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Assistive technology

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Assistive technology Technology to assist patrons and staff who are deaf, hard-of-hearing, blind, have low vision, or are mobility-impaired LIS 670 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Assistive technology


1
Assistive technology
Technology to assist patrons and staff who are
deaf, hard-of-hearing, blind, have low vision, or
are mobility-impaired
LIS 670
2
Laws
Prohibited discrimination on basis of race,
religion, national origin. Language model for
later legislation
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

Architectural Barriers Act of 1968
Federal buildings must be accessible to persons
with disabilities.
Section 508 (added 1998) mandates accessibility
of electronic and info. tech.
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Signed into law by Pres. George Bush (Sr.) on
July 26, 1990.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
3
Laws
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of
1975
4
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 -
findings (1)
Codified as 42 U.S.C. 12101-12213
  • 43 million Americans have one or more physical or
    mental disability

Historically, society has tended to isolate
individuals with disabilities
http//www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/42/ch126.html
5
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 -
findings (2)
  • Discrimination against individuals with
    disabilities persists in employment, housing,
    public accommodations, education, transportation,
    etc.

Need for legal recourse to redress such
discrimination
6
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 - purpose
(1)
  • Provide national mandate for elimination of
    discrimination against individuals with
    disabilities

Provide consistent, enforceable standards
addressing discrimination against individuals
with disabilities
7
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 - purpose
(2)
  • Ensure Federal Government plays a central role in
    enforcing standards

Invoke congressional authority to address the
major areas of discrimination faced day-to-day by
people with disabilities
8
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Title I Employment

No covered entity shall discriminate against a
qualified individual with a disability because of
the disability of such individual in regard to
job application procedures, the hiring,
advancement, or discharge of employees, employee
compensation ...
Must hire person who is blind to drive bookmobile?
No
Automatically disqualify person with low vision
from cataloging?
No
9
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Title I Employment

Automatically disqualify person with low vision
from cataloging?
No
10
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Title II State and local government activities
public transportation
Title III Public accommodations and services
operated by private entities (including libraries)
11
Disability - ADA definition
  • 42 U.S.C. 12102
  1. A physical or mental impairment that
    substantially limits one or more of the major
    life activities of the individual
  2. A record of such an impairment or
  3. Being regarded as having such an impairment

Note B and C related to ability to seek redress
for discrimination
12
ADA Amendments Act of 2008
FINDINGS
  • ... the holdings of the Supreme Court ... have
    narrowed the broad scope of protection intended
    to be afforded by the ADA, thus eliminating
    protection for many individuals whom Congress
    intended to protect ...

13
ADA Amendments Act of 2008
  • to reject the requirement enunciated by the
    Supreme Court in Sutton v. United Air Lines ...
    that whether an impairment substantially limits a
    major life activity is to be determined with
    reference to the ameliorative effects of
    mitigating measures

to reject the Supreme Court's reasoning in
Sutton v. United Air Lines...
to reject the standards enunciated by the
Supreme Court in Toyota Motor Manufacturing...
14
ADA Amendments Act of 2008
  • Major life activities.--
  • "(A) In general.--For purposes of paragraph
    (1), major life activities include, but are not
    limited to, caring for oneself, performing manual
    tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping,
    walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking,
    breathing, learning, reading, concentrating,
    thinking, communicating, and working.
  • "(B) Major bodily functions.--For purposes of
    paragraph (1), a major life activity also
    includes the operation of a major bodily
    function, including but not limited to, functions
    of the immune system, normal cell growth,
    digestive, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain,
    respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, and
    reproductive functions.

15
ADA Amendments Act of 2008
  • The definition of disability in this Act shall
    be construed in favor of broad coverage of
    individuals under this Act...

16
ADA Amendments Act of 2008
  • The determination of whether an impairment
    substantially limits a major life activity shall
    be made without regard to the ameliorative
    effects of mitigating measures such as--

"(I) medication, medical supplies, equipment,
or appliances, low-vision devices (which do not
include ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses),
prosthetics including limbs and devices, hearing
aids and cochlear implants or other implantable
hearing devices, mobility devices, or oxygen
therapy equipment and supplies "(II) use of
assistive technology "(III) reasonable
accommodations or auxiliary aids or services or
"(IV) learned behavioral or adaptive
neurological modifications.
http//www.access-board.gov/about/laws/ada-amendme
nts.htm
17
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008
(GINA)
  • The law forbids discrimination on the basis of
    genetic information when it comes to any aspect
    of employment, including hiring, firing, pay, job
    assignments, promotions, layoffs, training,
    fringe benefits, or any other term or condition
    of employment.

