Pond Maintenance Principles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Pond Maintenance Principles PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 46c83-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Pond Maintenance Principles

Description:

Draw Down. Aeration. Biological Control. triploid grass carp ... sterile fish must be stocked. permit required (1 to 15 per acre) koi, carp not recommended ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:524
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 73
Provided by: resource3
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Pond Maintenance Principles


1
Pond Maintenance Principles
  • Aquatic Plants and Algae
  • Water Quality
  • Fisheries
  • Miscellaneous Problems
  • Structural Maintenance

2
Aquatic Plants and Algae
3
Aquatic Plant and Algae Control
  • Physical/Mechanical Control
  • Biological Control
  • Chemical Control

4
Physical/Mechanical Control
  • frequently overlooked!
  • cutting, raking, mowing, digging, pulling
  • most effective for small quantities near shore
  • usually need to repeat several times per year
  • need to harvest plants and algae if possible
  • mechanical harvesters for larger lakes ()
  • drawdown
  • best during freezing temperatures
  • aeration
  • most effective on algae

5
Draw Down
6
Aeration
7
Biological Control
  • triploid grass carp (white amur)
  • prefer submerged aquatic plants
  • pondweeds, naiads, elodea, coontail, muskgrass
  • little control of algae and other plants
  • thrive in warm water (68F)
  • can reach 25 pounds or more
  • may cause discoloration of water by waste
  • sterile fish must be stocked
  • permit required (1 to 15 per acre)
  • koi, carp not recommended

8
Grass Carp
9
Chemical Control
  • widely used (and abused!!)
  • must carefully calculate pond area or volume
  • identify target plant/algae
  • select appropriate herbicide
  • obtain state permit
  • read and follow label carefully!
  • treat lt 50 of pond area or spot treat
  • start in shallowest part of pond
  • may cause fish kills in sensitive species

10
Chemical Control
11
For use in PA waters, a chemical must be
  • EPA registered as a pesticide
  • PA Dept. Agriculture listed
  • Labeled for aquatic use

12
Permit to Apply a Herbicide
  • joint PAFBC and DEP permit
  • name and location of water body
  • use of water
  • species of fish present
  • total and treated area of water
  • average depth of water body
  • name of plant (or fish) to be controlled
  • commercial and manufactures name of chemical
  • dosage of chemical to be applied (label)
  • number of treatments to be made in year
  • output of water body
  • required for private or public waters
  • effective for current calendar year

13
Chemical Control Identify Your Problem
  • Algae
  • Submerged Aquatic Plants
  • Emergent Plants
  • Floating Plants

14
Filamentous Algae
15
Chara
16
Algae Control
  • Copper Compounds
  • very effective at 0.25 to 0.5 ppm
  • disrupts cell membrane
  • more toxic in soft and acidic water
  • may kill sensitive fish (trout, catfish, carp)
  • Dyes
  • block sunlight (blue/yellow dyes)
  • preventative
  • safe for fish but artificial appearance

17
Floating-leaf Pondweed
Curly-leaf Pondweed
Large-leaf Pondweed
Thin-leaf Pondweed
18
Coontail-top / watermilfoil - bottom
19
Elodea
20
Bladderwort
21
Submerged Plant Control
  • Hydrothol 191 (monopotassium endothall)
  • Aquathol-K (dipotassium endothall)
  • contact stops photosynthesis, cant eat fish-3
    days
  • Weedtrine-D (diquat dibromide)
  • Reward (diquat dibromide)
  • absorbed and stops photosynthesis, degrades fast
  • Sonar SRP (fluridone)
  • absorbed by leaves and roots, inhibits carotene
  • Komeen (elemental copper)
  • inhibits cell growth

22
Cattails
23
Phragmites
24
Purple Loosestrife
25
Emergent Plant Control
  • Rodeo (glyphosate)
  • moves through plant from contact to roots
  • eventually causes death of plant
  • Weedtrine (2,4-D)
  • plant cells divide rapidly exhausting food source
  • roots lose ability to take up nutrients
  • death from several disturbances of plant

