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Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation

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Title: Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation


1
Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation
Ken Jackson Vice-President Real-Time
2
Agenda
  • Why Simulation?
  • Software Modeling
  • Frequencies - ?T
  • Integration Software with Hardware (I/O)
  • HIL Examples
  • HIL Components
  • RTOS RT-Tools
  • Simulation Executive (SimWB)

3
Why Simulation?
  • Industry is constantly developing products
  • Those products require designing testing
  • Software modeling Simulation lower
    development cost and improve time to market

Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
4
Design Issues
Hinge Friction
  • Dimensions
  • Hardware
  • Materials
  • Performance
  • Mass

W
Y
Spring Force
Z
X
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
5
Software Modeling
Rather than building and testing repeatedly, the
door and its components can be modeled in
software. This way, design parameters can be
changed quickly and easily while running repeated
tests
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
6
Frequency - T
  • Granularity
  • Fidelity

1 Hz
t 0
t 1
t 2
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
7
Frequency - T
  • Higher Frequency / Finer Granularity
  • Higher Fidelity / Resolution

100 Hz
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
8
Integrating Software Model withHardware
  • Hardware in the Loop
  • Mate real hardware with the software simulation

Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
9
Hard Real-Time HIL Applications
  • Aerospace
  • FADEC Design/Test
  • High Lift Simulation
  • Missile Design/Test
  • Aircraft Design/Test
  • Guidance Design/Test
  • Weapons Design/Test
  • Defense
  • Radar Telemetry
  • Non-Aerospace Design/Test
  • Controller Design/Test
  • Weapons Design/Test
  • Automotive
  • Powertrain Control Design/Test
  • Chassis Control Design/Test
  • Suspension Control Design/Test

10
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
How are HIL systems used?
11
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • Ford
  • PCM (Powertrain Control Module) Testingin the
    Virtual Powertrain and Control System (VPACS) HIL
    Laboratory for current and future vehicles
    (MATLAB/Simulink)
  • Testing/developing ECU code for controllers, gas,
    diesel etc. with lots of I/O in systems

12
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • Johns Hopkins
  • Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) missile testing for
    the US Department Of Defense (DOD)
  • RedHawk used in classified HIL application
  • Draper Labs
  • Graphics processing in the simulation environment
  • Trident Controls Development HILS
  • Sikorsky
  • Selected for Blackhawk helicopter engineering
    simulation
  • Utilizes Concurrent RedHawk Linux and NightStar
    tools

13
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • Common Missile HIL
  • Classified DAC application
  • B1B bomber - Weapons control systems
  • Mission critical EMUX performance required

14
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • Collins submarine
  • - Simulation/test of Sonar arrays
  • Tomahawk missile program
  • Real-Time Hardware-in-the- Loop (HIL) testing

15
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW)
  • Real-Time Hardware In the Loop (HIL) Testing
  • Small Diameter Bomb (SDB)
  • Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Testing

16
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • Airbus HIL simulation A400M, A320, A340, and
    A350 programs
  • HIL Test stands for HLSS in Bremen (SIMulation
    Workbench)

17
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • MBDA
  • A world-leading missile systems company with
    products from armor piercing land weapons to
    air-to-air missiles use HIL simulators

18
Hard Real-Time HIL Examples
  • MHI Nagasaki (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries)
  • HIL simulator for new G-RX6 torpedo
  • High-performance homing system generates sound
    waves analyzes returns for multiple target
    discrimination location, destroyers, subs,
    decoys

19
Hard Real-Time HIL Components
  • Real-Time Operating System
  • Real-Time Development Tools
  • Real-Time Simulation Environment
  • COTS I/O

Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
20
Real-Time Technology
Real-Time Operating System
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
21
Real-Time Operating Systems
  • Desirable Real-Time features
  • Guaranteed hard real-time response
  • Advanced shielding features
  • Easy-to-use API and GUI
  • Processor, interrupt and local timer
  • NUMA Performance Optimization
  • UIO User-level Driver Support
  • Real-Time Scheduler
  • Optimized graphics I/O
  • Lockless kernel trace
  • User-level preemption control
  • High Resolution timers
  • Single-kernel solution

Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
22
RedHawk Advantages
  • RedHawk Linux provides the following market
    strengths and differentiators over proprietary
    embedded OS products and other Linux
    distributions
  • RedHawk is an true Linux distribution (not
    micro-kernel)
  • RedHawk Linux is optimized for multi-core
    platforms (SMP)
  • RedHawk is fully compatible with the Red Hat user
    environment
  • NightStar tools provide superior functionality
    over competing tool sets especially in multi-core
    applications
  • RedHawk Architect GUI tool will provide a single,
    easy-to-use tool for building an embedded
    solution
  • RedHawk will easily address the needs of
    applications that have both soft and hard
    real-time requirements.
  • Extensive Concurrent experience in supporting
    Linux and Linux applications

Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
23
Real-Time Technology
Real-Time Development Tools
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
24
Development Tools
  • Desirable Real-Time features
  • Minimally-intrusive multi-system, multi-process
    debugging via a single interface
  • Hot patched event points including breakpoints,
    patchpoints, monitorpoints, watchpoints, and
    tracepoints
  • Application speed execution
  • View of Linux kernel activity and user space
  • Complete view of application threads running
    across available CPU cores
  • Automatic insertion of trace points

25
NightStar Tools
Optimizes multi-core environments Reduces test
time Improves productivity Lowers program
costs Accelerates time to market
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
26
Real-Time Technology
Real-Time Simulation Environment
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
27
Simulation Environment
  • Desirable Real-Time features
  • Support both hand-written and autocoded models
    concurrently
  • Run multiple models at multiple rates
    concurrently while sharing interdependent data
  • Trace both types of models simultaneously
  • Simple I/O to Model interface
  • Real-Time Scheduler
  • Easy to use GUIs
  • Data logging and playback
  • Real-time viewer with easy to use display tool
  • Powerful COTS systems and I/O

28
Simulation Cycle
SimWB Scheduler Frame
Analog Output
In1
Out1
Model
CPU x
CPU a
CPU n
CPU x,y,z
DigitalOutput
CPU b
CPU z
Analog Output Device
Analog Input Device
Output Data Gatherer
Input Data Gatherer
Digital Output Device
Digital Input Device
Data Logger CPU a
Data Viewer CPU b
HMI CPU x
Data
Sync Process
Async Process
29
SIMulation Workbench
30
SIMulation Workbench Overview
  • A framework which enables the cyclic execution of
    simulation models in real-time.
  • Connect the inputs and outputs of the models with
    external hardware and interact with the model
    signals and parameters via program and operator
    interfaces in real-time.
  • SimWB is based on Concurrent's Frequency Based
    Scheduler (FBS) and fully supports multiprocessor
    architectures.

31
Why use SimWB?
  • Leverage Simulink and other tools for rapid
    prototyping and HIL simulations
  • Ability to change/tune input, output, and
    parameters in real-time
  • Capture, store, and visualize simulation data
  • Leverage RedHawk real-time features including CPU
    shielding and scheduling on multi-processor
    platforms

32
More Why use SimWB?
  • COTS hardware
  • Thousands of I/O points
  • Multi-Core support
  • Multiple models on different cores
  • Run multi-rate Simulink model as threads on
    different cores
  • Support for
  • 32 and 64 Bit MATLAB/Simulink Support
  • 32 and 64 Bit real-time Linux environment support
    (SimWB32 SimWB64)

33
SIMulation Workbench Features
  • Platform independent Control Panel (Java based
    graphical user interface)
  • User access control for resources
  • Data logger viewer tool (DL Viewer)
  • Execute multi-rate Simulink models on different
    cores
  • Change CPU affinity of multi-rate Simulink models
    at run-time for improved CPU load balancing
  • Simulink Model Referencing support
  • ASAM support

