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Title: The Challenges and Opportunities of Faith and Science Issues in University Pastoral Care


1
The Challenges and Opportunities of Faith and
Science Issues in University Pastoral Care
  • Rev. Dr Andrew Pinsent
  • Research DirectorIan Ramsey Centre, Faculty of
    Theology and Religion
  • University of Oxford

2
Faith and science issues
  • THE CHALLENGE New atheism and the conflict
    metaphor
  • ANSWERING THE CHALLENGE
  • DISTINCTIONS God, philosophy, religion and faith
  • COMPATIBILITY Can one be a person of faith and
    of science?
  • VALUE What does faith do to help us understand
    the world?
  • ACTIONS How can we help faith do what it is
    meant to do?

3
THE CHALLENGE NEW ATHEISM AND THE CONFLICT
METAPHOR
4
The challenge at university (and in school)
  • From age 12 onwards, long before they can try to
    explain what faith or science mean, many
    students are absorbing the narrative that they
    are incompatible or even hostile.
  • This narrative is one of the key weapons of the
    (new) atheists, who generally argue, and want to
    believe, that theists are primitive, irrational
    and evil. The fact that sophisticated, specialist
    responses exist is almost irrelevant, since this
    narrative is communicated to intelligent
    non-specialists.
  • This problem is compounded by a general decline
    of philosophical thinking, even among
    intellectual leaders in other fields (as I
    discovered during a recent meeting of
    philosophers, theologians and leading scientists
    at CERN).

5

Some of the New Atheists
What the New Atheists share is a belief that
religion should not simply be tolerated but
should be countered, criticized and exposed by
rational argument wherever its influence arises.
Hooper, Simon. "The rise of the New Atheists".
CNN. http//www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/11/08/at
heism.feature/index.html Militant atheists tend
to make one or both of two claims that moderate
atheists do not. The first is that religion is
demonstrably false or nonsense, and the second is
that it is usually or always harmful. Julian
Baggini. Atheism. 2003. Page 150.
6

and some of the Old Atheists
A membership card of the Society of the Godless
or League of the Militant Godless (left) and
its magazine, Bezbozhnik (The Godless),
published 1922 1941 (centre). This issue from
1929 shows Jesus being dumped from a wheelbarrow
by an industrial worker. On the right is the
dynamiting in 1931 of the largest Orthodox church
ever built, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
in Moscow. The re-built cathedral was consecrated
19 August 2000.
The State recognises no religion, and supports
and carries out atheistic propaganda in order to
implant a scientific materialistic world outlook
in people. Article 37, The Constitution of
Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania, Approved
28 December 1976
7

Examples of books answering the New Atheists
8
An example of the effects on social policy
Brian Iddon, the MP for Bolton South East, made
the following contribution to a debate on the
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill
Throughout time, there has been a conflict
between religion and science. We should remember
Galileo, for example. It seems almost impossible
to believe today, but Harvey's description of the
circulation of the blood and the heart's role in
it met large objections in his day. We hope
that by taking the nuclei out of a skin cell or
other cell of sufferers of these diseases and
creating admixed human embryos, which the bill
deals with, scientists will be able to find out
how those diseases develop, with the ultimate
goal of stopping them developing at all in every
individual who might otherwise have acquired
them.
The Palace of Westminster, where the Embryology
Bill was debated 12th May. The building was
designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.
Pugin was a Catholic convert whose Gothic style
was inspired by medieval Catholic
architecture. The very building where legislation
now contravenes natural law is a building
inspired by Catholic civilization.
Manchester Evening News BlogsPosted by David
Ottewell on May 13, 2008 1150 AM
9
Answering the challenge basic facts, philosophy
and theology
  • In the remainder of this talk, I want to present
    examples of the kinds of arguments that I give to
    students during their last four years of school
    and at university level at Oxford and elsewhere.
  • In my experience, even hostile students enjoy
    these talks and arguing through these issues with
    me. Students who have (or who are open to) faith
    gain greatly in confidence, not only from
    acquiring basic facts and training, but from
    seeing that faith continues to be intellectually
    respectable today.
  • More ambitiously, I do not just argue that faith
    is compatible with science. I propose that much
    of what we most value about our civilisation,
    including science, are direct or indirect fruits
    of faith. Such fruits may ultimately die in the
    absence of faith.