18
Reasonable accommodation
  • 42 U.S.C. 12111 (9)
  1. Making existing facilities used by employees
    readily accessible to and usable by individuals
    with disabilities and
  2. Job restructuring acquisition or modification
    of equipment or devices

Note Without undue hardship ("requiring
significant difficulty or expense when considered
in light of overall financial resources of the
facility, type of operations, etc.")
19
ADA Home Page
http//www.ada.gov/
20
http//www.ada.gov/stdspdf.htm
21
ADA Standards for Accessible Design
  • 28 Code of Regulations (CFR) Part 36 Appendix A

Sets forth guidelines for ramps, doorways,
drinking fountains, bathroom facilities, aisle
widths, signage, etc.
http//www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/stdspdf.htm
22
ADA Standards for Accessible Design
23
ADA Standards for Accessible Design
4.4 Protruding Objects. Objects projecting from
walls (for example, telephones) with their
leading edges between 27 in and 80 in (685 mm and
2030 mm) above the finished floor shall protrude
no more than 4 in (100 mm) into walks, halls,
corridors, passageways, or aisles
24
ADA Standards for Accessible Design
25
ALA Library Services for People with Disabilities
Policy Resolution (1)
  • Approved January 16, 2001

"Libraries play a catalytic role in the lives of
people with disabilities by facilitating their
full participation in society."
26
ALA Library Services for People with Disabilities
Policy Resolution (2)
" Libraries should use strategies based upon the
principles of universal design to ensure that
library policy, resources, and services meet the
needs of all people."
http//www.ala.org/ala/ascla/asclaissues/libraryse
rvices.htm
27
Technology for persons with vision problems
28
Technology for persons with vision impairments
Input problems
  • Keyboards not standardized
  • (Where's the backslash key?)

Mouse, trackball, touch pad and touch screen
require user to see cursor or mouse indicator on
screen
29
Technology for persons with vision impairments
Input solutions
  • Enhanced keyboards

Optical scanners
Talking screen programs
Voice recognition systems
30
Enhanced keyboards
  • Add-on orientation or Braille dots

Large-letter keys
Braille keyboards
31
Braille keyboard
http//www.sighted.com/english/elba2003.html
32
Optical scanners
  • Used with optical character recognition programs

Talking book technology can be used to create
files that can then be taken home by the user
and read on his or her machine
2,595.00
33
Scanned text with voice synthesizer technology
Proposition IS THERE A SANTA CLAUS? As a result
of an overwhelming lack of requests, and with
research help from that renown scientific journal
SPY magazine (January, 1990) - I am pleased to
present the annual scientific inquiry into Santa
Claus. 1. No known species of reindeer can fly.
BUT there are 300,000 species of living organisms
yet to be classified, and while most of these are
insects and germs, this does not COMPLETELY rule
out flying reindeer which only Santa has ever
seen
http//www.kurzweiledu.com/files/santa-kate-200.mp
3
34
Talking screen in concert with traditional input
devices
  • Use traditional mouse, trackball, or touch pad
    but talking screen program lets user know where
    cursor is on the screen

35
Voice recognition systems
  • Good for staff workstations
  • Not as good for public terminals
  • (requires "training" the software to recognize
    individual speech patterns)

36
Technology for persons with vision impairments
Output problems
  • Textual or graphic monitor displays

Textual or graphic printouts
37
Technology for persons with low vision
Output solutions
  • Screen magnification

Some people have a reduced field of vision.
Decreasing the size of the text helps them to
see more of the text on the page.
Software to change color or contrast
Large- or small-text printers
38
Changing contrast with XP
39
Changing contrast with XP (2)
40
Changing contrast with XP (3)
41
Changing contrast with XP (4)
42
Screen magnification with XP (1)
43
Screen magnification with XP (2)
44
Technology persons who are blind
Output solutions
  • Voice synthesizers