34
SimWB in Model-Based Design



SIMulation Workbench can be used in these phases
of Model-Based Design

35
Example SimWB Setup
36
SimWB Toolkit for MATLAB
37
SimWB Core Modules
  • Model Ingest
  • Real-time Data Base (RTDB)
  • Scripting Language (Swm)
  • I/O Support
  • Data Recorder
  • Playback
  • Real-Time Viewer (RT Viewer)
  • Data-Logger Viewer (DL Viewer)

38
User Model Ingest
  • Import a hand-written model into the SimWB
    framework
  • Compile code and create the executable
  • Transparently map to the Real-Time Database
    (RTDB) and hook into the real-time scheduler

39
Simulink Model Ingest
  • Use SimWB menu in Simulink to access the SimWB
    Toolkit GUI
  • Automatically create RTDB for Simulink model
  • Automatically generate SimWB compliant code using
    RTW (Simulink Coder in R2011b)
  • No need for hardware dependent S functions

40
Real-Time Database (RTDB)
  • Memory resident
  • Map RTDB variables to physical hardware channels
  • Engineering unit conversion
  • GUI panels for convenient remapping of model
    parameters and I/O points
  • Simulink model parameters (Gain, Constant,
    Look-up table, etc..) are created at runtime and
    mapped in the RTDB

41
RTDB I/O Mapping
42
Scripting Language
  • Test management capabilities
  • Provides the environment to control a test run
  • Integrated environment to edit/compile test
    scripts
  • Extensive API to modify the RTDB in real-time and
    control I/O devices (timing, pause/resume, etc.)
  • Python, C, or Swm language capable
  • Synchronous (runs as part of the scheduling loop)
  • Asynchronous (via network client API)
  • Automatically generate HTML test reports.

43
Embedded Editor
44
Data Logger
  • All simulation data points can be recorded
    individually and independently of the Simulink
    modeling environment. There is no impact on the
    model runtime.
  • Hardware and engineering unit values, as well as
    run-time flags and time stamps are recorded.
  • Depending on the performance required, data
    logging can be run on the real-time simulation
    host or on a separate networked server.

45
Test Session Playback
  • Provides the mechanism to take logged data and
    write it back into the RTDB.
  • The playback mechanism is synchronized via
    RedHawks Frequency-Based Scheduler.
  • Replay simulation data as it occurred for
    analyzing and tuning.
  • Test scripts can run simultaneously during
    playback giving the operator the ability to
    experiment with a portion of the simulation and
    tune the results.

46
Advanced Playback Support
47
DL Viewer
  • Visualize SimWB RTDB values that have been logged
    using the SimWB data logger.
  • Save and export to Excel and MATLAB MAT files.

48
RT Viewer
  • Visualize SimWB RTDB values in real-time
  • Visualize scheduler info
  • Get/Set CVT and ALT values

49
Human Machine Interface
  • Multi-platform Java-based HMI
  • Display RTDB items in real-time
  • Show real-time plots
  • Display logged data
  • Display test scheduling information
  • Lots of built in widgets for creating
    photo-realistic HMIs

50
Multi-Screen Photo-realistic HMI Displays
51
Multi-rate Multi-core Support forSimulink Models
  • Run multi-rate Simulink model as threads on
    different cores.
  • Visualize model statistics including multi-rate
    thread statistics at runtime.
  • Modify CPU affinity of different threads for
    improved CPU load balancing.

