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Introduction to the Course of Basic Medical Sciences

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Xia Qiang , PhD Department of Physiology Rm C518, Block C, Research Building, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zijingang Campus – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the Course of Basic Medical Sciences


1
Introduction to the Course of Basic Medical
Sciences
  • Xia Qiang(??), PhD
  • Department of Physiology
  • Rm C518, Block C, Research Building,
  • Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zijingang
    Campus
  • Tel 88208252
  • Email xiaqiang_at_zju.edu.cn

2
Dr. Charles Sidney Burwell(Dean of HMS from 1935
to 1949)
  • At an HMS graduation in the late 1940s, he said
    Half of what we have taught you is wrong.
    Unfortunately, we dont know which half.
  • Dr. Burwell was a cardiologist who specialized in
    circulation changes associated with heart
    disease. He is credited with bringing attention
    to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In 1944,
    while Dr. Burwell was Dean, women entered Harvard
    Medical School for the first time on an equal
    basis with men.

3
(No Transcript)
4
  • "It has been estimated that, from the beginning
    of civilization 5,000 years
  • ago or more until 2003, humanity created a
    total of five exabytes (billion
  • gigabytes) of information. From 2003 to 2010, we
    created this amount every two
  • days. By 2013, we will be doing so every ten
    minutes, exceeding within hours
  • all the information currently contained in all
    the books ever written.
  • So it isn't that we need more knowledge it is
    that we need to distinguish
  • between what we know and what we don't know,
    through what Firestein calls
  • controlled neglect. Researchers must
    selectively ignore vast quantities of
  • facts and data that block creative solutions, and
    focus on a narrow range of
  • possibilities.
  • "To make discoveries, researchers need to look
    beyond the facts.
  • Ignorance includes an important discussion about
    scientific errors and their
  • propagation in textbooks. I admit that I passed
    one on in my last book, The
  • Believing Brain (Times Books, 2011) I repeated
    as gospel the 'fact' that the
  • human brain contains about 100 billion neurons.
    Firestein reports that it is

5
?????????
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ????????,?????
  • ????????????????
  • ????
  • ?????????

6
??????????????????
  • 21???????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????
  • ???
  • ?????????1999????????????
  • ????????????????2001????????????????
  • ???????????2002???????????????
  • ???
  • ????????2008??????????????

7
????????????
  • ?????????
  • ???????????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????????????,??????????????????
  • ???????????

8
What is MEDICINE(??)?
  • Medicine is the art and science of healing. It
    encompasses a range of practices evolved to
    maintain and restore human health by the
    prevention and treatment of illness
  • The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars
    medicina, meaning the art of healing

9
What is MEDICINE (??)?
  • The science of diagnosing, treating, or
    preventing disease and other damage to the body
    or mind (http//www.thefreedictionary.com/medicine
    )
  • Medicine is concerned with maintaining or
    restoring human health through its study,
    diagnosis, and treatment (http//www.bio-medicine.
    org/medicine-definition/Medicine/)

10
  • The Rod of Asclepius, with its single snake, is
    an ancient Greek symbol associated with medicine

?????????????????????????????????????????????????
????
?????(rod of Asclepius)?????????,???????(rod of
Asclepius)??????????????,????????????
?????(caduceus)??????????,???????(caduceus)????(H
ermes)??????????,?????????????????,???????????,???
??????????????????????????????????????,???????????
?
???????????????????,?????????????????????
11
Main branches of medicine
  • Basic sciences of medicine (????) this is what
    every physician is educated in, and some return
    to in biomedical research
  • Medical specialties (??)
  • Interdisciplinary fields (?????) where different
    medical specialties are mixed to function in
    certain occasions

