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Zoology

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Zoology Introduction to http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html Zoology is the branch of life science that focuses on the structure, function, behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Zoology


1
  • Zoology

Introduction to
http//animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.h
tml
2
Zoology is the branch of life science that
focuses on the structure, function, behavior, and
evolution of animals
3
Some branches of zoology
Ethology study of animal behavior may
work in zoos, or study animals in the wild
Paleobiology- archaeological digs, Genetics-
improve animals for food, participate in
cloning experiments, etc Molecular or Cell
Biology -of animals Evolutionary biology- study
evolution Taxonomy- classify animals
4
Additional Fields of Zoology
  • Entomology- study of insects
  • Myrmecology - study of ants.
  • Herpetology- study of reptiles
  • Icthyology- study of fish.
  • Mammalogy -study of mammals
  • Primatology- primates - apes, monkeys.
  • Ornithology is the study of birds
  • Arachnology-arachnids (spiders ticks)
  • many more

5
Careers in Zoology
  • Require at least a Bachelor of Science in biology
    or a related field.
  • With a BS, you can get a job as a field or lab
    technician, where you'll be responsible for
    anything from animal care to habitat management
    to data collection.
  • To conduct your own research, you need at least a
    Master of Science degree or Ph.D. in biology or
    related science.
  • Just like any job, the pay generally increases
    with each additional degree, and with the amount
    of experience you have.

6
Some interesting animal facts-
7
Which animals live the longest?
http//www.michaeltuma.com/zoology/animal_informat
ion/animal_facts.html
  • Turtle species can live longer than 100 years-
    including sea turtles, alligator snapping
    turtles, box turtles, and a variety of large
    tortoises.
  • An alligator snapping turtle is probably the
    longest-lived. At least one has been found with
    an Indian arrowhead lodged in its shell,
    suggesting that the animal was alive before
    Europeans occupied the area.
  • Herpetologists say that some tortoises turtles
    could live at least 300 years, maybe even 500
    years!

8
What is the fastest animal? http//www.australianf
auna.com/peregrinefalcon.php
  • It would depend on the race. If there were a
    flying race, the Spine- tailed Swift would win
    (106mph).
  • If there were a running race, the Cheetah would
    win (70mph).
  • If a swimming race the
  • sailfish would win (20mph).
  • The Peregrine Falcon has
  • been reported to reach
  • speeds of up to 200 mph
  • during vertical dives

9
More interesting facts http//www.freakyanimals.c
om/facts002.shtml
  • Howler monkeys are the noisiest animals their
    calls can be heard over 2 miles away.
  • Ants don't sleep.
  • The black widow spider can devour as many as
    twenty 'mates' in a single day
  • Bird droppings are the chief export of Nauru, an
    island nation in the Western Pacific
  • Yak milk is pink in color
  • When snakes are born with two heads, they fight
    each other for food.

10
More interesting facts
  • A cow produces 200 times more gas a day than a
    person.
  • Most lipstick contains fish scales
  • cockroach will live nine days without its head,
    before it starves to death
  • The blood of mammals is red, the blood of insects
    is yellow, and of lobsters is blue.
  • Certain frogs can be frozen solid then thawed
    and continue living
  • Tapeworms range in size from about 0.04 inch to
    more than 50 feet in length
  • One in four animals is a beetle!

11
A few depressing facts
  • The animal responsible for the most human deaths
    world-wide is the mosquito.
  • Mosquitoes prefer children to adults, and blondes
    to brunettes
  • Each year, insects eat 1/3 of Earth's food crop
  • It is estimated that there are approximately
    10 quintillion (10,000,000,000,000,000,000)
    individual insects alive.
  • 95 of all the animal species on the earth are
    invertebrates like insects!

12
The animal kingdom is very diverse.
13
Consider the following
  • How do the following animals get food
  • sponge,
  • tapeworm,
  • earthworm,
  • snail,
  • starfish,
  • shark,
  • elephant
  • Which are carnivores? Herbivores? Parasites?

