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Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther


Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther Forerunners of the Reformation: Wycliffe & Hus. Luther film (questions). Luther s Christian Liberty. Luther s Catechism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther

Protestant Reformation Martin Luther
  1. Forerunners of the Reformation Wycliffe Hus.
  2. Luther film (questions).
  3. Luthers Christian Liberty.

Luthers Catechism
John Wycliffe (1330-1384)
  • English philosopher, theologian reformer
  • Criticized the corruption of the church
  • Advocated translation of the Bible into English
  • Maintained that the Bible was the sole criterion
    of doctrine
  • Attempted to limit the authority of the pope
  • Attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation
  • Condemned by the council of Constance in 1415

Jan Hus (1372-1415)
  • Bohemian reformer
  • influenced by Wycliffes ideas about the
    authority of scripture
  • protested against the sale of indulgencies
  • burned at the stake in 1415

Hus at the council of Constance
Passing on the Flame of the Reformation
Factors in favor of the Reformation in 16th c.
  • Duke Frederick the Wise of Saxony (left)
    protected Luther. Printing press (right) made
    wide and fast dissemination of Reformations
    ideas possible.

Luther Film questions
  1. How did Luther view God initially?
  2. How and why did his view of God change?
  3. What are indulgencies and why was he opposed to
  4. What did Luther declare at the Leipzig debate?
  5. What was the Popes response?
  6. Why did Luther refuse to retract what he said at
    the Diet of Worms?

Johann Tetzel, mighty preacher of indulgencies
  • The last line of this woodcut reads as soon as
    the gold in the basin rings, right then the soul
    to heaven springs.

Reformation woodcut
Martin Luther (1483-1546).
  • German Reformer
  • Protested against the sale of indulgencies in his
    95 Theses
  • Advocated the principle of sola scriptura
  • Salvation is by grace alone through faith alone
  • Criticized the doctrine of transubstantiation

Luther at the Diet of Worms (1521)
Christian Liberty (seminar questions)
  • Identify two propositions concerning the freedom
    and bondage of human person (p. 2) Where do they
    come from?
  • Compare 1 Cor 919 For though I am free with
    respect to all, I have made myself a slave to
    all, so that I might win more of them.

Christian Liberty questions (contd)
  1. On p. 3 Luther makes a distinction between the
    inner and the outer man. How do you understand
    this distinction?
  2. Acc. to Luther, what things are not necessary for
    Christian life? (p. 4-5)
  3. What is the only thing that is necessary? (p. 5)
  4. The Word is received by faith. What does it mean
    to have faith? (p. 8-9)
  5. What is the main function of the OT commandments?
    (p. 11-12)
  6. What are the powers or benefits of faith? (pp.
  7. What is the function of works? (p. 33-39)
  8. What is the relationship between works and
    character? (p. 39-42)

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Swiss Reformer
  • Preacher in Zurich
  • Agreed with Luther on authority of scripture,
    church councils could make mistakes, married
  • Disagreed with Luther on the doctrine of the
  • Iconoclasm
  • Congregationalism
  • Influence on Disciples of Christ, Baptists, and

John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Came from France
  • Settled in Geneva
  • Doctrine of election and double predestination
  • Presbyterians in the US

The Radical Reformation
  • Voluntarist Principle
  • Believers Baptism
  • Restorationism
  • Strict Moral Code
  • Generally persecuted in Europe
  • Anabaptists, Amish, Mennonites

Catholic Protestant lands, 16th c.