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Ancient Sumer and Empire Builders

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Ancient Sumer and Empire Builders The Fertile Crescent First known civilization in area, Mesopotamia, between the rivers in Greek Between Tigris and Euphrates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Sumer and Empire Builders


1
Ancient Sumer and Empire Builders
2
The Fertile Crescent
  • First known civilization in area, Mesopotamia,
    between the rivers in Greek
  • Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

3
  • Key to development in Mesopotamia
  • Lots of similarities to Egypt. The two rivers
    flooded badly at times. Epic of Gilgamesh tells
    of a great flood that destroyed the world about
    4900 years ago.

4
  • Temple priests and royal officials were leaders
  • Built using bricks of clay dried in sun, no
    timber
  • Sumer in SE Mesopotamia, 3300 BC

5
Sumerian Civilization
  • Ruler- maintain city walls, irrigation system,
    led army, enforced laws, chief servant of god,
    hired scribes
  • Social Hierarchy-Ruling family, leading
    officials, high priests-lesser priests, scribes,
    merchants, artisans-Majority peasant
    farmers-Slaves
  • Women wives of rulers had special duties but
    most were dependant on men. Did have legal rights

6
Sumerian Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Gods controlled forces of nature
  • Gods favored truth and justice but were
    responsible for violence and suffering as well
  • Ziggurat (zihg uh rat)- pyramid-temple
  • Believed in afterlife but very grim

7
Showing that Sumerian Gods descended from the
Heavens
8
Learning
  • 3200 BC invented writing, cuneiform (kyoo nee uh
    form), wedge shapes

9
  • Scribes go through years of learning
  • Untidy copying or talking in class punished by
    caning
  • Number system based on 6, dividing hour into 60
    minutes and circle into 360 degrees

10
  • Around 2500 BC armies of conquering peoples swept
    across Mesopotamia
  • By 1900 BC Sumerian civilization was replaced

11
Sargon
Hammurabi
Assurbanipal
Darius
Zoroaster
Cyrus the Great
Nebuchadnezzar
12
  • 2300 BC, Sargon, ruler of Akkad, invaded and
    conquered neighboring city-states of Sumer
  • Built first empire in history
  • Local rulers to help
  • Didnt last long after his death

13
Code of Hammurabi
  • 1790 BC
  • Not the author but had 300 known lawscarved on
    stone pillars for all to see
  • First time laws were codified
  • One section on criminal law. Used to take law
    into own hands but tried to promote social order
  • Civil law business, tax, marriage, inheritance
  • Designed to protect the powerless, (slaves,
    woman)
  • Order was essential in a stable empire

14
Code of Hammurabi
15
Spread of Ideas
  • Hittites came to Mesopotamia about 1400 BC, less
    advanced but had extracted iron from ore. Weapons
    were harder and sharper edges. Started Iron Age .
    Fell 1200 BC

16
  • Assyrians- 1100 BC, feared warriors but well
    ordered society, royal women veiled in public,
    first to put together library of cuneiform tablets

17
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18
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19
  • Babylonians- 600 BC crushed Assyrians, Persian
    Gulf to Med Sea, massive rebuilding projects,
    Hanging Gardens, study of stars and planets

20
One of the seven wonders of the ancient world
21
Persian Empire
  • 539 BC. Cyrus then Darius I 522 486 BC
  • Tolerance of others customs and beliefs
  • Satrap- governor in charge of province
  • Built huge system of roads to unite empire
  • Common set of weights and measures
  • Money economy (coins) set up but some still used
    barter system
  • Both helped trade

22
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23
  • Zoroaster taught a single wise god, Ahura Mazda
    (ah hoo ruh mahz duh) ruled and in constant
    battle with Ahriman (ah rih muhn) prince of lies
    and evil
  • Zend-Avesta- sacred book
  • Would be a judgment day
  • Christianity and Islam stress similar ideas

24
Phoenicians
  • Sailors and traders in present day Lebanon and
    Syria
  • Glass from sand and purple dye from sea snail
  • Set up various colonies in North Africa and
    Sicily to Spain
  • Gave us our alphabet, 22 symbols for consonant
    sounds

25
  • How were these huge empires able to be so big and
    still be ruled by a single ruler?
  • -leaders visited the regions, built and
    maintained roads for travel, and set out a code
    of laws that incorporated laws from conquered
    peoples, satraps
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