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Land Degradation:

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Land Degradation: Soils Water resources Forests Grass lands Crop lands (rainfed, irrigated) Biodiversity INTEGRATED WASTE LAND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (IWDP) Objective ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Land Degradation:


1
  • Land Degradation
  • Soils
  • Water resources
  • Forests
  • Grass lands
  • Crop lands (rainfed, irrigated)
  • Biodiversity

2
  • CAUSES OF LAND DEGRADATION
  • Deforestation
  • Overgrazing
  • Agricultural activities
  • Exploitation of vegetation
  • Industrial activities

3
  • Geographical area of India 3287 lakh ha
  • Net cultivated area 1420 lakh ha
  • Irrigated area 570 lakh ha
  • Rainfed area 850 lakh ha
  • Low productivity and low input usage are two
    major issues confronting rainfed farming.
  • Productivity per unit of land
  • Productivity per unit of water are important for
    optimum production.

4
  • The main agencies for estimation of land
    degradation are
  • National Commission on Agriculture
  • Society for promotion of wasteland developments
  • National Remote Sensing Centre
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use and
    Planning(NBSSLUP)
  • NBSSLUP ,Nagpur of ICAR (2005) has reported that
  • India
    A.P
  • (lakh ha)
    (lakh ha)
  • a. Water erosion 936.80
    115.18
  • b. Wind erosion 94.80
    -----

5
  • Water logging/flooding 143.00 18.96
  • Salinity/alkalinity 59.40
    5.17
  • Soil acidity 160.40
    9.05
  • Complex problems 73.80
    1.56
  • Geographical area 3287.00 275.05
  • Degraded area() 44.66 54.5

6
Since inception upto 10th Five year plan
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
Sl.No PROGRAMME AREA (Lakh ha) AMOUNT (Rs crores)
1 NWDPRA (1990-91) 93.09 3025.56
2 RVPFPR (196281) 64.86 2244.24
3 WDPSCA(1974-75) 3.93 295.58
4 RADAS(1985-86) 7.11 121.74
5 WDF(1999-00) 0.59 26.02
6 EAPs 18.15 3967.35
Total Total 187.73 9680.49
7
Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development
Sl.No PROGRAMME AREA (Lakh ha) AMOUNT (Rs crores)
1 DPAP(1973-74) 137.27 4842.50
2 DDP(1977-78) 78.73 1949.88
3 IWDP(1988-89) 99.56 2438.15
4 EAPs 5.0 292.67
Total Total 320.56 9523.20
8
Ministry of Environment Forests Ministry of Environment Forests Ministry of Environment Forests Ministry of Environment Forests
Sl.No PROGRAMME AREA (Lakh ha) AMOUNT (Rs crores)
1 NAEP(1989-90) 0.70 47.53
Total Total 0.70 47.53
9
XI PLAN PROPOSALS
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
Sl.No PROGRAMME AREA (Lakh ha) AMOUNT (Rs crores)
1 NWDPRA 15.00 1500
2 RVPFPR 12.50 1500
3 WDPSCA 2.00 240
4 RADAS 1.00 100
5 WDF 5.00 600
6 EAPs 5.00 750
7 RADP 30.00 3300
Total Total 70.50 7990
10
Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development
Sl.No PROGRAMME AREA (Lakh ha) AMOUNT (Rs crores)
1 DPAP DDP IWDP IWDP/IWMP 240.00 15358
2 DPAP DDP IWDP IWDP/IWMP 240.00 15358
3 DPAP DDP IWDP IWDP/IWMP 240.00 15358
Total Total 240.00 15358
11
PLANNING COMMISSION PLANNING COMMISSION PLANNING COMMISSION PLANNING COMMISSION
Sl.No PROGRAMME AREA (Lakh ha) AMOUNT (Rs crores)
1 Hill Area Westren Ghat Development Programme 10 2500
12
What is watershed
13
Why Watershed Development
14
What is watershed Development
15
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16
COMPONENTS OF WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT
  • Human Resource Development (Community
    Development)
  • Soil and Land Management
  • Water Management
  • Crop Management
  • Afforestation
  • Pasture / Fodder Development
  • Livestock Management
  • Rural Energy Management
  • Farm and Non-farm value addition activities
  • All these components are interdependent and
    interactive

17
Why Peoples participation
18
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19
Classification of watershed
  • Hydrologic unit -          Size (in ha)

