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Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR


Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR US policy toward world alternates between isolation and assertion of global mission – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR

Chapter 21 Cold War and New NationsCold War,
1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • US policy toward world alternates between
    isolation and assertion of global mission
  • US established Pax Americana after WWII
  • Soviet Union had similar sense of mission tied to
    belief in spreading communism
  • Third Socialist International (Comintern)
  • Survival in World War II added prestige
  • Post war agreements try to bridge this gap

Cold War, 1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • Iron Curtain reality emerges in late 1940s
  • Each sees others ideals as cover for aggression
  • Berlin Blockade (1948)
  • Nuclear weaponry a major element in war
  • Space race adds rivalry
  • Fall of China adds fear to the US.
  • 1/4 of world becomes communist over night

Cold War, 1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • The Korean War, 1950-53
  • North Korea invaded South Korea (June, 1950)
  • North attack almost succeeded
  • Death toll high for all parties
  • Outcomes
  • War added to American sense of threat
  • Japan experienced prosperity as supplier of
  • US and Europe split over war aims
  • Started trend of brinksmanship in diplomacy

Cold War, 1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • The Soviet Union After Stalin
  • Nikita Khrushchev, 1953-64
  • Denounced Stalinist policies
  • Openness led to novels of criticism of Russia
  • Revelation of gulags by Solzhenitzyn
  • Continued attempts to catch up with the West
  • Diplomatically aggressive with harsh control of
    eastern Europe and support for Castro

Cold War, 1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • The Soviet Union After Stalin cont.
  • Leonid Brezhnev, 1964-82
  • Brezhnev Doctrine is response to Prague Spring
  • Doctrine claims right to intervene in satellite
    nations to prevent counter-revolution
  • Unrest in Poland surrounding Solidarity movement
    and election of Pole as Roman Catholic Pope leads
    to creation of martial law
  • Involvement in Afghanistan becomes Russias

Cold War, 1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • The American Military-Industrial Complex
  • President Eisenhower warned of the threat of the
    military-industrial complex to peace in 1961
  • Cold War involved client states proxy wars
  • Economic assistance was another aspect of the
    effort to win friends with monetary assistance
  • Some nations drew assistance from both sides

Cold War, 1945-89 USA vs. USSR
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Fidel Castro took control of Cuba in 1959
  • Initial success in social programs
  • Failed Bay of Pigs invasion moved Cuba toward the
    Soviet Union
  • Russian nuclear missiles placed in Cuba to
    protect it from invasion
  • Nuclear war averted in Missile Crisis (1962)

Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Decolonization a product of Depression and world
    wars, 1914-45
  • West no longer a clearly superior culture
  • World Wars emphasized self government
  • US USSR promoted independence
  • British French Middle East mandates were first
    to gain freedom

Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Independence of India (1947)
  • Israeli statehood (1948)
  • China to communists (1949)
  • Independence of Indonesia (1949)
  • War in Vietnam when France is reluctant to
  • French withdraw from Vietnam in 1954

Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Africa
  • Ghana 1st black African nation to gain freedom
  • Egypt
  • Coup claims control of Suez Canal (1956)
  • Joint British-French attack to reverse this
  • US demands attack end
  • Nasser brings in Soviet advisors to build dam
  • Sadat (1970) expels Russians from Egypt

Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Congo
  • Cruel Belgian rule ends with elections in 1957
    and move toward independence
  • Lumumba elected Prime Minister in 1960 but army
    overthrows his government
  • Three-sided Civil War ends with victory for
    Joseph Mobutu (dictator Mobutu Sese Seko)
  • War showed dilemma of resource rich area in midst
    of Cold War

Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Algeria
  • Independence through Civil War
  • Algeria legally an integral part of France
  • Algerians of European origin control wealth
  • War from mid-1950s led by NLN
  • DeGaulle and new French constitution open the
    door to Algerian independence
  • Oil revenues finance economic and educational

Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Mozambique, Angola, Guinea
  • Portugal resists loss of colonial power
  • Calls these colonies overseas provinces)
  • Revolts in all three by 1961
  • Military coup in Portugal creates government that
    grants independence to these colonies
  • Even among colonizers, colonialism no longer
    considered an appropriate relationship