26
Spatterdock
27
Water Lily
28
Watermeal
Duckweed
29
Floating Plant Control
  • Rodeo (glyphosate)
  • moves through plant from contact to roots
  • eventually causes death of plant
  • AquaKleen/Aquacide/Navigate (2,4-D)
  • plant cells divide rapidly exhausting food source
  • roots lose ability to take up nutrients
  • death from several disturbances of plant
  • Sonar A.S. (fluridone)
  • absorbed by leaves and roots, inhibits carotene

30
Chemical Control - Summary
  • Algae
  • copper compounds or dyes
  • Submerged Aquatic Plants
  • endothall, diquat, fluridone, copper?
  • Emergent Plants
  • glyphosate, 2,4-D
  • Floating Plants
  • glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluridone

31
  • READ AND FOLLOW
  • THE
  • PRODUCT LABEL !!!!

32
Trade Name vs. Active Ingredient
  • 2,4-D
  • AquaKleen, Aquacide, Navigate, Weedtrine II
  • Glyphosate
  • Rodeo
  • Fluridone
  • Sonar, Sonar AS
  • Elemental Copper
  • Cutrine Plus, Earthtec, K-Tea, Lescocide-Plus
  • Diquat
  • Reward, Weedtrine

33
Pond Water Quality
34
Pond Water Quality
  • controlled by
  • source of water (spring, stream, surface runoff)
  • geology, soils
  • land-use and other nearby activities
  • water quality requirements depend on pond use
  • human or animal drinking water
  • swimming
  • fishing
  • aesthetics

35
Ponds for Drinking Water
  • not a common source of drinking water in PA
  • all ponds will require treatment for drinking
  • coliform bacteria occur in all ponds
  • from soil, septic system, animal waste, wildlife
  • some bacteria may cause gastrointestinal
    illnesses
  • disinfection is necessary

36
Median Coliform Bacteria in Ponds
(Hill et al. 1962)
37
How Common are the Problems?
(Hill et al. 1962)
unless treated with copper herbicides
38
Ponds for Drinking Water
  • protozoans
  • giardia, cryptosporidium
  • nitrate
  • from fertilizers, manure, septic systems
  • drinking water standard 10 mg/L as NO3-N
  • pesticides
  • highest during or shortly after application due
    to drift or surface runoff
  • blue green algae
  • treat with algacide but follow label directions

39
Aesthetic Drinking Water Problems
  • odor and taste
  • usually due to decay of organic material
  • muddy water
  • find source, chemical additions, or filtration
  • metals (iron, manganese)
  • pH
  • recommend 6.5 to 8.5 (low more common than high)
  • low pH may cause corrosive water
  • hardness
  • calcium and magnesium (especially high pH ponds)

40
Ponds for Animal Watering
  • similar problems but less stringent standards
  • nitrate-N should be less than 100 mg/L
  • fecal coliform bacteria
  • lt10 per 100 ml for adults, absent for calves
  • blue-green algae - toxins
  • pH should be 5.1 to 9.0 for dairy cows
  • watch use of aquatic herbicides (copper)
  • iron and manganese - taste problem
  • sulfate lt 250 mg/L (mining)

41
Pond Water Quality for Fish
  • temperature
  • all fish have temperature preferences and lethal
    thresholds
  • Difficult to control - match fish to temperature
    regime
  • used to determine fish spawning times
  • dissolved oxygen
  • normal 10-15 mg/L
  • warmwater fish like D.O. gt 3 mg/L
  • coldwater fish like D.O. gt 5 mg/L
  • depletion caused by decay of organic matter
  • most common cause of fish kills in ponds

42
Pond Water Quality for Fish
  • pH
  • can be treated with occasional chemical additions
  • warmwater fish (pH 6 to 9), coldwater (pH 5 to 9)
  • low pH may cause stunted growth of fish
  • aquatic herbicides
  • can be toxic to fish (especially young fish)
  • obtain a permit and read the label carefully
  • herbicide runoff
  • some very toxic to fish
  • especially high following first rain after
    application

43
Pond Water Quality for Swimming
  • coliform bacteria
  • 2000 total coliform bacteria per 100 ml of water
  • 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml
  • odor
  • turbidity
  • swimmers itch
  • free swimming parasite
  • controlled with copper sulfate