10
DISTINCTIONS GOD, PHILOSOPHY, FAITH AND SCIENCE
11
Basic theism (natural knowledge of God) in
contemporary secular society
  • Belief that there is a God is not unique to those
    who are religious, cf. philosophical arguments
    of Plato, Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas, Aristotle,
    Newton, Descartes, Kant etc.
  • This fact is obscured in contemporary culture.
    Classical, medieval and early modern natural
    philosophy often culminated in inferences to a
    first cause or God. By contrast, so-called
    naturalism today excludes God a priori.
  • So it is helpful to teach or remind students of
    those inferences that begin from a philosophical
    examination of the natural world and end in the
    conclusion of a first cause or God.

12
Proofs for Gods existence
  • Cosmological (first efficient cause/ mover)
  • Teleological (design/goals in nature)
  • From degree (proof of maximal being)
  • Ontological (being greater than which cannot be
    conceived)
  • Anthropic (unlikelihood of our existence)
  • Moral (existence of objective morality)
  • Transcendental (non-sense without God)

Contrary to popular belief, many of these
arguments are still in play in contemporary
philosophy, that is, they have new formulations
and influential advocates. Attempts to
invalidate these arguments usually try to show
that God is not the only solution, not that God
is not a solution. Furthermore, any objections to
any proof of God existence can, at best, show
that the proof is not valid rather than that God
does not exist.
13
Sometimes the structures found in nature witness
to an supra-human order that simply evokes belief
in a divine mind and handiwork without any formal
proof. This is the view of St Augustine when he
wrote, All respond See, we are beautiful.
Their beauty is a confession. St Augustine,
Sermon 241 (ccc. 32)
The Infinitely Complex Mandelbrot Set, revealed
from 1978 by means of computers
14
Why God is practically unavoidable in the
search for wisdom the cause funnel
Number of known compounds Very largegt 30
million
Number of elements c. 118
Number of elementary particles12 ( force
carriers Higgs)
Many particular things which are easy to know
about
A small number of universal causes that are hard
to discover
Towards knowledge of first causes. The more
remote andand powerful causes tend to be smaller
in number, not links in an endless chain
15
Why God is practically unavoidable in the
search for wisdom the cause funnel
Particular human actions (waking up, washing,
eating, lunch with friends, going to college etc.)
Flourishing of body, society and mind
Happiness
Many particular things which are easy to know
about
A small number of universal causes that are hard
to discover
Towards knowledge of first causes. The more
remote andand powerful causes tend to be smaller
in number, not links in an endless chain
16
Why God is practically unavoidable in the
search for wisdom the first cause
Cosmological proofs infer a First Cause, an
Uncaused Cause that causes everything else in
the cosmos this conclusion is hard to avoid
without denying our ability to trust causes
remote from experience (cf. Hume), which also
undermines science. The real challenge is to know
what God is, not whether God is. Atheism usually
offers substitutes, i.e. an alternative god in
all but name
17
Some opponents of the cosmological proof claim
that the causal chain could be circular,
avoiding the need to begin with a First Cause
... ... but closed systems of causes tend to
decay, like a clock running down, and a circle of
causes is not itself self-causing, so a further
causal agent is still required.
18
Why God is practically unavoidable in the
search for wisdom the first cause
A chain of causes, no matter how long, needs a
first cause, even if this foundation is remote
from what is directly perceptible.
19
Why God is practically unavoidable in the
search for wisdom the first cause
A chain of causes, no matter how long, needs a
first cause, even if this foundation is remote
from what is directly perceptible.
20
The North Korean national anthem
Millions of flowers on the earth tell us his
love. Blue waves of the ocean sing of his work.
He is the creator of happiness to grow the
garden of Ju-che. Long live, long live, General
Kim Jong-Il !  
An English translation of the second verse of the
(former) national anthem of North Korea
The Juche (joo-cheh) Idea is the official state
ideology of North Korea and its political system.
The core principle of the Juche ideology since
the 1970s has been that 'man is the master of
everything and decides everything'.
21
Importance of basic philosophical training
  • Showing inferences to Gods existence through
    philosophy is important in itself. Philosophy
    more generally helps to neutralise many other
    perceived faith and science conflicts.
  • For example, a brief examination of what is meant
    by modern science shows that it deals, for the
    most part, with laws of regular quantitative
    phenomena and can say little, by itself, even
    about essences of natural things. Even Is Pluto
    a planet? cannot be answered by experiments
    alone. So science, though valuable, is also
    inherently limited.
  • A brief examination of what is meant by cause
    also shows that things usually have more than one
    type of cause, e.g. material and formal. Such
    clarifications for students help open the door to
    understanding the notion of immaterial causation,
    e.g. the soul being the form of the body, cf.
    Aquinas, ST I, q.76 a.1.

