chronic
    airway disease?

36
Philosophical Underpinnings Guiding
Phenomenological Design
  • Existentialism- how one views the world, the
    personal here and now
  • The nature of being- here and now
  • Lifeworld and intersubjectivity

37
Lifeworld
  • The world of lived experiences

38
Intersubjectivity
  • How subjective awareness and understanding
  • can be shared in a common world.

39
Philosophers
  • Kant- distinction between
  • phenomenon/noumenon
  • (what appears to us in
  • perception/the thing in itself)
  • Hegel- phenomena provide a basis
  • for a universal science of
  • being

40
Philosophers
  • Husserl father of phenomenology
  • in describing the essence of the phenomenon the
    essence of the lived experience is revealed
  • what was observed was not the only reality

41
Philosophers
  • Kierkegaard
  • existentialism
  • Heidegger
  • concern about ones own being-in-
  • the-world

42
Phenomenology
  • Both
  • a philosophy
  • and
  • a method

43
FOCUS Phenomenological Investigation
  • To describe the meaning of the lived experience
    from the perspective of the individual

44
Research Question
  • Broad question
  • Allows the participants to provide the answers

45
Researcher
  • As instrument
  • Bracketing ones perspective about the
    phenomenon (no bracketing with hermeneutic
    phenomenology)

46
Sampling Purposive
  • have experienced the phenomenon of interest
  • willing and able to talk about their experience

47
Sample Size
  • Based on saturation of data
  • descriptions becoming repetitive with no new or
    different ideas or interpretations emerging

48
Data Collection
  • Variety of techniques may be used
  • in-depth interviews
  • written descriptions of specific
  • experiences
  • participant observation (various stages)
  • diaries

49
DATA ANALYSIS
  • Data Collection and Analysis
  • simultaneously

50
DATA ANALYSIS
  • Several Methods

51
Vancouver School of Phenomenology
  • Collect participants description of the lived
    experience
  • Read and reread participants description of
    phenomenon
  • Extract significant phrases and statements from
    transcripts

52
Vancouver School of Phenomenology
  1. Formulate meaning if significant phrases cluster
    into themes
  2. From themes identify essential structure of the
    phenomenon

53
Vancouver School of Phenomenology
  • 6. Integrate data into a meaningful and
    exhaustive description of phenomenon
  • 7. Verification of essential structure of
    phenomenon with participants

54
AIM
  • All the possible descriptions
  • and understandings
  • of the experience are uncovered
  • ?Not concerned with frequency or
  • prevalence of a theme

55
Literature Review
  • Place study findings
  • within the context
  • of what is known about the phenomenon

56
Writing Phenomenological Findings
  • The essential structure or essence of the
    experience be seen through language
  • The unifying meaning of the experience that is
    recognized by participants

57
Ethnographic Design
  • To describe a culture
  • of a particular group of people
  • Oldest qualitative research method in use today
    (originated mid-1880s)

58
Developed by Anthropologists
  • Cultural Context
  • To observe the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
    of another group of people
  • To grasp the individuals point of view, his
    relation to life, to realize his vision of life

59
Ethnography
  • Learning from people,
  • to be taught by them

60
Ethnography
  • Both
  • a process and
  • an outcome
  • of research

61
RESEACHER
  • become a student
  • begin with a conscious attitude of almost
    complete ignorance

62
Researcher
  • As instrument
  • To develop a thick description
  • (Geertz, 2007)

63
THICK DESCRIPTION
  • To make explicit
  • the detailed patterns of
  • culture and social relationships
  • within the
  • context

64
Ethnographic Design
  • Addresses questions, such as
  • What is the meaning of being ill?
  • What is the meaning of

65
FOUR ETHNOGRAPHIC Schools Of Thought
  • Classical
  • Systematic
  • Interpretative (or Hermeneutic)
  • Critical

66
Classical Ethnography
  • Description of behavior
  • Demonstrates why and under what circumstances
    behavior took place
  • Description of everything about the culture

67
Systematic Ethnography
  • Define the structure of the culture
  • Example Work conducted by Spradley

68
Interpretative (or Hermeneutic) Ethnography
  • Discover the meaning of observed social
    interaction
  • Study culture through inferences and implications
    found in behavior

69
Critical Ethnography
  • Researchers and members together create a
    cultural scheme
  • (through communicative practice and reflection,
    researchers and participants discern an absolute
    truth of the culture

70
Sampling Purposive
  • Work with
  • key informants
  • representative of the group under study

71
Good Informant
  • Thoroughly enculturated
  • Current involvement
  • Nonanalytic
  • Adequate time

72
Sample Size
  • Based on saturation of data
  • -rich, full and complete
  • description

73
Entering the Field
  • Naturalistic setting for data collection
  • Gatekeeper to the field
  • Prolonged time in the field

