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Chapter 13 Speech Perception

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Chapter 13 Speech Perception * * * * * * * * * * * * * The instructor should refer back to the earlier discussion of mirror neurons in Chapter 10. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 13 Speech Perception


1
Chapter 13 Speech Perception
2
????
  • ??????????????????,??
  • ??????????(discrete),??????????
  • ??????????,??,????,????????

3
  • ??(Phonemes)
  • ?????????
  • ?????????????
  • ??????
  • Syllable? Phoneme?
  • ???????????
  • ??
  • 37?

4
  • ???(acoustic signal)
  • ??????????????
  • ????(articulators)
  • ?,?,??,??,??(soft palate)

5
  • ???????
  • ??
  • ???????????????
  • ????????????,??????????
  • ????????????
  • Formants
  • Peak frequencies
  • 1st formant, 2nd formant etc. (low high freq.)

6
  • Sound spectrogram
  • /ae/s formants 500, 1700, 2500Hz

13.3
7
  • ??
  • ??????????
  • eg., /d/ vs. /f/
  • Formant transition
  • Formant??????????,?????
  • e.g., T2, T3?/r/??

8
?????????
  • ????(the segmentation problem)
  • ???????????????????????
  • ?spectrogram????????,?????????????????
  • Visual scene ?objects
  • ????????????

9
(No Transcript)
10
  • ????(the variability problem)
  • ??????????????( context)??
  • /i/ - 1st formant200Hz, 2nd formant2600Hz /u/ -
    1st formant200Hz, 2nd formant600Hz
  • But see the formant transition for /d/ differs
    between /di/ and /du/

11
  • /i/ - 1st formant200Hz, 2nd formant2600Hz /u/ -
    1st formant200Hz, 2nd formant600Hz
  • But see the formant transition for /d/ differs
    between /di/ and /du/

12
  • Coarticulation
  • ??????????????????????
  • Eg., boat vs. bat
  • ????coarticulation,?????????????
  • ?????
  • ???
  • ??,??,??
  • This was a best buy --- bes vs. best Did you
    go to the store? --- dijoo vs. did you

13
13.7
14
????????????
  • ??invariant acoustic cues
  • ??????????????????????????????????
  • Short-term spectrum

15
  • running spectral display ????short-term spectrum
  • Invariant acoustic cues in running spectral
    display
  • eg., continuing low-frequency peaks?????? /da/?,?
    /pi/??
  • ???????????invariant cues

16
  • ????(categorical perception)
  • ?????????????,?????????????
  • VOT (voice onset time)
  • ????????????????

17
  • ????VOT,??????????
  • Phonetic boundary-?????????VOT

18
  • ??????????(constancy)???
  • ?????????VOT ??phonetic boundary ???,?????????
  • ???????????????????

19
  • ????????(multimodal)??
  • McGurk effect (?????????)http//www.infectiousvide
    os.com/index.php?pshowvidaplayvidsid1419crh
    otplay
  • Lipreading ?????(??)??????????
  • Silent lipreading vs. static condition Ss watch
    silent video of a speakers lip move and repeat
    the number in their minds vs. watch static face
    and repeat the number one in their minds

20
Perceiving Words in Sentences
  • Miller and Isard
  • Shadowing repeating aloud the sentences through
    earphones
  • 89 accurate with normal sentences
  • 79 accurate for anomalous sentences
  • 56 accurate for ungrammatical word strings
  • Knowledge helps us understand the sentences even
    in noisy environment.

21
Perceiving Breaks between Words
  • The segmentation problem - there are no physical
    breaks in the continuous acoustic signal.
  • Segmentation is affected by context, meaning, and
    our knowledge of word structure.
  • Knowledge of word structure
  • Transitional probabilities the chance that one
    sound will follow another in a language
  • Statistical learning the process of learning
    transitional probabilities and other language
    characteristics
  • Infants as young as eight months show statistical
    learning.