12
Basic Sciences of Medicine
  • Anatomy (???) is the study of the physical
    structure of organisms. In contrast to
    macroscopic or gross anatomy, cytology and
    histology are concerned with microscopic
    structures.
  • Biochemistry (????) is the study of the chemistry
    taking place in living organisms, especially the
    structure and function of their chemical
    components.
  • Biostatistics (?????) is the application of
    statistics to biological fields in the broadest
    sense. A knowledge of biostatistics is essential
    in the planning, evaluation, and interpretation
    of medical research. It is also fundamental to
    epidemiology and evidence-based medicine.
  • Cytology (???) is the microscopic study of
    individual cells.
  • Embryology (???) is the study of the early
    development of organisms.
  • Epidemiology (????) is the study of the
    demographics of disease processes, and includes,
    but is not limited to, the study of epidemics.
  • Genetics (???) is the study of genes, and their
    role in biological inheritance.
  • Histology (???) is the study of the structures of
    biological tissues by light microscopy, electron
    microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • Immunology (???) is the study of the immune
    system, which includes the innate and adaptive
    immune system in humans, for example.
  • Medical physics (?????) is the study of the
    applications of physics principles in medicine.
  • Microbiology (????) is the study of
    microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria,
    fungi, and viruses.
  • Neuroscience (????) includes those disciplines of
    science that are related to the study of the
    nervous system. A main focus of neuroscience is
    the biology and physiology of the human brain and
    spinal cord.
  • Nutrition (???) is the study of the relationship
    of food and drink to health and disease,
    especially in determining an optimal diet.
    Medical nutrition therapy is done by dietitians
    and is prescribed for diabetes, cardiovascular
    diseases, weight and eating disorders, allergies,
    malnutrition, and neoplastic diseases.
  • Pathology as a science (???) is the study of
    diseasethe causes, course, progression and
    resolution thereof.
  • Pharmacology (???) is the study of drugs and
    their actions.
  • Physiology (???) is the study of the normal
    functioning of the body and the underlying
    regulatory mechanisms.
  • Toxicology (???) is the study of hazardous
    effects of drugs and poisons.

13
Medical Specialties
  • Surgery (???) "Surgery" refers to the practice
    of operative medicine, and most subspecialties in
    this area require preliminary training in
    "General Surgery."
  • General surgery (?????)
  • Trauma surgery (?????)
  • Cardiovascular surgery (??????)
  • Neurosurgery (?????)
  • Maxillofacial surgery (?????)
  • Orthopedic surgery (???)
  • Otolaryngology (????)
  • Plastic surgery (?????)
  • Oncologic surgery (?????)
  • Vascular surgery (?????)
  • Pediatric surgery (?????)
  • Anesthesiology (???)

14
Medical Specialties
  • Medicine (???) "Medicine" refers to the
    practice of non-operative medicine, and most
    subspecialties in this area require preliminary
    training in "Internal Medicine".
  • Cardiology (????)
  • Critical care medicine (????)
  • Endocrinology (????)
  • Gastroenterology (????)
  • Hematology (????)
  • Hepatology (???)
  • Infectious diseases (???)
  • Nephrology (????)
  • Oncology (???)
  • Proctology (????)
  • Pulmonology (????)
  • Rheumatology (????)
  • Sleep disorder (????)
  • Neurology (????)
  • Geriatrics (????)
  • Pediatrics (???)
  • Family Practice (????)

15
Medical Specialties
  • Diagnostic specialties
  • Clinical laboratory sciences (?????) are the
    clinical diagnostic services which apply
    laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management
    of patients. In the United States these services
    are supervised by a pathologist. The personnel
    that work in these medical laboratory departments
    are technically trained staff who do not hold
    medical degrees, but who usually hold an
    undergraduate medical technology degree, who
    actually perform the tests, assays, and
    procedures needed for providing the specific
    services. Subspecialties include Transfusion
    medicine, Cellular pathology, Clinical chemistry,
    Hematology, Clinical microbiology and Clinical
    immunology.
  • Pathology as a medical specialty (???) is the
    branch of medicine that deals with the study of
    diseases and the morphologic, physiologic changes
    produced by them. As a diagnostic specialty,
    pathology can be considered the basis of modern
    scientific medical knowledge and plays a large
    role in evidence-based medicine. Many modern
    molecular tests such as flow cytometry,
    polymerase chain reaction (PCR),
    immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene
    rearrangements studies and fluorescent in situ
    hybridization (FISH) fall within the territory of
    pathology.
  • Radiology (???) is concerned with imaging of the
    human body, e.g. by x-rays, x-ray computed
    tomography, ultrasonography, and nuclear magnetic
    resonance tomography.
  • Clinical neurophysiology (???????) is concerned
    with testing the physiology or function of the
    central and peripheral aspects of the nervous
    system. These kinds of tests can be divided into
    recordings of (1) spontaneous or continuously
    running electrical activity, or (2) stimulus
    evoked responses. Subspecialties include
    Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Evoked
    potential, Nerve conduction study and
    Polysomnography. Sometimes these tests are
    performed by techs without a medical degree, but
    the interpretation of these tests is done by a
    medical professional.