44
Water Quality for Aquatic Herbicides
  • hardness
  • affects dose of some chemicals
  • temperature
  • some labels recommend temperature
  • 60 to 75 F
  • can be used to predict fish spawning

45
Pond Water Quality for Aesthetics
  • odor
  • occurs in about 5 of ponds usually during summer
  • increases with depth water taken from
  • usually from anaerobic decay of plants, algae
  • muddy water
  • most common problem, especially in new ponds
  • other causes - muskrats, crayfish, fish,
    livestock, waterfowl, zooplankton and wind action
  • control - remove the source?
  • If control is not possible, chemicals may work
    (ground limestone, hydrated lime, gypsum, alum)

46
Water Testing Options
  • use DEP certified labs
  • drinking (human or animal)
  • coliform bacteria, pH, nitrate, hardness,
    pesticides?
  • swimming
  • fecal and total coliform bacteria
  • fishing
  • temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, pesticides?
  • aquatic herbicides
  • hardness, temperature

47
What Can You Do?
  • strictly limit activities on pond watershed
  • maintain vegetated buffer strip around pond
  • limit fertilizer, manure and pesticide use near
    pond
  • properly site and maintain septic systems
  • use diversion ditches and land grading to divert
    contaminated surface water
  • use aquatic herbicides with care
  • aeration may be helpful in some cases
  • water treatment works in some cases
  • get water tested

48
Water Quality - Summary
  • Use of water critical!
  • Temperature
  • affects spawning and provides clue of when newly
    hatched fish are present
  • vital for trout
  • important for use of chemicals (60F - 75F)
  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • critical for fish survival
  • normal 10-15 mg/L, fish require 3 to 5 mg/L
  • low DO - fish gulp at surface, snails/crayfish
    leave water

49
Water Quality - Summary
  • pH
  • less important than DO
  • optimum 6.5 to 8.5, fish survive in 5 to 9
  • low pH linked to stunted growth of fish
  • Nutrients
  • cause plant and algae growth
  • Hardness
  • influences effectiveness of herbicides
  • Agricultural Chemicals
  • drift or runoff of especially insecticides a
    problem
  • proper timing of spraying and buffer strips help

50
Nutrient Management
  • N and P cause increased plant and algae growth
  • Sources
  • runoff from barnyards, cropland, feedlots
  • sewage systems
  • managed turf (golf courses, developments)
  • Control (BMPs) - impact will not be immediate!
  • redirect runoff
  • reduce fertilizer use
  • buffer strips (tall grass or forests)
  • maintain on-lot septic systems

51
Nutrient Input
52
Pond Fisheries Management
53
Bass-Bluegill Ponds
  • most common and most successful option
  • thrive in warmer water (77 - 86 F)
  • dissolved oxygen gt 3 mg/L, pH 6 to 9
  • stocking (per acre)
  • 100 largemouth fingerlings (2 year old)
  • 400 bluegill fingerlings (1 year old)
  • stock in the fall
  • requires management!

54
I have lots of small bluegill and just a few
large bass
  • cause bass over-harvest, bluegill under-harvest
  • large bass were continually removed allowing more
    bluegill to survive which in turn eat bass eggs
    and fry until they become limited by food
  • remedy
  • encourage bluegill harvest and limit bass harvest
  • limit bass harvest to fish gt 15 inches
  • harvest 15 bluegill per bass (6 pounds bluegill
    per pound bass)
  • stock 50-100 bass fingerlings per year until
    better

55
Other Options
  • bass only
  • 150-200 fall fingerlings
  • add 8-10 adults bass in spring before spawn
  • great for lots of 9-12 inch bass
  • bass/shiner
  • summer stocking 100 bass, 400 golden shiners
  • faster bass growth, aquatic plants helpful
  • bass/catfish
  • 500 catfish, 1,000 fathead minnows in Feb-Mar
  • 100 bass fingerlings added in May-July

56
Other Fish Species
  • shiners - need to be continually stocked
  • perch - prolific, spawn before bass, ice fishing!
  • pike, muskie, walleye - not for ponds
  • channel catfish spawning and survival
    unpredictable
  • sunfish - lower winter survival, slower growing
  • bullhead catfish -prone to stunting and
    overcrowding, may muddy the water
  • crappie - some success in PA