22
  • Learning phase
  • 4 nonsense words (bidaku, padoti, golabu,
    tupiro) form 2 minutes string of words in random
    order.
  • Transitional probabilities
  • Syllables within a word
  • bidaku da bi 100
  • Syllables between words
  • ku (bidaku) pa (padoti) 33
  • tu (tupiro) 33
  • go (golabu) 33
  • Testing phase
  • Whole-words
  • Part-words the beginning and ends of two words
  • Ex. tibida padoti bidaku
  • Part-words as new stimuli in testing phase

23
?????????
24
  • Meaning and segmentation
  • Segmentation ?????????????? Anna Mary Candy
    Lights Since Imp Pulp Lay Things vs. An American
    delights in simple playthings
  • Big girl vs. big Earl
  • How to recognize speech? vs. How to wreck a nice
    beach

25
  • ???????,???????,???????,??????? ??????????????????
    ????????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????
    ????? (??? vs. ??)

26
  • ???
  • ?????,????, ?????, ??????, ???,?????
  • ???????,???????????????????????

27
  • Meaning and phoneme perception
  • Judge which word starts with /b/ 631 ms for
    nonwords and 580 ms for real words
  • The phonemic restoration effect The state
    governors met with their respective legislatures
    convening in the capital city /s/ is replaced by
    a cough
  • Ss could not identify where the cough is nor
    could they identify that /s/ was missing Warren
    (1970)

28
  • The phonemic restoration effect is affected by
  • Whether the word is a real word
  • Whether the masking sound is similar to the
    missing phoneme

29
  • Meaning and word perception
  • Shadowing accuracies were 89 for normal
    sentences (Gadgets simply work around the
    house)79 for anomalous (Gadgets kill passengers
    from the eyes) sentences 56 for ungrammatical
    strings (Between gadgets highways passengers the
    steal) They were 63, 22 and 3 under noise
    Miller Isard (1963)
  • ????????,???????????????,????

30
  • Speaker characteristics
  • Indexical characteristcs
  • ??,??,??,??,??(??)
  • eg., yeah, right
  • Speaker identity affects recognition accuracy

31
Physiology of speech perception
  • ?????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????speech area ??????????????

32
  • ????
  • Brocas area (frontal lobe)
  • Speaking
  • Wernickes area (temporal lobe)
  • Understanding speech
  • Aphasia
  • Damage in Brocas and Wernickes area results in
    aphasia
  • Wernickes aphasia
  • Cannot comprehend speech
  • Produce word salads
  • A problem similar to the inability to perceive
    and produce phonemes foreign to the language

33
  • Brain damage having trouble in discriminating
    syllables but having ability to understand words.
  • A voice area in the STS activated more by human
    voices than other sounds.
  • Dual stream model of speech perception
  • Ventral stream for recognizing speech
  • Dorsal stream linking the acoustic signal to
    movements for producing speech

34
Motor Theory of Speech Perception
  • Motor mechanisms responsible for producing sounds
    activate mechanisms for perceiving sound.
  • monkeys have audiovisual mirror neurons.
  • Hearing the sound of breaking a peanut

35
Speech perception?speech production???
Fig. 13-18, p. 299
36
Is speech perception special?
  • Does speech perception differ from the perception
    of other auditory stimuli?
  • Duplex perception
  • (??)?????
  • /da/ ? speech mode chirp ? auditory
    mode
  • ?3rd formant transition??????/da/,???????duplex
    perception ????????????

37
  • ????????????????duplex perception
  • ???
  • ????? ?????
  • ???????????????

38
?? vs. ????
  • Phoneme perception
  • 6MO
  • ???????????? /r/ /l/
  • 12Mo
  • ????????,??????????
  • Also the case for babbling
  • Adults
  • ??-categorical perception
  • ??-continuous

39
(No Transcript)
40
subvocal speech recognition
  • http//www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/news/releases/200
    4/subvocal/subvocal.html
  • NASA Ames Research Center

41
  • silently spelled out NASA
  • then submitted it to a Web search engine
  • electronically numbered the Web pages that came
    up as search results
  • used the numbers again to choose Web pages to
    examine
  • we could browse the Web without touching a
    keyboard

42
??????
  • Trichromatic theory?opponent process theory
    ??????????????
  • ??Muller-Lyer illusion????
  • Corollary discharge theory??????????
  • J.J.Gibson?????ecological approach?
  • Bekesy???????????????
  • ??categorical perception??????????
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