Region            -           gt 300 lakh
  • Basin                -        30-300 lakh

Catchment        -        10-30 lakh
Sub catchment -          2-10 lakh
Watershed        -        50,000-2, 00000
Sub-watershed -        10,000-50,000
Milli -watershed -         1,000-10,000
Micro watershed -       100-1000
Mini watershed -         1-100
20
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
The watershed management implies the judicious
use of all the resources i.e. land, water,
vegetation in an area for providing an answer
to alleviate drought, moderate floods,
prevent soil erosion, improve water
availability and increase food, fodder, fuel
and fiber on sustained basis. Watershed to
achieve maximum production with minimum hazard to
the natural resources and for the well being
of people. The management should be carried out
on the watershed basis. The task of watershed
management includes the treatment of land by
using most suitable biological and
engineering measures in such a manner that, the
management work must be economic and socially
acceptable

21




PRINCIPLES OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT The main
principles of watershed management based on
resource conservation, resource generation and
resource utilization are
  • Utilizing the land based on its capability
  • Protecting fertile top soil
  • Minimizing silting up of tanks, reservoirs and
    lower fertile
  • lands

  • Protecting vegetative cover throughout the year
  • In situ conservation of rain water
  • Safe diversion of gullies and construction of
    check dams for
  • in creasing ground water recharge

  • In creasing cropping intensity through inter and
    sequence
  • cropping.
  • Alternate land use systems for efficient use of
    marginal lands.






22
  • Maximizing farm income through agricultural
    related
  • activities such as dairy, poultry, sheep, and
    goat forming.


  • Improving infrastructural facilities for
    storage, transport and
  • agricultural marketing,
  • Water harvesting for supplemental irrigation.
  • Improving socio - economic status of farmers


OBJECTIVES OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
  • The term watershed management is nearly
    synonymous
  • with soil and water conservation with the
    difference that
  • emphasis is on flood protection and sediment
    control
  • besides maximizing crop production.

  • The basic objective of watershed management is
    thus is thus meeting
  • the problems of land and water use, not in
    terms of any one resource
  • but on the basis that all the resources are
    interdependent and must,
  • therefore, be considered together.




23
  • Adequate water supply for domestic, agricultural
    and industrial
  • needs.
  • Abatement of organic, inorganic and soil
    pollution,
  • Efficient use of natural resources for improving
    agriculture
  • and allied occupation so as to improve
    socio-economic
  • conditions of the local residents, and
  • Expansion of recreation facilities such as
    picnic and camping
  • sites. 



24
  • The watershed aims, ultimately, at improving
    standards of
  • living of common people in the basin by
    increasing their
  • earning capacity, by offering facilities such
    as electricity,
  • drinking water, irrigation water, freedom from
    fears of
  • floods, droughts etc.


  • The overall objectives of watershed development
  • programmers may be outlined as

  • Recognition of watersheds as a unit for
    development and
  • efficient use of land according their land
    capabilities for
  • production,


  • Flood control through small multipurpose
    reservoirs and
  • other water storage structures at the head water
    of streams
  • and in problem areas,