14
Major Animal Phyla
  • Invertebrate
  • Porifera (sponges)
  • Cnidaria (jellyfish ,coral)
  • Ctenophora (comb jellies)
  • Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
  • Nematoda (roundworms)
  • Annelida (segmented worms)- add to your sheet!!!
    (earthworms)
  • Rotifera (tiny aquatic free-living animals)
  • Mollusca (snails, clams, squid, Octopi)
  • Arthropoda
  • arachnids,
  • Crusteceans
  • myriapoda
  • Insects
  • Echinoderms starfish, sea stars. Sea urchins

15
Last phylum is Chordata
  • 2 invertebrate chordates
  • Lancelet
  • Tunicates
  • Rest of animals in Chordata are vertebrate classes

16
Vertebrate classes
  • -Hagfishes (Myxini)
  • -Lampreys (Cephalaspidomorphi)
  • -Sharks (Chondrichthyes)
  • -Ray-finned fishes
  • -Lobe-Finned Fishes
  • -Amphibians
  • -Reptiles
  • -Birds
  • -Mammals
  • (orders of mammals)
  • -Monotremes
  • -Marsupials
  • -Placental mammals

17
Some things to know about animals
  • 4 important Characteristics of animals
  • 3 Types of body symmetry (asymmetrical, radial,
    bilateral)
  • Types of body support (invertebrates-
    exoskeleton, vertebrates- endoskeleton)
  • 2 types of tissues that allow animal motility
    (nervous muscle tissue)
  • List germ tissue layers (endoderm, mesoderm
    ectoderm) in different animals
  • Differences in body systems

18
A. Characteristics of animals
  • Most members of the animal kingdom share these 4
    Important characteristics
  • 1. Multicellular, no cell walls
  • 2. Heterotrophic
  • 3. Sexual reproduction is common
  • 4. Mobile (at least part of life cycle)

19
  • Animals are multicellular.
  • (for example- adult humans have 50-100 trillion
    cells)
  • Specialization- is the evolutionary adaptation of
    a cell for a particular function. Cell- Tissue-
    Organ

http//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bice
lltissueorgan.gif
20
  • Heterotropy- must obtain organic molecules from
    other sources, most animals Ingest Digest
    food.
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Most animals produce a Zygote from 2 haploid
    gametes.
  • Some animals also reproduce asexually
  • (Budding, Parthenogenesis, etc)

21
  • Motility- Most animals move for part of their
    life cycle.
  • Due to 2 tissues- nervous muscle tissues
  • Example coordination
  • between nervous muscle
  • tissue needed for predator
  • (bat) to catch its prey
  • (mosquito)

http//www.medicinebeeherbals.com/images/leaf-nose
d-bat.jpg
22
Pattern of Symmetry - the body plan of an animal
  • Asymmetry - no pattern
  • (corals, sponges)
  • Radial Symmetry - shaped
  • like a wheel (starfish, hydra, jellyfish)
  • Bilateral Symmetry -has
  • a right left side
  • (humans, insects, cats)

http//www.biologycorner.com/bio1/notes-chap28.htm
l
23
What is the difference between vertebrate
invertebrates?
  • Invertebrates- more than 95 of all animal
    species alive today do not have a backbone
  • Chordates animals with a notochord. Chordates
    include 2 non-vertebrates
  • (lancelets/sea squirts) all the vertebrates.

24
Chordates- at some point in life, all have the
following 4 features
  • Notochord
  • firm, flexible rod of tissue at dorsal part of
    body.
  • Dorsal Nerve Cord
  • Hollow tube above notochord
  • In most vertebrates, develops into the brain
    spinal cord notochord is replaced by backbone.
  • Pharyngeal pouches
  • Small outpockets of anterior digestive tract.
  • Some aquatic vertebrates, develops into gills.
  • Post anal tail
  • Muscle tissue behind posterior opening of
    digestive tract.

