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Romanesque Architecture

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Romanesque Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp Topics Carolingian Pre-Romanesque Carolingian Pre-Romanesque: Structures Romanesque Architecture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Romanesque Architecture


1
Romanesque Architecture
  • Architectural History
  • ACT 322
  • Doris Kemp

2
Topics
  • Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
  • Carolingian Pre-Romanesque Structures
  • Romanesque Architecture
  • Romanesque Architecture Early Romanesque in
    Germany and Normandy

3
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
  • After the move of the seat of the Roman Empire to
    Constantinople, the Greco-Roman culture went into
    collapse
  • Latin was displaced as the common language
  • Disintegration of Roman law
  • Cessation of urban life
  • A major decline in monumental art and architecture

4
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
  • Charlemagne
  • King of the Franks who vowed to restore the Roman
    culture to its height
  • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Roman pope on
    Christmas Day, 800 A.D.
  • Carolingian Renaissance
  • Latin for Charles the Great (Charlemagne)
  • Renewal of the Latin language, literature, art,
    and architecture
  • Birth of Pre-Romanesque architecture

5
Carolingian Pre-Romanesque
  • Pre-Romanesque
  • Architecture looked back to Rome in its glory
    days
  • The style was never recaptured despite the effort
  • Structures were reinterpretations of antiquity,
    forward-looking and innovative
  • Non-Roman qualities of abstraction,
    fragmentation, and volumetric energy

6
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • Traits of Carolingian Pre-Romanesque structures
  • Strongly defined spatial units
  • Chains of modular construction
  • fragmentation

7
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • Palatine Chapel
  • c. 796 805
  • Located at Charlemagne's palace at Aachen
  • Domed
  • Double-shelled
  • Two-storied octagon plan
  • Monumental façade

8
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • Palatine Chapel
  • Reminiscent of early Christian and Byzantine
    Architecture
  • Was a rebuilt version of S. Vitale
  • One of the most impressive of late antique Roman
    structures

Photo Sullivan
9
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
Photo Sullivan
10
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
Photo Sullivan
11
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • St. Riquier
  • Transformed the fundamental concept of the early
    Christian basilica
  • More complex, composed of many independent group
    formations
  • Powerful vertical massings at both ends

12
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
Photo Sullivan
13
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • Gatehouse/Torhalle
  • Located in Lorsch, Germany
  • c. 767 774
  • Saddle-roofed central block flanked by twin
    vertical stair towers
  • Features a chapel originally dedicated to St.
    Michael
  • Resembles Roman triumphal arches
  • Two-storied facades
  • Richly ornamented

14
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
Photo Sullivan
15
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
Photo Sullivan
16
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • Germigny-des-Pres
  • Located on the Loire River
  • c. 806
  • Reflects the influences of both Byzantium and
    Islam

Photo Sullivan
17
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
Photo Sullivan
18
Carolingian Pre-RomanesqueStructures
  • The main aspects of the standard monastery were
    conceived during the Carolingian period
  • St. Gall plan
  • Ideal architectural plan of a traditional
    monastery
  • Was never built
  • Plan included
  • A small city featuring a medical center and a
    cemetery
  • U-shaped corridor to provide orderly traffic flow

19
Romanesque Architecture
  • Charlemagnes death in 814 led to a dark century
    for Europe due ton invaders
  • Slavic, Magyar, Arab pirates, and Vikings
  • When the invasions ceased economic conditions
    improved
  • Cultural revival and religious enthusiasm brought
    about a wave of church-building

20
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • Imperial Romanesque (Germany)
  • Antithetical tendencies
  • Conservative and nostalgic
  • Looked back fondly to the works of Charlemagne
  • Inventive and progressive
  • Drew on early Christian, imperial Roman, and
    Byzantine models

21
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • Munster Cathedral
  • Located in Essen, Germany
  • Late 10th century
  • Retrospective, loosely based on St. Riquier and
    St. Gall
  • Freedom in design and energy that contrast with
    the perfectionist spirit of the cathedrals
    Byzantine models and the determination of
    Charlemagne's architecture

22
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
Photo Sullivan
23
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • St. Michaels Cathedral
  • Located at Hildesheim, Germany
  • More contemporary style than at Munster
  • Square schematic
  • c. 1001 - 1033

Photo Sullivan
24
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • Imperial Cathedral of Speyer
  • Located in Speyer, Germany
  • c. 1030 1060
  • Built by Emperor Konrad II
  • Impressive wall articulation
  • Crucial for the development of Romanesque
    architecture
  • Wall shaped into powerful multilayer
    configuration

25
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
Photo Sullivan
26
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • Norman Romanesque
  • In the early tenth century the Vikings settled in
    Normandy, France
  • Buildings in Normandy were crucial to the
    development in France

27
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • Mont-Saint-Michael
  • Medieval shrine in Normandy, France
  • Norman counterpart to the Speyer Cathedral in
    Germany

Photo Sullivan
28
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
  • Abbey Church of Notre Dame de Jumieges
  • Notable for the immense height of its crossing
    tower
  • Facade was derived from Carolingian westwork
    tradition
  • Central structure was set forward between twin
    bases of square towers that rise as octagons
    above lines of the roof
  • Set precedence for the twin-towered facades that
    dominated the exteriors of the major French
    Gothic cathedrals

29
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
Photo Sullivan
30
Romanesque ArchitectureEarly Romanesque in
Germany and Normandy
Photo Sullivan
31
References
  • Sullivan, Mary http//www.bluffton.edu/sullivanm
    /
  • http//www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.htm
    l
  • Trachtenburg/Hyman Architecture From Prehistory
    to Postmodernity
  • Wodehouse/Moffett A History of Western
    Architecture

32
Romanesque Architecture
  • Architectural History
  • ACT 322
  • Doris Kemp
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