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Night vision technology


o Vacuum Tube Technology. o Full Moon Operation. ... ITT's advanced technology and processing enable us to give our customers products with outstanding sensitivity. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Night vision technology

Night vision technology
  • It allows one to see in the dark.
  • Originally developed for military use, has
    provided UNITED STATES with a strategic military
    advantage whose value can be measured in life's.
  • Night vision equipment has evolved from bulky
    optical instruments in lightweight goggles
    through the advancement of image intensification

Two different ways
  • IMAGE ENHANCEMENT This works by collecting the
    tiny amounts of light, including the lower
    portion of the infrared light spectrum, that are
    present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and
    amplifying it to the point that we can easily
    observe the image.

  • THERMAL IMAGING This technology operates by
    capturing the upper portion of the infrared light
    spectrum, which is emitted as heat by objects
    instead of simply reflected as light. Hotter
    objects, such as warm bodies, emit more of this
    light than cooler objects like trees or

  • Infrared light In order to understand night
    vision, it is important to understand something
    about light.
  • The amount of energy in a light wave is related
    to its wavelength Shorter wavelengths have
    higher energy. Of visible light, violet has the
    most energy, and red has the least. Just next to
    the visible light spectrum is the infrared

The basic compone-nts of a thermal-imaging system
Types of Thermal Imaging Devices
  • Un-cooled
  • Cryogenically cooled

It is quite easy to see
everything ...but
at night, you can see
during the day...
very little.

Thermal imaging lets you see again.
Image Enhancement-

Image-enhancement technology is what most people
think of when you talk about night vision. In
fact, image-enhancement systems are normally
called night-vision devices (NVDs). NVDs rely on
a special tube, called an image-intensifier tube,
to collect and amplify infrared and visible light.
How Image Enhancement Works
  • A conventional lens, called the objective lens,
    captures ambient light and
  • some near- infrared light.
  • The gathered light is sent to the
    image-intensifier tube. In most NVDs, the power
  • supply for the image-intensifier tube
    receives power from two N-Cell or two
  • "AA" batteries. The tube outputs a high
    voltage, about 5,000 volts, to the image-tube
  • The image-intensifier tube has a photocathode,
    which is used to convert the
  • photons of light energy into electrons.
  • As the electrons pass through the tube, similar
    electrons are released from atoms
  • in the tube, multiplying the original number
    of electrons by a factor of thousands
  • through the use of a micro channel plate
    (MCP) in the tube. An MCP is a tiny
  • glass disc that has millions of microscopic
    holes micro channels in it, made using
  • fiber-optic technology.

  • When the electrons from the photo cathode hit the
  • electrode of the MCP, they cause thousands
    of other
  • electrons to be released in each channel
    using a process
  • called cascaded secondary emission.
    Basically, the
  • original electrons collide with the side of
    the channel,
  • exciting atoms and causing other
  • electrons to be released.
  • An interesting fact is that the micro
  • channels in the MCP are created at a
    Night-vision images are known

  • for their eerie
    green tint.
  • slight angle (about a 5-degree to
  • 8-degree bias) to encourage electron
  • collisions and reduce both ion and
    direct-light feedback from the phosphors on the
    output side.
  • These phosphors create the green image on the
    screen that
  • has come to characterize night vision.

  • GENERATION 1 (Developed in 1960's)
  • o Vacuum Tube Technology
  • o Full Moon Operation
  • o Amplification 1,000
  • o Operating Life 2,000 Hours
  • GENERATION 2 (Developed in 1970's)
  • o First Micro channel Plate (MCP) Application
  • o One-Quarter Moon Operation
  • o Amplification 20,000
  • o Operating Life 2,500 Hours
  • GENERATION 2 (1970s)
  • o Development increased image tube bias voltage
    to improve gain.
  • o Additionally, a glass faceplate was added to
    improve resolution.
  • GENERATION 3 (Developed in 1990's)
  • o Improved MCP Photocathode
  • o Starlight Operation

Performance Attributes
  • Sensitivity, or photo response, is the image
    tube's ability to detect available light. It is
    usually measured in uA/lm," or microamperes per
    lumen. ITT's advanced technology and processing
    enable us to give our customers products with
    outstanding sensitivity.
  • Signal plays a key role in night vision
    performance. ITT's micro channel plate technology
    is unsurpassed in its ability to transfer a
    strong signal from input to output. Just as
    high-end stereo equipment gives you quality
    sound, ITT Night Vision gives you a quality
    output image without "noise.
  • Resolution is the third major consideration when
    purchasing night vision. This is the ability to
    resolve detail in your image. High-quality optics
    and the latest processing methods give ITT Night
    Vision the edge.
  • We are the world's leader for Gen 3 image
    intensified (amplified) night vision products for
    the U.S. military.

Technical Characteristics of Night Vision
  • Textures, Light and Dark
  • Depth Perception
  • Fog and Rain
  • Honeycomb
  • Black Spots

Night-vision Equipment
  • Scopes - Normally handheld or mounted
    on a weapon, scopes are monocular (one
  • Goggles - While goggles can be
    handheld, they are most often
    worn on the
    head. Goggles are binocular(two eye-pieces)
    and may have a single lens or stereo lens,
    depending on the
  • Cameras - Cameras with night-vision
    technology can send the image to a
    monitor for display or to a VCR
    for recording..

characteristic of Night Vision technology
  • Automatic Brightness Control (ABC)
  • Auto-Gated Power Supply
  • Black Spots
  • Binocular
  • Blooming
  • Bright-Source Protection (BSP) - High-Light
  • Bore sighting
  • C-Mount
  • COMSPEC (Commercial Specification)
  • Chicken Wire
  • Daylight Lens Cover
  • Daylight Training Filter
  • Diopter
  • Distortion

  • Equivalent Background Illumination (EBI)
  • Emission Point
  • Eye Relief
  • Field-of-View
  • Figure of Merit (FOM)
  • Fixed-Pattern Noise (FPN)
  • Footlambert (fL)
  • Gain
  • Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
  • Highlight Shutoff
  • Interpupillary Adjustment
  • Interpupillary Distance
  • IR Illuminator
  • IR Laser
  • I2 (Image Intensification)
  • IR (Infrared)
  • Ip/mm
  • Lumen

  • Monocular
  • Nato- Stanag
  • mA/W (Milliamps per Watt)
  • MCP (Microchannel Plate)
  • Near-Infrared
  • Photocathode
  • Photocathode Sensitivity
  • Resolution
  • Reticle (Reticle Pattern)
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
  • Scintillation
  • Screen
  • Stereoscopic Night Vision
  • System Gain
  • Variable Gain Control
  • Weaver Mounting System
  • Zeroing

  • Military
  • Law enforcement 
  • Hunting  
  • Wildlife observation  
  • Surveillance 
  • Security 
  • Navigation
  • Hidden-object detection
  • Entertainment

This soldier is using DARK invader
night vision goggles
  • Thank You