22
Theism and faith
  • Belief in Gods existence and religion overlap
    but are not identical. Besides facts or
    inferences about the world, religion typically
    involves worship, traditions, ritual and other
    elements.
  • The conception of God and the relationship with
    God vary considerably, e.g. Islam (mainly
    third-personal) Christianity and narrative
    Judaism (mainly second-personal) and Buddhism
    (no-personal, i.e. no personal God or
    relation).
  • The remainder of this talk focuses on faith,
    the root virtue of a second-person relation to
    God by grace (divine adoption).

Late have I loved you, O Beauty so ancient and
so new late have I loved you! ...You were with
me and I was not with you ... You called and
cried to me and broke open my deafness and you
sent forth your beams and shone upon me and
chased away my blindness you breathed fragrance
upon me, and I drew in my breath and do now pant
for you I tasted you, and now hunger and thirst
for you you touched me, and I have burned for
your peace. Augustine, Confessions 10.27.38.
Translation from The Divine Office The Liturgy
of the Hours According to the Roman Rite (London
Collins, 1974), 225
23
FAITH AND SCIENCEARE THEY COMPATIBLE?
24
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25
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26
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27
Mgr Georges Lemaître, Father of the Big Bang
Mgr Georges Lemaître (d. 1966), a Belgian
Catholic priest, proposed what became known as
the Big Bang theory of the origin of the
Universe, deriving what became known as Hubble's
Law in a paper in 1927, two years before Edwin
Hubble confirmed the expansion of the universe.
He also proposed the way in which the theory
might be tested by searching for radiation from
the Big Bang. He died on shortly after having
learned of the discovery of cosmic microwave
background radiation, proof of his intuitions
about the birth of the Universe.
28
Fr Lemaître was honoured by the Church he was
made president of the Pontifical Academy of
Science in 1936 and a Monsignor in 1960.
By contrast, as late as 1948, astronomers in the
Soviet Union, a state constituted officially on
the basis of an atheist Marxist system, were
urged to oppose the Big Bang theory as promoting
clericalism (cf. Kragh, Cosmology and
Controversy (Princeton, N.J. Princeton
University Press, 1999), p. 262).
29
Mgr Gregor Mendel, Father of Modern Genetics
Gregor Mendel (d. 1884) was an Austrian
Augustinian priest and scientist often called the
father of genetics for his study of the
inheritance of traits in peas (between 1856 and
1863 Mendel cultivated and tested c. 29,000 pea
plants). Mendel showed that the inheritance of
traits follows particular laws, later named after
him. Mendel's paper was published in 1866 in
Proceedings of the Natural History Society of
Brünn, but largely ignored for nearly half a
century. The rediscovery of Mendels work
prompted the foundation of genetics.
30
Fr Angelo Secchi, Father of Astrophysics
Fr. Angelo Secchi (d. 1878), S.J., Director of
the Vatican Observatory, made the first
spectroscopic survey of the heavens, classifying
stars by four spectral types. He also studied
sunspots, solar prominences, photographed solar
corona during the eclipse of 1860, invented the
heliospectroscope, star spectroscope,
telespectroscope and meteorograph. He also
studied double stars, weather forecasting and
terrestrial magnetism. He is considered to be the
father of the spectral classification of stars,
leading to an understanding of their physics and
evolution.
31
Fr Nicholas Steno, Father of Stratigraphy
Nicolas Steno (d. 1686) was the founder of
stratigraphy, the interpretation of rock strata.
He is credited with the law of superposition, the
principle of original horizontality, and the
principle of lateral continuity, which are the
building blocks for the interpretation of the
natural history of rocks and the development of
geology. Note that a Catholic layman, Georg Pawer
(d. 1555) earned the title father of mineralogy
for his great work On the Nature of Metals.
32
Fr Boscovich S.J., Father of Field Theory
Fr. Boscovichs Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis
(1758) developed a theory of matter as consisting
of many dimensionless points, with the mutual
attraction of any pair of points being some
general function of the distance between them,
represented by an oscillatory curve. Field theory
are now fundamental to modern physics. Einsteins
efforts in 1919 to create a unified theory of