52
Hard Real-time System With Multi-rate Tasks
Example A Fly-by-wire Avionics model
53
Example Simple Simulink Model With Multi-rate
Tasks
54
Multi-rate Model in Single-tasking Mode
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
CPU4
CPU5
Real-Time execution of a single-tasking system
requires a base sample rate that is long enough
to execute one step through the entire model.
Assuming each sub-rate in the model requires less
than 1500us for execution, one step through the
entire model requires 6000us which is still less
than the base rate of 10000us. Thus,
single-tasking mode works in this example but can
result in inefficient use of available CPU time.
55
Multi-rate Model in Single-tasking Mode CPU
Overruns
CPU1
CPU overrun in single-tasking mode
20000us
Unused CPU time
Safety Margin
Avoid CPU overruns at the expense of unused CPU
time and slower simulation speed by decreasing
the base rate
Real-Time execution of a single-tasking system
results in CPU overruns if it takes longer than
the base rate to execute one step through the
entire model. Assume the Discrete 3 sub-rate
requires 20000us for execution. To continue
execution in single-tasking mode, the base rate
has to be decreased to be greater than
20000us15003us or the execution will result in
CPU overrun.
56
Multi-rate Model in Multi-tasking Mode on a
single CPU
CPU1
20000us
b
c
a



When running multiple tasks on the same CPU, the
higher priority tasks preempt the lower priority
tasks. No CPU over run occurs, if all the tasks
are completed before they are run again.
Occasional CPU overruns can occur due to changing
task execution times and context switching times
resulting in CPU idle times not being enough to
complete the preempted tasks.
57
Multi-rate Model in Multi-tasking Mode Multiple
CPUs - The SIMulation Workbench Advantage
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
CPU4
CPU5
With SimWB multi-rate multi-tasking support,
tasks with different rates are run in their own
thread and these tasks can be run on different
CPUs thereby preventing overruns.
58
Multi-rate Model in Multi-tasking Mode CPU Load
Balancing - The SIMulation Workbench Advantage
CPU0
CPU1
CPU2
CPU3
CPUs available for executing other Simulink
models, C/C user models, and I/O tasks.
CPU4
CPU5
CPU6
With SimWB not only can we run different tasks on
different CPUs but we can also visualize the
task execution time for different tasks and
reassign the tasks to run on different CPUs for
improved CPU load balancing.
59
Actual Screenshot of the RT Viewer for a
Multi-rate Simulink Model
60
Support for Simulink Models ContainingModel
References
  • Model reference lets you break up the hierarchy
    into separate models.
  • These models can be simulated and built stand
    alone, which means teams can independently
    develop components in parallel. 
  • Teams deal with fewer blocks in their models.
  • Simulate and unit test component models.
  • Incremental update diagrams and code generation
    saves time.
  • SimWB now supports code generation for a
  • Simulink model containing model references.

61
MATLAB/Simulink Example of a Model Referenced
System
Car Model Top Level
Team A Model
Team B Model
ECU model
Vendor D Model
Vendor C Model
SimWB can generate compliant code for the top
level model and automatically include the
referenced models.
62
Real-Time Technology
COTS I/O
Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
63
COTS I/O Support
  • Analog Input and Output
  • Digital Input and Output
  • AFDX / ARINC 664
  • ARINC 429
  • CANbus
  • MIL-STD-1553
  • RVDT/LVDT
  • Resolver
  • Counter/Timer
  • FlexRay
  • Reflective Memory
  • Serial I/O
  • Relays
  • Resistor simulator
  • Arbitrary waveform generator
  • ScramNet GT 200 reflective memory
  • Square wave generators
  • DDS wave synthesizer
  • CCUR PWM 1012

64
RCIM Features
  • RCIM
  • 8 interrupt-generating real-time clocks
  • 12 edge-triggered input external interrupt lines
  • 12 output external interrupt lines
  • 12 inter-CPU interrupts
  • Can sync to external time sources
  • GPS synchronization option
  • PMC,PCI or PCIe
  • RoHS compliant

Oscillator, Down to .01 PPM Accuracy (lt1 sec/yr)
Inter-system connects
External clock sync
Interrupts
GPS option
65
Distributed Environment
  • Use the RCIM to synchronize the distributed
    systems
  • Can sync to external time sources
  • GPS synchronization option
  • Use 10g Enet or Firewire to pass data packets
  • Data can be synchronous or asynchronous
  • Configuration only limited by timing contraints

Concurrent Computer Corporation - Company
Confidential
66
Questions?
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