16
Medical Specialties
  • Other
  • Ophthalmology (???) exclusively concerned with
    the eye and ocular adnexa. Combines conservative
    and surgical therapy, and has its own College.
  • Dermatology (????) is concerned with the skin and
    its diseases. In the UK, dermatology is a
    subspecialty of general medicine.
  • Emergency medicine (????) is concerned with the
    diagnosis and treatment of acute or
    life-threatening conditions, including trauma,
    surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatric
    emergencies.
  • Obstetrics and gynecology (????) (often
    abbreviated as OB/GYN) are concerned respectively
    with childbirth and the female reproductive and
    associated organs. Reproductive medicine and
    fertility medicine are generally practiced by
    gynecological specialists.
  • Palliative care (????) is a relatively modern
    branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain
    and symptom relief and emotional support in
    patients with terminal illnesses including cancer
    and heart failure.
  • Pediatrics (???) is devoted to the care of
    infants, children, and adolescents. Like internal
    medicine, there are many pediatric subspecialties
    for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease
    classes, and sites of care delivery.
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or
    physiatry) (?????????????) is concerned with
    functional improvement after injury, illness, or
    congenital disorders.
  • Psychiatry (????) is the branch of medicine
    concerned with the bio-psycho-social study of the
    etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of
    cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral
    disorders. Related non-medical fields include
    psychotherapy and clinical psychology.

17
Interdisciplinary fields
  • General practice, family practice, family
    medicine or primary care (????) is, in many
    countries, the first port-of-call for patients
    with non-emergency medical problems.
  • Many other health science (????) fields, e.g.
    dietetics (???)
  • Bioethics (?????) is a field of study which
    concerns the relationship between biology,
    science, medicine and ethics, philosophy and
    theology.
  • Biomedical Engineering (??????) is a field
    dealing with the application of engineering
    principles to medical practice.
  • Clinical pharmacology (?????) is concerned with
    how systems of therapeutics interact with
    patients.
  • Conservation medicine (????) studies the
    relationship between human and animal health, and
    environmental conditions. Also known as
    ecological medicine, environmental medicine, or
    medical geology.
  • Disaster medicine (????) deals with medical
    aspects of emergency preparedness, disaster
    mitigation and management.
  • Diving medicine (????) (or hyperbaric medicine)
    is the prevention and treatment of diving-related
    problems.
  • Evolutionary medicine (????) is a perspective on
    medicine derived through applying evolutionary
    theory.
  • Forensic medicine (???) deals with medical
    questions in legal context, such as determination
    of the time and cause of death.
  • Gender-based medicine (????) studies the
    biological and physiological differences between
    the human sexes and how that affects differences
    in disease.
  • Hospital medicine (????) is the general medical
    care of hospitalized patients. Physicians whose
    primary professional focus is hospital medicine
    are called hospitalists in the USA.
  • Medical humanities (?????) includes the
    humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics,
    history and religion), social science
    (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology,
    sociology), and the arts (literature, theater,
    film, and visual arts) and their application to
    medical education and practice.
  • Medical informatics (?????), medical computer
    science, medical information and eHealth are
    relatively recent fields that deal with the
    application of computers and information
    technology to medicine.

18
Interdisciplinary fields
  • Nosology (?????) is the classification of
    diseases for various purposes.
  • Preventive medicine (????) is the branch of
    medicine concerned with preventing disease.
  • Community health (????) or public health is an
    aspect of health services concerned with threats
    to the overall health of a community based on
    population health analysis.
  • Occupational medicine (????) 's principal role is
    the provision of health advice to organizations
    and individuals to ensure that the highest
    standards of health and safety at work can be
    achieved and maintained.
  • Aerospace medicine (??????) deals with medical
    problems related to flying and space travel.
  • Osteopathic medicine (????), a branch of the U.S.
    medical profession.
  • Pharmacogenomics (?????) is a form of
    individualized medicine.
  • Sports medicine (????) deals with the treatment
    and preventive care of athletes, amateur and
    professional. The team includes specialty
    physicians and surgeons, athletic trainers,
    physical therapists, coaches, other personnel,
    and, of course, the athlete.
  • Therapeutics (???) is the field, more commonly
    referenced in earlier periods of history, of the
    various remedies that can be used to treat
    disease and promote health 1.
  • Travel medicine (????) or emporiatrics deals with
    health problems of international travelers or
    travelers across highly different environments.
  • Professions complementing physicians
  • Nursing specialties (????) specialties performed
    by Nurses.
  • Mid-level practitioners (??????) performance of
    medical sciences by other certified people than
    physicians or nurses Nurse practitioners,
    practitioners of medical psychology, midwives and
    physician assistants, treat patients and
    prescribe medication in many jurisdictions.
  • Allied health professions (??????) a diverse set
    of clinical healthcare professions distinct from
    medicine and nursing.
  • Urgent care (????) focuses on delivery of
    unscheduled, walk-in care outside of the hospital
    emergency department for injuries and illnesses
    that are not severe enough to require care in an
    emergency department. In some jurisdictions this
    function is combined with the emergency room.
  • Veterinary medicine (???) veterinarians apply
    similar techniques as physicians to the care of
    animals.

