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Psychological Foundation

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Psychological Foundation Foundation of Curriculum Psychology How do we learn (and think)? Why do students respond to teaching? And why do they respond differently? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Foundation


1
Psychological Foundation
  • Foundation of Curriculum

2
Psychology
  • How do we learn (and think)?
  • Why do students respond to teaching?
  • And why do they respond differently?
  • Curriculum
  • Teaching and Learning are Interrelated
  • Curriculum and psychology

3
Psychology and Curriculum
  • Psychology - curriculum
  • Basis of understanding John Dewey
  • a screen Ralp Tyler
  • Modes of thinking Jerome Bruner
  • Unifying elements of the learning process. It
    forms the basis for the methods, materials, and
    activity of learning serves for many curriculum
    decision (p. 100)

4
Major Theories of Learning
  • Behaviorism stimulus and reinforces
  • Cognitivism mental operation
  • Humanistic psychology whole child (social,
    psychology, and cognitive development)

5
Behaviorism
  • Connectionism (Thorndike)
  • Theory
  • Laws of learning (learning connection)
  • Law of readiness, law of exercise, law of effect
  • Specific stimuli and specific responses
  • Influences
  • Tyler generalized view of learning
  • Bobbitt and Charters Specific Habits to be
    acquired
  • Taba problem-solving and inquiry-discovery
  • Bruner Learning how to learn

6
Behaviorism
  • Classical Conditioning (Pavlov, Watson)
  • Theory
  • Stimuli association (Bell and food)
  • Key to learning
  • Condition the child in early years of life to
    train them what you want them to be

7
Behaviorism
  • Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
  • Theory
  • Elicited responses definite stimulus
  • Emitted responses unrelated identifiable
    stimulus
  • Key to learning
  • Operant behavior role of stimuli is less
    definite (Emitted)
  • Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)

8
Behaviorism
  • Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
  • Theory
  • Elicited responses definite stimulus
  • Emitted responses unrelated identifiable
    stimulus
  • Key to learning
  • Operant behavior role of stimuli is less
    definite (Emitted)
  • Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)
  • Lead to acquisition of new operants Behavior
    modification

9
Behaviorism
  • Observational Learning and Modeling (Bandura)
  • Theory
  • People learn through observation and modeling
  • Key to learning
  • Through modeling, learner can learn how to
    perform at sophisticated levels of performance

10
Behaviorism
  • Hierarchical Learning (Gagné)
  • Theory
  • The behaviors are based on prerequisite
    conditions.
  • 8 types of learning Signal learning, stimulus
    response, motor chains, verbal association,
    multiple discrimination, concepts, rules, and
    problem solving
  • Key to learning
  • Cummulative process of learning
  • Learning outcomes can be measured

11
Behaviorism and Curriculum
  • Curriculum should be organized so students
    experience success in master the subject matter.
  • Behaviorist are very prescriptive and diagnostic
    in their approach.
  • Rely on step-by-step structured methods for
    learning.
  • Behaviorism in curriculum includes careful
    analyzing and sequencing of the learners needs
    and behaviors.

12
Cognitivism
  • Theories of Jean Piaget
  • Describes cognitive development in terms of
    stages from birth to maturity
  • Sensorimotor stage (0-2), preoperational stage
    (2-7), concrete operations stage (7-11) and
    formal operations (11 onwards)
  • Key to learning
  • Assimilation (incorporation of new experience),
    accommodation (learning modification and
    adaptation) and equilibration (balance between
    previous and later learning)

13
Cognitivism
  • Influence
  • Tylers method - 1. Continuity Vertical
    curriculum, 2. Sequence Spiral curriculum (past
    experience builds upon the preceding one), 3.
    Integration Horizontal curriculum
  • Taba Curriculum strategies for productive
    learning (Based on assimilation, accomodation and
    equilibration)
  • Bruner Acquisition, Transformation, and
    Evaluation
  • Kholberg Preconventional (no sense of right or
    wrong), Conventional (concerned about what people
    think), Postconventional (morality is based on
    what other people feel

14
Cognitivism
  • Theory of Lev Vygotsky
  • Cultural transmission and development
  • Children could, as a result of their interaction
    with society, actually perform certain cognitive
    actions prior to arriving at developmental stage
  • Learning precedes development
  • Sociocultural development theory
  • Key to Learning
  • Pedagogy creates learning processes that lead to
    development
  • Child is an active agent in his or her
    educational process

15
Cognitivism
  • Thinking and Learning theories
  • Gardners multiple intelligences.
  • Learning styles Myth???
  • Golemans emotional intelligence. Emotion
    contain the power to affect action.

16
Cognitivism
  • Constructivism (Vygotsky)
  • Individual as the active person in the process of
    thinking, learning and coming to know
  • Learner is the key player
  • Key to learning
  • The learner constructs understanding from the
    inside, not from an external source.
  • Learners must make knowledge personally relevant
  • Individual must construct own knowledge- make
    meaning

17
Cognitivism
  • Other Problem Solving and Thinking Theories
  • Reflective thinking (Dewey)
  • Critical thinking (Ennis, Lipman and Sternberg)
  • Creative thinking (Fromm, Sternberg, Picasso,
    Dylan)
  • Intuitive thinking (Bruner)
  • Discover Learning (Phenix, Bruner, Taba)

18
Cognitivism and Curriculum
  • Why use cognitivism in curriculum making?
  • Cognitive approach constitutes a logical method
    for organizing and interpreting learning
  • Rooted in the tradition of subject matter
  • Educators been trained in cognitive approaches
  • Schools are the place for cognitive learning.
    Students should not afraid to ask, not afraid of
    being wrong, not afraid of not please teacher,
    and not afraid of taking risk and playing with
    ideas.

19
Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology
  • Gestalt Theory (Gestalt)
  • Learning is explained in terms of wholeness of
    the problem
  • Human beings do not respond to isolated stimuli
    but to an organization or patter of stimuli.
  • Key to learning
  • Learning is complex and abstract
  • Learner analyzes the problem, discriminates
    between essential and nonessential data, and
    perceive relationships.
  • Learners will perceive something in relation to
    the whole. What/how they perceive its related to
    their previous experiences.

20
Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology
  • Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow)
  • Classic theory of human needs.
  • A child whose basic needs are not met will not be
    interested in acquiring knowledge of the world
  • Put importance in human emotions, based on love
    and trust
  • Key to learning
  • Produce a healthy and happy learner who can
    accomplish, grow and actualize his or her human
    self.

21
Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology
  • Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning (Rogers)
  • Established counseling procedures and methods for
    facilitating learning.
  • Childrens perceptions, which are highly
    individualistic, influence their learning and
    behaviour in class.
  • Key to learning
  • Curriculum concerns with process, not product
    personal needs, not subject matter, psychological
    meaning, not cognitive scores.

22
Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology and Curriculum
  • Motivation and Achievement
  • Self esteem and self concept must be recognized
    as essential factors
  • Affective needs are more important than cognitive
    needs
  • Support and nurture
  • The Concept of Freedom
  • Freedom permits the learners to probe, explore
    and deepen understanding
  • Enhance learning opportunities and alternatives
  • In search of Curriculum
  • Leaners draw on experiences, subject matter, and
    intellectual skills to attain full potential
  • Affection is measured through testimonials
  • Curriculum that enhance the self-actualizing and
    self-determining learning process

23
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