25
http//fig.cox.miami.edu/cmallery/150/physiol/c34
x2chordates.jpg
26
2. Definitions
  • Dorsal -back
  • Ventral -abdomen
  • Anterior -head end
  • Posterior -tail end
  • Cephalization - concentration of brain sensory
    structures in anterior end. Common in bilaterally
    symmetrical animals.

27
What are the types of body support?
  • Support- the main purpose of a skeletal system
  • Some invertebrates have no skeletal system rely
    on water for support
  • most invertebrates- Exoskeletonmust be shed.-
    does not grow made of Chitin a polysaccharide
    forms rigid outer covering protects internal
    organs
  • All vertebrates -Endoskeleton- grows with the
    organism, made of cartilage bone

28
Segmentation
  • series of repeating units
  • Invertebrates Vertebrates
  • Invertebrates earthworm, arthropods
  • All vertebrates Vertebrae- are the repeating
    bony units of the backbone

29
Closed and Open Circulatory System

Open circulatory system Open circulatory systems
(evolved in crustaceans, insects, mollusks and
other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel
with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory
system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart
into the body cavities, where tissues are
surrounded by the blood
  • Closed circulatory system Vertebrates, and a few
    invertebrates, have a closed circulatory system.
    Closed circulatory systems have the blood closed
    at all times within vessels. In this type of
    system, blood is pumped by a heart through
    vessels, and does not normally fill body cavities


30
  • Reproduction
  • 1. Sexual (2 haploid gametes form a zygote)
  • 2. Asexual (use mitosis, not meiosis) examples
    hydra- budding Planarians fragmentation
    echinoderms- regeneration sponges- gemmules,
  • 3. Hermaphrodite- organism produces both male
    female gametes ex- earthworms)

.
http//kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca
31
  • Development
  • Direct -continuous process without interruption
    young look like small adults- for example, snails
    and clams
  • Indirect -Completely different intermediate
    stages (free living immature forms) (egg, larva,
    pupa, and adult). This group includes flies,
    butterflies and beetles.

entomology.unl.edu/.../sfbeetles/sfbeetles.htm
http//www.lehsd.k12.nj.us/seaport/Vaughn/CLAMSIZE
S.JPG
32
  • What are Germ Tissue Layers?
  • -tissue layers in all animal embryos EXCEPT
    sponges- no true tissues
  • -cnidarians, ctenophore- 2 tissue layers
  • -all other animals- 3 tissue layers

33
Fertilization Development
  • 1Fertilization the union of the egg sperm to
    form a zygote.
  • Cleavage- series of cell division occurs
    right after fertilization

Image from http//members.aol.com/BearFlag45/Bio
logy1A/LectureNotes/lec27.html
34
2. Blastula to Gastrula to Organogenesis
  • Fertilized egg divides, BLASTULA (hollow ball of
    cells)
  • Ball then pinches inward forming a GASTRULA
  • (multi-layered embryo with 3 germ layers)
  • archenteron deep cavity which is a primative
    gut
  • blastopore the opening at end of archenteron
  • The 3 layers then develop into certain organs.

http//www.biologycorner.com/bio3/notes-kingdomani
malia.html
35
3. Germ Layers
  • Endoderm - becomes the lining of the gut
  • Ectoderm - becomes the skin and outer layer,
    including nervous tissue
  • Mesoderm - the middle layer, the muscles and bones

http//sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/germlayr.gif
http//www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/
BioBookDiversity_7.html
36
I. Body Cavities
  • Acoelomates - have no blood vascular system, and
    lack a cavity between the gut and outer body wall
    (flatworms)
  • Pseudocoelomates - animals that have a fluid
    filled body cavity, but not enclosed by mesoderm
  • Coelomates - have a true coelom (body cavity)

37
Body Cavities (coelom)
  • -most animals have a coelom.
  • (IT IS NOT THE GUT!!!)
  • -body cavities are fluid filled spaces between
    the digestive tract the the bodys outer wall.
  • -aids body movement

38
Body Cavities
http//www.biologycorner.com/bio3/notes-kingdomani
malia.html
39
Match the phylum, picture description
http//www.biologycorner.com/resources/animal_king
dom_matching.gif
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