19
Branches of Medicine (????)
  • ????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????
  • ?????????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ???
  • ???
  • ???
  • ??

20
Basic Medical Sciences
  • Morphological courses
  • ?????????????????
  • Functional courses
  • ????????????????????????????
  • Mixed courses
  • ???????????????

21
System-based courses in Basic Medical Sciences
  • Morphological courses
  • Anatomy (???)
  • Histology and Embryology (???????)
  • Pathology (???)
  • Functional courses
  • Physiology (???)
  • Pathophysiology (?????)
  • Pharmacology (???)

22
New Integrated Course Course of Basic Medical
Sciences
  • Include the theoretical contents and
    corresponding laboratory contents of following
    courses
  • Anatomy (???)
  • Histology and Embryology (???????)
  • Pathology (???)
  • Physiology (???)
  • Pathophysiology (?????)
  • Pharmacology (???)

23
Course of Basic Medical Sciences
  • Theoretical contents ????,???????????????????????
    ???????????
  • Introduction to BMS (??????)
  • BMS 1 (??????1)
  • BMS 2 (??????2)
  • BMS 3 (??????3)
  • Laboratory contents
  • Morphological Practicals (?????,???????1?2?3)(????
    ???????????????????????)
  • Experiments of Physiological Sciences
    (?????,??????)(???????????????????????)

24
Brief introduction to Anatomy
  • Systematic anatomy (?????)
  • ???????????????????????????
  • Regional anatomy (?????)
  • ????????????,????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????,???????(Macroanatomy
    )

25
Brief introduction to Anatomy
  • ???????????10???
  • ??(??????)
  • ??(??????)
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ????
  • ?????
  • ?????

???
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) (Italian)
26
Brief introduction to Anatomy
  • ????????????(cell)
  • ?????????????(tissue)
  • ????????,????(organ)
  • ?????????????????????(system)
  • ?????????????(human body)

27
Brief introduction to Anatomy
  • ???9???
  • ???? (locomotor system )
  • ???? (alimentary system)
  • ???? (respiratory system)
  • ???? (urinary system)
  • ???? (reproductive system)
  • ???? (vascular system)
  • ??? (sensory organ)
  • ???? (nervous system)
  • ????? (endocrine system)

28
Brief introduction to Histology and Embryology
  • ???(histology)
  • ??????????????????
  • ????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • ??????
  • ??????????,????,???,????
  • ???????

29
Brief introduction to Histology and Embryology
  • ???(embryology)
  • ????????????????????????,?????????????????????????
    ???????
  • ??????
  • ?????????????????(?????2?)??,??(???15-56?)???,??(
    ????9?-????)???
  • ????????

30
Brief introduction to Physiology
  • ???(physiology)
  • ??????????????????????????
  • ????? (human physiology)????????????????(?????)
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ???????

31
Brief introduction to Pathophysiology
  • ?????(pathophysiology)
  • ????????????????????????(???????????)
  • ????????
  • ????
  • ??????????(????????????????????????)
  • ????????????(???????????????????????-???????????)
  • ???????????

32
Brief introduction to Pathology
  • ???(pathology)
  • ???????????????????????????(????????????)
  • ??????
  • ?????(????????????????????????????????)
  • ???????

33
Brief introduction to Pharmacology
  • ???(pharmacology)
  • ????????(?????)????????????
  • ???????(pharmacodynamics,?????)?????????????????
  • ???????(pharmacokinetics,?????)??????????????,???
    ???????????????
  • ??????
  • ?????(?????????????????????????)
  • ???????

34
Methodology
  • ?????/??
  • ???,???????,???
  • ??????????
  • ????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????,??????
  • X???????X?????(CT)????????(PET)????(MRI)?

35
Methodology
  • ????
  • ???????

????,???????
HE??,?????
36
Methodology
  • ???????
  • ?????(transmission electron microscopy)??????????
    ???
  • ?????(scanning electron microscopy)????????????

?????,???
?????,???
37
Methodology
  • ?????(microdissection)
  • ????????????????????????????????,??????,????PCR???
    ????????????????