physics was based upon extending Newtonian theory
along the lines of Boscovich, who was also an
early advocate of atomic theory. Yet few
textbooks mention him today.
33
Fr René Hauy, Father of Crystallography
René Haüy (d. 1822) was ordained a priest and had
a strong amateur interest in science. Examining
the fragments of a calcareous spar, he was led to
make experiments which resulted in the statement
of the geometrical law of crystallization
associated with his name. Haüy is also known for
the observations he made in pyroelectricity. His
brother was Valentin Haüy, the founder of the
first school for the blind, its most famous
student being Louis Braille.
34
Fr Nicholas Callan, Pioneer in Electronics
The induction coil was invented by priest and
scientist Fr. Nicholas Callan in 1836 at St.
Patrick's College, Maynooth, inspired by the work
of Michael Faraday. Fr Callan. An induction coil
produces an intermittent high-voltage alternating
current from a low-voltage direct current supply.
It is one of the foundations of modern electronic
technology. Induction coils were used to provide
high voltage for early gas discharge and Crookes
tubes and for X-ray research. Fr. Callan also
invented the Maynooth Battery' in 1854, using
inexpensive cast-iron instead of platinum or
carbon. He built the worlds largest battery at
that time, and discovered an early form of
galvanisation to protect iron from rusting.
35
Women as Early Scientists in Catholic Italy
La versiera di Agnesi, which means the curve of
Agnesi, read by Cambridge professor John Colson
as l'avversiera di Agnesi, where avversiera
means witch. The mistranslation stuck.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (d. 1799) was one of a
number of remarkable women scientists associated
with the University of Bologna in the 18th
century. Others include Laura Bassi (d. 1778),
Anna Morandi Manzolina (d. 1774), and Maria Dalle
Donne (d. 1842). Agnesi is credited with writing
the first book discussing both differential and
integral calculus. In 1750, Maria Agnesi was
appointed by Pope Benedict XIV to the chair of
mathematics and natural philosophy at Bologna.
After the death of her father in 1752 she gave
herself to the study of theology, the care of the
poor, homeless, and sick. She eventually joined a
religious order in Milan. To put this achievement
in perspective, Winifred Merrill was the first
woman to be awarded a PhD in mathematics in the
United States in 1886.
36
World exploration and the first scientific maps
Geographical Exploration Marco Polo c. 1254
1324, 24 year exploration of Asia covering
15,000 miles Prince Henry the Navigator, 1394
1460 Azores, West Coast of Africa. Bartolomeu
Dias, 1488 southern tip of Africa. Christopher
Columbus, 1492 America Magellan's expedition of
15191522 first crossing of Pacific first
global circumnavigation. _________________________
___ Catholic Explorers also founded and named
vast numbers of countries and cities, such as San
Francisco (St Francis) and São Paulo (St Paul)
The First Scientific MapsDiogo Ribeiros
version of the Padrón real (1529)
Fr Matteo Ricci, SJ, 1552 1610
37
The Gregorian Calendar from 1582
Detail of the tomb of Pope Gregory XIII
celebrating the introduction of the Gregorian
Calendar, on 24 February 1582. The Gregorian
Calendar with its leap years is now used almost
all countries worldwide. Much of the work was
done by Aloysius Lilius and Fr Christopher
Clavius SJ, drawing from measurements using
meridian lines in Italian basilicas.
38
Is atheism genuinely the friend of science?
Examples of the persecution of intellectuals in
the atheist regimes of the twentieth century,
especially in the USSR and Communist China
Nikolai Vavilov, who was murdered Andrei
Sakharov, who endured internal exile and the
Chinese 'Cultural Revolution,' during which
intellectuals of all kinds were denigrated and
persecuted as enemies of the people.
39
Faith and science are they compatible?
  • Most of the time, modern science deals with
    matters that are not directly connected with
    faith at all, often involving measurements, laws
    and quantities.
  • What should be clear from these examples is that
    there are no grounds for supposing a naïve
    hostility to exist between faith and science, or
    that being a person of faith precludes
    fruitfulness in science and intellectual life at
    the highest levels.
  • But is there a stronger causal connection between
    faith and fruitfulness in science? Is the weak
    conclusion the best that we can offer that faith
    and science are not incompatible .... ?

