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Native American and Colonial Period

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Title: Native American and Colonial Period


1
Native American and Colonial Period
  • Early American Literature

2
Native American Literature
  • The earliest American Literature was composed by
    Native Americans.
  • Much of the literature was passed down orally.
  • Native American tales were often mythological
    and/or folktales.

3
Native American Literature
  • The Native Americans spoke hundreds of languages
    and lived in incredibly diverse societies with
    varied mythological beliefs. Despite their
    differences, their cultures and literary
    traditions had the following common elements

4
Characteristics of Native American Literature
  • they believed in the power of words and they
    relied on memory, rather than writing to preserve
    their texts
  • in this regard, these stories are not defined by
    the boundaries of written language there are no
    ending pages and they are not contained within a
    limited, concrete, physical source.
  • these stories are open to personal interpretation
  • these stories belong to the collective people/the
    tribe
  • the oral tradition was a performance and is
    offered to the audience as dramatic events in
    time
  • yet, the audience is not passive and has a role
    in bringing out the story
  • the storyteller is very important to culture and
    is one of the most honored and respected members
    of the tribe/society
  • there is no known original author

5
Exploration Literature
  • Once explorers began to travel to the New World,
    they chronicled their experiences in the form of
    diaries and letters home.
  • Often, the diaries and letters were propaganda
    designed to increase settlers interest in the
    land.

6
The Puritans
  • The term Puritan was applied to two groups of
    people who believed that
  • 1) They should separate themselves from the
    corrupt Church of England or
  • 2) The Church of England needed reform

7
Puritan Beliefs
  • Predestination
  • Covenant of Works
  • Covenant of Grace
  • Covenant of Redemption

8
Predestination
  • God has chosen certain few of the elect for
    salvation.
  • Unlike other Christians, they believed faith
    alone was not enough.
  • Whether or not you were saved could be
    determined by your behaviorif you acted in a
    holy manner, it was assumed you were saved.

9
Covenant of Works
  • God promised Adam and his progeny eternal life if
    they obeyed moral law.
  • Adam broke this covenant.
  • Punishment for sins is considered a proper
    response to disobedience.
  • Therefore, it was up to them to uphold a strict
    moral code in order to have salvation.

10
Covenant of Grace
  • Once Adam broke the Covenant with God, He created
    a new covenant with Abraham.
  • Puritans believed that eternal life will reward
    all who are saved.

11
Covenant of Redemption
  • Puritans believed that Jesus freely offered
    himself as a sacrifice on behalf of all people.

12
Lets Review
  • Puritans believed
  • They were elected to go to heaven.
  • Bad deeds must be punished.
  • Heaven awaits all who
  • deserve it.
  • Jesus sacrifice made
  • them able to get into heaven.

13
What the Puritans Did
  • Established settlements in Massachusetts,
    including Plymouth and Boston.
  • Influenced Americas system of laws and morals.
  • Wrote in plain stylewriting unadorned with
    figurative language.

14
What about the Pilgrims?
  • The Puritans ARE the Pilgrims!
  • The Puritans left England because they disagreed
    with the church and were treated badly.
  • They went to America for religious freedom. They
    felt like God had meant for them to create a
    perfect society there.
  • People who travel for religious freedom or
    worship are called pilgrims.

15
Pilgrim Style
  • Pilgrims wore simple clothes. They were modest
    and focused on religious aspects of life rather
    than vanity.
  • They were also in a new world that was a very
    difficult place to live. They worried more about
    food and survival than style!

16
Salem Witch Trials
  • In 1692, Salem, MA. experienced the witchcraft
    hysteria, which had been plaguing Europe for some
    time.
  • Before the Salem Witch Trials ended, 185 people
    would be accused of the sin of witchcraft.
  • Of those accused, 20 were executed.
  • Arthur Miller wrote an account of the trials
    called The Crucible.

17
Puritan Literature
  • Histories William Bradfords Of Plymouth
    Plantation
  • Poetry Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor
  • Sermons Jonathan Edwards
  • Biographies Mary Rowlandsons kidnapping account
  • Tracts Increase Mather, Cotton Mather

18
The Scarlet Letter
  • Written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, published in
    1850.
  • Hawthorne descended from Salem Witch Trials judge
    John Hathorne.
  • A sense of guilt over the actions of his
    ancestors compelled him to write many times on
    Puritan themes.
  • The Scarlet Letter is set in the mid-1600s,
    during the Puritan era in Boston.
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