38
Methodology
  • ?????(histochemistry)????????????????????????????
    ?,???????????,???????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????,?????????
  • ???????(immunohistochemistry)??????????????,????
    ?????????
  • ?????(in situ hybridization)????????????,????(DN
    A??)???????????(mRNA)

39
PAS??(???????,????????,????),?????????????
??????(?????),?????????vWF??
??????(?????????), ??B????????
????,?????????????mRNA??
40
Methodology
  • ??????(autoradiography)???????????????????,??????
    ??????????????????,??????????

?????,???????????? (3H???????????)
41
Methodology
  • ????????????(in situ polymerase chain reaction,
    in situ PCR)
  • ??PCR??????????????????????,??????????????????????
    ???????????????

42
Methodology
  • ?????????(comparative genomic hybridization)
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????

43
Methodology
  • ??????(biochip technique)
  • ????(gene chip)??DNA??,?????????????DNA???
  • ?????(protein chip)????????(protein
    microarray),?????????????????????,????????????????
    ????????????????????????,????????????????????,????
    ????????????
  • ????(tissue chip)???????(tissue
    microarray),???????????????????????????????

44
Example of a DNA Chip for Infectious Disease
Diagnosis
Fully Automatic DNA Testing System
45
Detection of proteins using the magneto-nano
protein chip
46
Tissue Microarray
47
Methodology
  • ?????????
  • ?????(morphometry)??????????,????????????????????
    ??????????????????(stereology)
  • ???????(microspectrophotometry)??????????????????
    ???????????,????????????
  • ?????(image analysis)????????????????????
  • ?????(flow cytometry)????????????????????????????
    ????

48
???????
???????,??????
Granulocyte flow cytometry. Granulocytes are
electronically selected (upper left plot red R1
region), and analysed for expression of CD16,
CD55 and CD66 cell-membrane proteins (lower
dot-plots). Two cell populations are visible, a
residual normal and the GPI-deficient PNH clone.
?????
49
Methodology
  • ????????????
  • ?????(cell culture) ????????????????????????
  • ????(tissue engineering)???????????????????????

?????????
50
Methodology
  • ????????????
  • ????(vital staining)????????????????,????????????
    ??,????????????????,?????????
  • ?????(cell isolation)???????????????????????????
  • ?????
  • ???????

?????
51
Methodology
  • ?????????????
  • ????(autopsy)????,??????????????????????
  • ??????(biopsy)????,??????????????????????,???????
    ?????????
  • ?????(cytology)??????????,?????????

52
Methodology
  • ?????/??
  • ???,?????,???
  • ????
  • ????(animal experiment)????????????????
  • ??????(acute animal experiment)
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??????(chronic animal experiment)

53
??????
????
??????
54
Methodology
  • ?????????(animal model of human
    diseases)???????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????(spontaneous animal model)????????????????
    ??,??????????????????????(spontaneous
    hypertensive rat, SHR)
  • ???????????(experimental animal
    model)???????????????????????????,???????????????
    ??,????????????????????????????,??????

55
Obese Rat and Normal Rat
Coronary heart disease
56
Methodology
  • ??????????????
  • ???????????
  • ???????????????
  • ????????????(????????)???????

57
Research levels
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ????

58
Case 1
  • ??????,26??????????????,?????60?????2008?5?15???8?
    ,??7??????????,?????????????

??????????????
59
Case 2
  • ???,??52?,????????7?18???,?????????,?????(??37.5)
    ,??????,????????????,??????????,??????????????????
    ,????????,??????????,????????????????,????????????
    ?????,???????,??????????,???????????,????????????,
    ????????????????,????????,?????????
  • ????????

60
Course of Basic Medical Sciences
  • ??????
  • ??5.0
  • ??80
  • ????
  • ????????????,????????50-60
  • ?????????(??????)?40-50
  • ??????,??????

61
  • ?????,???????,8???7???5??????????
  • ?????,???????,8???7???5??????????
  • ???,???????,8???7???5??????????
  • ???,???????,8???7???5??????????
  • ?????,???????,8???7???5??????????
  • ???,???????,8???7???5??????????

62
The course website and requirements
  • ????
  • ?????????
  • ????????????????
  • ????http//10.71.121.158
  • ?????http//m-learning.zju.edu.cn

63
The course website and requirements
  • ????
  • ??????????????????,????,??????????????,??
    ??????,????????,????????-2011?,???????
  • ?????????????,????????????????????????????????,?
    ????????????????????????
  • ??????????

64
?????
  • ?????????????????????,??????2011????????????????
    ????????????????

65
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