25
STREAM ORDER
26
ORDER NO.OF SEGMENTS
BI-FURCATION RATIO 1
10
2
3
3.3 3 1
3.0
Drainage density is a measure of the length of
stream channel per unit area of drainage basin.
Mathematically it is expressed as Drainage
Density (Dd) Stream Length / Basin Area The
measurement of drainage density provides a
hydrologist or geomorphologist with a useful
numerical measure of landscape dissection and
runoff potential. On a highly permeable
landscape, with small potential for runoff,
drainage densities are sometimes less than 1
kilometer per square kilometer. On highly
dissected surfaces densities of over 500
kilometers per square kilometer are often
reported. Closer investigations of the processes
responsible for drainage density variation have
discovered that a number of factors collectively
influence stream density. These factors include
climate, topography, soil infiltration capacity,
vegetation, and geology.
27
SPLASH EROSION
28
SHEET EROSION
29
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30
GULLY EROSION
31
1. DROUGHT PRONE AREA PROGRAMME (DPAP) Objective
of the scheme This is a centrally sponsored
scheme funded by Centre and State on the ratio
5050 basis up to IV batch i.e., 1998-99 and
7525 basis from Vth batch i.e., 1999-2000
onwards. The period and cost of the project per
each watershed was four years and Rs. 20.00 lakhs
up to IV th batch. It is five years and Rs. 30.00
lakhs from V th batch onwards. It is aimed to
develop the drought prone area with an objective
of drought proofing by taking up of insitu soil /
land moisture conservation, water harvesting
structures, afforestation and Horticulture
programmes on a comprehensive micro watershed
under ridge to valley concept basis. So far 4242
number of watersheds have been taken up covering
an area of 21.21 lakh hectares in 11 districts
with 94 blocks. So far 1608 watersheds have been
completed and treated an area of 8.04 lakh ha.
32
Strategy of implementation Developing waste
lands / degraded lands on watershed basis.
Overall economic development of resource poor.
For Mitigation of drought, Employment generation
and Poverty alleviation Scheme is being
implemented by User groups, Self-help groups,
through watershed committees under supervision of
PIAs. Sharing Pattern (CSS) 5050 up to IV th
batch, 7525 from Vth batch onwards.
33
DESERT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (DDP) Objective of
the scheme This is a centrally sponsored scheme
funded by Centre and State on the ratio 7525
basis. It is aimed to develop the drought prone
area with an objective of drought proofing by
taking up of soil land moisture
conservation,water harvesting structures,
afforestation and Horticulture programmes on a
comprehensive micro watershed under ridge to
valley concept. So far 1054 watersheds were
taken up covering an area of 5.27 lakh hectares
in Anantapur district in all 16 blocks. So far
206 watersheds have been completed , treated an
area of 1.03 lakh ha. Strategy of
implementation Developing waste lands /
degraded lands on watershed basis. Overall
economic development of resource poor. For
Mitigation of drought. Employment generation and
poverty alleviation. The period and cost of
the project for each Watershed was four years
and Rs.22.50 lakhs respectively up to V th
batch. It is five years and Rs. 30.00 lakhs
from VI th batch on wards
34
INTEGRATED WASTE LAND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
(IWDP) Objective of the scheme Rapid depletion
of green cover and vast stretches of marginal
lands lying fallow, found to be causing enormous
ecological imbalance. Productivity is also
negligent on account of soil erosion and
marginalization of lands. To arrest this, massive
integrated wasteland development project was
under taken during 1991 with 100 central
assistance. The programme of dry land development
in Andhra Pradesh. underwent a major change from
1995-96 with the introduction of new watershed
guidelines prepared by Sri Ch.Hanumantha Rao. The
Scheme is being implemented in 19 districts in
A.P. in non- DPAP blocks of DPAP districts and in
all non-DPAP districts, with 1638 (114 Projects)
Watersheds covering an area of 8.02 Lakh
hect. The objective of the projects is to enable
Government of AP for checking of land
degradation ,sustainable and increased
productivity of land based on watershed concept.
35
INDIRA PRABHA (Comprehensive Land Development
Project ) Objective of the scheme The main
objective of the scheme is to provide an
Integrated and Comprehensive Livelihood options
centered on Development of compact blocks of
assigned lands owned by the poor to ensure these
lands become productive assets for the
poor. Government have sanctioned 1725 projects
blocks under RIDF-IX, X and XIII Projects with
financial outlay of Rs.599.00 crores in 22
districts to develop 5.51 lakh acres of assigned
land belonging to 3.67 lakh families of SC,ST,BC
and others. It is proposed to complete the
project in 3 years of administrative sanction.
36
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37
WATERSHED PROGRAMMES IN A.P
  • NRM
  • SMC Works (i) Earthen bunding (ii) Pebble bunding
    (iii) GC works
  • (iv) Sunken pits in
    gullies (v) CCT/Staggered trenches
  • (B) WH Works (i) Farm ponds (ii) Mini PTs
    (iii) Gabion structures
  • (iv)Percolation tanks
    (v) Check dams (vi) Diversion
  • drains (vii) Feeder
    channels (viii) Repairs to old tanks
  • and kuntas (ix)
    Desilting of tanks (x) Recharging
  • drinking water
    sources
  • (C) Plantation works (i) Block plantation (ii)
    Avenue plantation (iii)
  • Institutional
    and household planting (iv) Bund and
  • Boundary
    planting (v) Horticulture (vi) Pasture /fodder
    crops

38
Productivity Enhancement Adaptive trials and
infrastructure Revolving fund Entreprise
promotion Revolving fund
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