57
Trout in Ponds
  • not well suited to most PA ponds
  • like cold water with dissolved oxygen gt 5 mg/L
    and pH of 5 to 9
  • cannot compete with warmwater fish
  • put and take option
  • stock catchable size trout in spring
  • fish them out before water warms (June)

58
Kinds of Trout
  • brook trout
  • like colder water (50-60F)
  • easier to catch, better eating?
  • rainbow trout
  • better fighting fish
  • moderately easy to catch
  • brown trout
  • can withstand warmer water
  • much harder to catch

59
Permanent Trout Ponds
  • need the right kind of pond
  • reliable source of cool water
  • shaded, 10 to 15 feet of depth
  • stock only trout!
  • stock 600 fall fingerlings or 2,000 spring
  • natural losses of nearly 100 in three years
  • stock fall fingerlings every two years
  • will not reproduce

60
Average Fish Growth in Ponds
61
Miscellaneous Topics
  • supplemental feeding
  • liming/fertilization
  • pond regulations
  • adding fish structure

62
Fish Kills in Ponds
  • oxygen depletion
  • most common cause
  • typically from decay of organic material
  • pesticides
  • runoff or drift from fields after rain
  • improper treatment with aquatic herbicide
  • cotton wool disease
  • occurs in spring around spawning time
  • soil bacteria infects bluegill, bullhead, crappie
  • winter kill
  • shallow ponds with persistent ice and snow cover

63
Other Miscellaneous Problems
64
Pond Leaks
  • Avoid with proper design and construction!
  • Sealing products
  • Bentonite (one pound/ft2)
  • disc into soil 3 or 4 inches, swells when wet
  • better for coarse textured soils
  • Sodium polyphosphate (0.05 lbs./ft2)
  • white granular form, mix to 8 then compact
  • breaks soil into fine particles
  • blanket of clay
  • 6 inches in depth and compact, refill pond quickly

65
Muskrats
  • build dens in banks 6-18 below surface
  • burrow extends upward into bank
  • may cause leaks and collapse in poorly designed
    ponds
  • riprapping shoreline with large gravel from one
    foot above to 3 feet below water surface
  • may be killed for property destruction in PA

66
Muddy Water
  • common especially in new ponds (exposed soil)
  • other reasons - muskrats, crayfish, fish,
    livestock, waterfowl, zooplankton, wind action,
    etc.
  • control - remove cause?
  • precipitating by chemical addition (per acre)
  • 1,000 lbs. ground agricultural limestone
  • 740 lbs. hydrated lime
  • 1,000 lbs. agricultural gypsum (not as good)
  • 250 lbs. aluminum sulfate (alum)
  • 2 lbs. copper sulfate (zooplankton)

67
Swimmers Itch
  • not common but occasionally found in PA
  • free-swimming parasite that burrows under skin
    and causes itch and rash
  • develops mostly in snails in pond
  • must control snails
  • redear sunfish (shellcrackers)
  • Copper sulfate at 4 mg/L will kill snails but
    also kills fish

68
Ducks and Geese
  • provide viewing pleasure
  • and control some plants
  • coliform bacteria from waste can be a problem for
    swimming
  • try to maintain lt2 ducks/geese per acre
  • eliminate if using for water supply
  • migrational stops generally not a problem

69
Leeches
  • flat, dark-colored, parasite
  • attach to swimmers, fish, birds
  • harmless but frightening and detract from
    swimming use
  • need 5 mg/L of copper sulfate treatment
  • this treatment will kill fish!
  • partial treatment (lt 20 of pond area) of
    swimming area best but temporary

70
Pond Structural Maintenance
71
Pond Maintenance
  • Conduct a routine inspection of the pond
  • Check dam structure
  • Ensure complete grass cover
  • Fix any erosion
  • Cut grass and keep weeds, brush, and trees from
    growing on the dam
  • Check for signs of minor leaks before they get
    big!
  • Remove floating debris
  • Check overflow inlet and outlet for debris
  • Check for and repair erosion on spillway
  • Inspect and repair any fences around pond
  • Maintain roads for vehicle access (fire)

72
Pond Construction
About PowerShow.com