40
VALUE WHAT DOES FAITH DO FOR SCIENCE?
41
What does faith do for science?
  • Faith does not oppose science, but why should the
    practitioner of science care about faith at all?
  • Faith does not teach us about mathematical laws
    and teaches us very few facts about the world
    that we cannot find out by other means. Except
    rarely, faith does not produce falsifiable
    predictions. So what does faith do? What is its
    value?
  • I propose that faith adds value in at least two
    ways first, by shaping the cultural setting
    within which science is carried out (sitz im
    leben) second, by shaping of our contextual or
    gestalt perception of the world, an influence
    revealed especially in art.

42
Faith forms culture philosophy
Principles adopted, introduced or transfigured
by Catholic intellectual life THE
PERSON SUBSTANCE AND ACCIDENT FREE WILL AND
INTELLECT VIRTUE ETHICS UNIFIED BY CARITAS
(LOVE) SECONDARY CAUSATION THE FOUR
CAUSES CRITICAL REALISM MATTER AS GOOD, NOT
EVIL OBJECTIVE AND NATURAL LAW IMMORTALITY OF THE
SOUL NATURE AND SUPERNATURAL GRACE SECOND-PERSON
RELATEDNESS TO GOD PRINCIPLE OF NON-CONTRADICTION
St Thomas Aquinas O.P.1225-1274
43
Faith forms culture time, history, records,
progressive evolution
The standard worldwide system for counting the
days of the year, the Gregorian Calendar, 1582,
named after Pope Gregory XIII.
St Bede the Venerable (623/4 725). Father of
English History
Escarpement used in cathedral clocks,
monasteries and town halls by c. 1200.
CHRIST
Giovanni De Dondi's astronomical clock, the
Astrarium, built 1364, Padua, Italy
BC
AD
0
400
600
400
200
200
600

History as progression centered on Christ rather
than an endless repetition
44
Faith forming culture education
Monasteries, where manuscripts were copied,
developed and preserved for centuries, helped
save civilisation after the barbarian invasions
of the fifth century. These orders taught Europe
to read again.
Lindisfarne Priory (f. 635), famous for
Lindisfarne Gospels. Like other monasteries in
England, Lindisfarne was destroyed by Henry VIII.