Tactile output
Braille printers
Braille displays
45
Microsoft narrator
Start ? Run ? type narrator
46
Refreshable Braille display
47
Refreshable Tactile graphic display
48
Technology for persons with restricted mobility
49
Technology for persons with restricted mobility
Problems (1)
  • Repeating keys require quick movement

nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn
Closely-set, upraised keys ill-suited for
mouth-held instruments or hands with limited
control
50
Technology for the mobility impaired
Problems (2)
  • Mouse requires holding down button while moving
    mouse

Track balls and touch pads require precision
movements
51
Technology for the mobility impaired
Problems (3)
  • Ctrl, Alt, and Shift keys must be pressed
    simultaneously with other keys

52
Technology for the mobility impaired
Solutions (1)
  • Keyboard add-ons (keyguards) convert raised to
    sunken keys

Software to allow sequential key strokes
Software that prevents key repeating
53
Sticky keys and filter keys with XP
54
StickyKeys - allows sequential keystrokes
?
Ctrl
s
Will be read as Ctrl s
55
FilterKeys - helps with typographical errors
?
nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn
n
56
Technology for the mobility impaired
Solutions (2)
  • Alternative keyboards

Sip and puff systems (staff workstation)
57
Alternative keyboards
  • Keyboards designed for use with mouth stick or by
    unsteady fingers

Big keys
Sunken keys
58
Alternative keyboards
  • Single-handed keyboards - right

59
Alternative keyboards
  • Single-handed keyboards - left

60
Alternative keyboards
  • Single-finger/mouthstick keyboards

61
On-screen keyboard
Programs ? Documents ? Settings ? Search ? Help
Run Shut Down
Programs ?
Accessories Microsoft Excel Microsoft
Powerpoint Microsoft Word
Accessories ?
Start
62
On-screen keyboard
Accessibility ? Paint
Accessibility ?
On-Screen Keyboard Accessibility Wizard
On-Screen Keyboard
63
On-screen keyboard
Aloh
a
64
Sip-and-puff systems
65
Technology for the mobility impaired
Solutions (3)
  • Muscle switches

Optical pointer devices
Eye scanning systems
HeadMouse 1,695
66
Technology for the mobility impaired
Solutions (4)
  • Voice recognition (staff workstation)

Touch screens with on-screen keyboards
Joysticks
67
Mouth-operated joystick
1,995
68
LOMAK - Light Operated Mouse and Keyboard
http//cap.mil/Documents/Lomak.wmv
69
Non-computer technology for the mobility impaired
(1)
Page turners
70
Non-computer technology for the mobility impaired
(2)
Elevator control
71
Technology for persons who are deaf or hard of
hearing
72
Technology for persons who are deaf or
hard-of-hearing
  • Amplification
  • Wireless microphone plus receptor
  • Captioning for audio clips
  • Visual or tactile alternatives to auditory cues
  • Flashing lights on fire alarms
  • TTYs (text telephones)

73
Technology for those who are deaf or
hard-of-hearing
  • TTYs (text telephones)

74
Location of workstations (1)
  • Physically accessible to users
  • Wide aisles from building entrance to workstation
  • Free of barriers (stairs, dangling cables, cords
    across floor)

Easily located
75
Location of workstations (2)
  • Proximity to related services
  • Within sight of reference desk so users can
    signal for help
  • Paging services

Good lighting
Readily accommodated by telecommunications cabling
76
Software considerations
  • Can the programs and hardware work together?

Ease of use for novice and infrequent users
77
Physical considerations
  • Table height for wheel-chair users
  • Anti-glare screens
  • Headphones for use with voice synthesizers
  • Shielding hoods
  • Large-font signage

78
Training
  • Training sessions for staff
  • Training sessions and tutorials for patrons

79
Additional information
Americans with Disabilities Act
Homepagehttp//www.ada.gov/
ADA Accessibility Guidelines http//www.access-b
oard.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm
A Guide to Federal Disability Rights
Lawhttp//www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm
80
Additional information (2)
  • Microsoft accessibility tutorials
  • http//www.microsoft.com/enable/training/default.a
    spx

Americans with Disabilities Acthttp//www.usdoj.
gov/crt/ada/pubs/ada.txt
A Guide to Federal Disability Rights
Lawhttp//www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm
81
Island Skill Gathering
http//www.isghawaii.com/
82
Kokua Program at UHM
http//www.hawaii.edu/kokua/
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