74
Data Collection
  • Varied techniques may be used
  • ?participant observations
  • ?interviews
  • ?focus groups
  • ?histories
  • ?films
  • ?photographs

75
Kinds of Data
  • Words
  • Actions
  • Artifacts

76
Ethnographic Interview
  • A particular kind of speech event

77
Ethnographic Interview
  • Greeting
  • Avoid repetition
  • Asking questions
  • Expressing interest
  • Expressing ignorance
  • Taking turns talking
  • Abbreviations
  • Pausing
  • Leave taking- verbal ritual that says, The end

78
Kinds of Questions
  • Researcher asks the Informant
  • -grand tour questions
  • -descriptive questions
  • -structural questions
  • -contrast questions

79
Ethnographic Record
  • Field notes
  • Journaling
  • Debriefing

80
Data Analysis
  • Question-Discovery

81
Data Analysis
  • Data Collection and Analysis
  • Cyclical back and forth
  • Collecting data
  • Recording data
  • Analyzing data
  • Return to field to collect more data

82
Emic/Etic Perspectives
  • Emic perspective
  • informants perspective of
  • reality
  • Etic perspective
  • researchers perspective of the
  • studied setting/actions

83
Data Analysis
  • Emic and Etic
  • Perspectives
  • Compare
  • Explore

84
AIM
  • Identifying cultural patterns in the data

85
Four Levels of Analysis
  1. Domain Analysis
  2. Taxonomic Analysis
  3. Componential Analysis
  4. Theme Analysis

86
Level One Domain Analysis
  • Discovering the meaning of a select social
    situation by determining the parts or element of
    cultural meaning and how they are organized
  • Stream of behavior carried out by people in a
    particular situation

87
Cultural Scene
  • Culture under study
  • -a category of meaning that contains smaller
    categories of meaning

88
Kinds of Domains
  • Kinds of ------ X is a kind of Y
  • Parts of a ----- X is a part of Y
  • Results of ---- X is a result of Y
  • Reasons for---- X is a reason for Y
  • Stages in ---- X is a stage in Y
  • Ways to get --- X is a way to get Y
  • Places to find ---- X is a place to Y
  • Uses of ---- X is a use of Y

89
Level Two Taxonomic Analysis
  • Builds upon
  • first level of analysis
  • (more in-depth)

90
Level Two Taxonomic Analysis
  • Determining
  • how the domain is organized

91
Level Two Taxonomic Analysis
  • Relationships among the observations
  • within the domain
  • are sought

92
Level Two Taxonomic Analysis
  • In-depth analysis of the domains
  • -set of categories
  • Ask structured questions

93
Structured Questions
  • Ready to
  • - test the domain and
  • - discover additional included
  • terms

94
Structured Questions
  1. Verification questions
  2. Cover term questions
  3. Included term questions
  4. Substitution frame questions
  5. Card sorting questions

95
Structured Questions
  • You mentioned that -you- use different ways to
    ---
  • What are some of these?
  • Can you think of other ways -you- use to ---?

96
Level Three Componential Analysis
  • Identify the component parts or units of meaning
    for each domain
  • search for attributes
  • To ask questions of the data for the
    identification of dimensions of contrast

97
Level Three Componential Analysis
  • Contrasts among the cultural categories in the
    domains

98
Contrasting Questions
  1. Do you see any difference between --- and ---?
  2. What are the differences between --- and ---?

99
Componential Analysis
  • Add all identified contrasts to the components
    of meaning for any contrast set

100
Literature Review
  • Conducted during cyclical data collection-analysis
    steps

101
Level Four Theme Analysis
  • Conceptual themes that members of a society use
    to connect domains

102
Level Four Theme Analysis
  • Examination of Data
  • recurrent patterns that apply to numerous
    situations
  • recur in two or more domains

103
Writing Ethnographic Findings
  • Translate the meaning of a culture so well that
    someone unfamiliar will grasp the meanings.

104
Issues of Trustworthiness
  • Credibility
  • confidence in the truth of data
  • prolonged involvement with participants (such
    as, interview time)
  • persistent observation
  • triangulation
  • peer debriefing
  • member checks

105
Issues of Trustworthiness
  • Transferability
  • how can findings be transferred from a
  • representative sample of a population to
    another person or group
  • rich description of the social process
  • stating the characteristics and setting of
    participants
  • decision trail

106
Issues of Trustworthiness
  • Dependability
  • the stability and the trackability of changes
    in the data over time and conditions
  • reliant on credibility

107
Issues of Trustworthiness
  • Dependability
  • inquiry audit trail (such as, good documentation)
    is important the trail outlines the data
    collection and analysis and the decisions made
    throughout the research process
  • stepwise replication
  • external checks on the procedures

108
Issues of Trustworthiness
  • Confirmability
  • objectivity of the data
  • the data are linked to their source for the
    reader to establish that the conclusions and
    interpretations arise directly from the data
  • inquiry audit trail

109
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