Emergence of the Third World
  • Term emerged as third alternative in Cold War
    conflict between US USSR
  • Made collective entry into international affairs
    at Bandung conference (1955)
  • 1st presentation of non-Western views
  • Non-aligned, these countries form regional
    organizations to promote their interests
  • Include OPEC, OAU, OAS

Emergence of the Third World
  • Client States and Proxy Wars
  • US USSR seek client state relations with
    resource-rich Third World nations
  • Warfare for control of resources by Cold War
    nations involved proxy wars
  • Communist takeover of China saw US refuse
    diplomatic recognition of the nation, outbreak of
    Korean War, and deterioration of Chinas
    relationship with Russia

Emergence of the Third World
  • Latin America
  • Nicaragua
  • US involvement from support of 1909 coup and
    continuous stationing of troops to 1933
  • Guerilla war led by Sandino ended in 1934 with
    start of Somoza government
  • Sandinista success in 1979 gains support of
    Carter administration but Pres. Reagan pursues
    overthrow Nicaraguan government with covert
  • 1990 sees end of war

Emergence of the Third World
  • Latin America cont.
  • Guatemala
  • U.S. sponsors ouster of President Arbenz
  • Had confiscated land from United Fruit Company
    with promise of compensation, built a highway to
    break the fruit companys monopoly on
    transportation and built a hydroelectric plant
    for energy independence
  • Assassination of US sponsored successor leads to
    decades of civil war
  • US apology for role in banana republic in 1999

Emergence of the Third World
  • Latin America cont.
  • Panama
  • Established by coup in 1903 with US support in
    return for right to build Panama Canal
  • Chile
  • Socialist Salvador Allende elected leader (1970)
  • Land reform and nationalization of copper
  • Allende overthrown and killed with CIA support
  • Pinochet government is successor by force until

Emergence of the Third World
  • Iran
  • US/Britain oppose Iranian control of oil (1951)
  • Placed compliant Shah of Iran fully in charge
  • Forced modernization plan alienates many
  • Religious opposition led by Ayatollah Khomeni
  • Fall of Shah placed militant Shiites in power
  • Seizure of 52 Americans at embassy
  • Numerous actions against neighboring states
  • Restrictions on women

  • Terrorism is tactic of the weak
  • Is used by some states as well as outsider
  • Israel is a frequent target of terror
  • Can boomerang in the sense that those attacked
    can resolve to resist terror demands

In Pursuit of Peace
  • Mutually Assured Destruction prevented attacks
  • United Nations Growth New Missions
  • Forum for nations in General Assembly
  • Peacekeeping a major role for UN
  • Promotion of general welfare around the world
  • Work to improve global economy

In Pursuit of Peace
  • Demographics
  • Fear of population bomb reduced by declining
    birth rates and decrease in death rates
  • Green Revolution added to food supply
  • Fear that revolution would make the rich richer
  • Population growth uneven--growing population in
    cities produces slums of hope and slums of

In Pursuit of Peace
  • Economic Growth
  • Western Europe
  • Post-war economic miracles
  • European Coal and Steel Community (1952)
  • European Economic Community (1957)
  • Euratom
  • Common Agricultural Policy (1962)
  • Unified western European economy (1965)
  • West German economy fastest growing in Europe

In Pursuit of Peace
  • Economic Growth cont.
  • Japan
  • US occupation laid basis for Japanese recovery
  • Re-entry to family of nations in three stages
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation
  • Bullet train
  • Hosted Summer Olympics (1964)
  • Japans policy combined free enterprise
  • 1973 OPEC oil embargo shocked world economy
  • Japanese survival tied to conservation measures

In Pursuit of Peace
  • International Organization
  • Bretton Woods Agreements (1944) produced
  • International Monetary Fund
  • World Bank
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  • OPEC (1960)
  • Used economic clout to promote oil embargo to
    reduce willingness of US to support Israel

NGOs and Transnationals
  • Term Non-governmental organizations does not
    usually include private businesses
  • Can be national or transnational in scope
  • Have a wide variety of purposes
  • World Wildlife fund
  • Amnesty International
  • Oxfam
  • Solidarity

Legacies of the Cold War
  • Twentieth century has developed healthy
    skepticism about past changes
  • Winners include newly freed people
  • Losers are those who continue to live in poverty
  • Postwar years favored optimists over pessimists