There were over 50 universities in Catholic
Europe by the time of the Fall of Constantinople
in 1453. These universities included Bologna
(1088) Paris (c. 1150) Oxford (1167) Salerno
(1173) Vicenza (1204) Cambridge (1209)
Salamanca (1218-1219) Padua (1222) and Naples
(1224).
Kings School Canterbury, possibly founded by St
Augustine in 597, the worlds oldest extent school
Roughly 10 of children in England today are
educated in Catholic schools, and these schools
tend to be oversubscribed. Across the world,
Church schools educate nearly 50 million students
worldwide and provide much of the education in
many developing countries.
45
Faith forming culture morality
NOT divine puppetry
NOT simply following divine instructions
(although these are important)
Freely loving with God what God loves, informed
by good teaching, culminating in divine
friendship this second-person relationship
underpins the humility, trust, truthfulness and
modes of teaching upon which much intellectual
progress depends.
46
Faith forming culture law
From the 12th century, Catholic scholars such as
Gratian drew together the terms of Revelation,
Roman Law (esp. the Christian emperor Justinian),
together with Visigothic, Saxon, and Celtic
legal elements, with Greek philosophical
dialectic. The result effectively created the
science of law, jurisprudence, and a wide range
of concepts we still use today, such as AGENCY
OR REPRESENTATION SOCIETAS (PARTNERSHIP) AND
UNIVERSITAS NATURAL AND POSITIVE LAW THEORY OF
CONTRACTS LAW AS A UNIFIED SYSTEM FIDUCIARY
TRUST LEGAL SCHOLARSHIP AS A PROFESSION OBJECTIVE
LAW, WHICH EVEN THE MOST POWERFUL RULERS CANNOT
CONTRAVENE
47
Faith forming culture society
Catholic social teaching envisages society as a
garden rather than a machine, in contrast to much
modern political philosophy (e.g. Rousseau)
St Ambrose confronting Theodosius, c. 390.
The distinct powers of the state and Church
defend society, teaching and sacraments, but the
fruitfulness of the garden arises from divine
inspiration and personal initiative at a local
level.
A healthy Catholic society has many diverse
institutions for example, families, parishes,
religious orders, guilds, distinct national
identities, and is culturally diverse, e.g.
Italian city states, Spain.
Modern principles derived from Catholic Social
Teaching include subsidiarity (Fr Oswald von
Nell-Breuning Pope Leo XIII in Rerum Novarum),
developed by Belloc and others into
distributivism.
48
Faith forms gestalt perception
1432
49
1524
50
1569
51
1821
52
1890
53
1947
54
2011
55
The chaos from right-brain impairment
Source McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary,
Yale 2009
56
Faith, hope and discovery
  • Faith shapes our cognition, insofar as it leads
    us to expect to find order in nature. Faith also
    shapes our will to discover new things in the
    hope of relating to God second-personally and not
    simply ending in chaos and annihilation. Which of
    the visions below is most likely to nurture
    science in the longer term?

57
Conclusion how faith adds value
  • The fruitfulness of faith for science generally
    is not usually in terms of additional facts but
    the gestalt or background context within which
    facts are ordered and understood.
  • In other words, faith helps form right-brain
    cognition of the world, a framework within which
    facts and reasoning (left-brain) can be
    organised and make sense.
  • Faith also shapes the institutions that in turn
    help underpin intellectual progress, e.g.
    philosophy, the progressive view of time,
    education, morals, law, society and hope.
  • The lesson from art since the sixteenth century
    rejection of the life of faith in much of Europe
    is that our perception of nature gradually
    disintegrates. Science may not be immune from
    this decay, even while we continue to accumulate
    new facts.

58
HOW DO WE HELP FAITH TO DO WHAT IT IS MEANT TO
DO?
59
What would help?
  • To draw on two thousand years of faith-formed
    genius to communicate that belief in God and a
    life of faith is intellectually respectable and
    exciting.
  • To impart some basic historical facts more
    clearly and consistently to students to inoculate
    against falsehoods.
  • To show the value of faith in shaping our world,
    especially via organic apologetics roots
    (history and origins of our civilisation) and
    fruits.

You will know them by their fruits. Matthew 716
60
What would help?
  • Faith helps form understanding, a mainly
    right-brain cognitive operation (seeing the whole
    or big picture, cf. the Eureka! of
    Archimedes). Right-brain cognition is imparted
    principally by images and narratives that evoke
    embodied experience to enable metaphoric
    understanding (words to life).
  • We need to know the parables of Christ the key
    narratives of the Old Testament (inc. the
    spiritual sense of these narratives e.g.
    Exodus as the story of a soul) the heroic
    figures of Christian history, especially certain
    saints the story of our civilisation in a
    Christian key, Christian literature (e.g. Lewis,
    Chesterton etc.) and good films.
  • The experience of Christian art and its
    interpretations, providing cognition by means of
    both halves of the brain.

61
Resources to help (but we need more)
62
... and a little humour helps...
63
What do YOU think?
  • Do you agree or disagree?
  • What else do we need?
  • I open the floor to you ....
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