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CHAPTER 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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CHAPTER 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Stem Cells PROKARYOTES Greek prenucleus DNA not enclosed within a membrane DNA is usually a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells


1
CHAPTER 4Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and
Eukaryotic Cells
Stem Cells
2
  • PROKARYOTES
  • Greek prenucleus
  • DNA not enclosed within a membrane
  • DNA is usually a singular circularly chromosome
  • DNA not associated with histones
  • Lack membrane bound organelles
  • Cell walls contain polysaccharide peptidoglycan
  • Divide by binary fission
  • EUKARYOTES
  • true nucleus
  • DNA in a nucleus
  • DNA found in multiple chromosomes
  • Histones with DNA
  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Cell walls chemically simple
  • mitosis

3
Prokaryote Characteristics
  • 0.2 to 2.0 µm in diameter and 2 to 8 µm in length
  • Shapes coccus, bacillus, spiral

4
ARRANGEMENTS OF COCCI
  • Diplococci (remain in pairs)
  • Streptococci (remain in chain)
  • Tetra (divide in 2 planes, remain in groups of
    four)
  • Sarcinae (divide in 3 planes, remain in cube)
  • Staphylococci (divide in multiple planes, remain
    in grapelike clusters)

5
ARRANGEMENT OF BACILLI
  • Diplobacilli appear in pairs
  • Streptobacilli appear in chains
  • Coccobacilli oval, look like cocci
  • Palisades picket fence

6
ARRANGEMENT OF SPIRILIUM
  • Vibrios curved rods
  • Spirilla helical shape, rigid bodies
  • Spirochetes helical and fexible

7
External Structures
  • GLYCOCALYX (sugar coat)
  • sticky, gelatinous polymer outside the cell wall
  • Composed of polysaccharide, polypeptide or both
  • If attached to cell wall, considered a capsule
  • If unorganized and loosely attached, considered a
    slime layer
  • Contributes to bacterial virulence
  • Important component of biofims
  • Help attach to various surfaces, protects,
    facilitates communication (Extracellular
    polymeric substance EPS)

Cyanobacterium Capsule in olive green
8
FLAGELLA
  • Atichous cell without flagella
  • Monotrichous a single flagellum at one pole
  • Lophotrichous tuft of flagella from one or both
    poles
  • Amphitrichous single flagella at both boles
  • Peritrichous distributed over the entire cell

9
FLAGELLA MOVEMENT
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tions/main.asp?chnoch03a02 file///E/Chapter_04/
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10
Fimbriae and Pili
  • Short, straight, thin hair-like appendages
  • FIMBRIAE
  • occur at poles or evenly distributed
  • Few to several hundred / cell
  • Adhere to surfaces? forming biofilms
  • PILI
  • Usually longer
  • Only one or two /cell
  • Involved in motility (twitching and gliding
    motility) and DNA transfer (conjugation)

Electron Micrograph of E. coli
Geobacter sulfurreducens
11
CELL WALL
  • FUNCTION
  • Responsible for shape
  • Prevents cell from rupturing from too much water
  • Contributes to ability of some to cause disease
  • STRUCTURE
  • Peptidoglycan repeating disaccharide attached by
    polypeptides forming a lattice
  • Disaccharides N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and
    N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)

12
Peptidoglycan in Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Linked by polypeptides

Figure 4.13a
13
Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall
Figure 4.13b
14
Gram-Negative Bacterial Cell Wall
Figure 4.13c
15
Gram-positiveCell Wall
Gram-positiveCell Wall
  • Thin peptidoglycan
  • Outer membrane
  • Periplasmic space
  • Thick peptidoglycan
  • Teichoic acids

Figure 4.13bc
16
Internal Structures Plasma (cytoplasmic) Membrane
  • STRUCTURE
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Polar head phosphate group and glycerol that is
    hydrophilic
  • Nonpolar tails hydrophobic fatty acids
  • Proteins
  • Peripheral proteins lie at inner or outer
    surface
  • Integral proteins inside membrane
  • Glycoproteins proteins attached to carbohydrates
  • Glycolipids lipids attached to carbohydrates
  • Help protect/lubricate cell

17
  • FUNCTION
  • Selective permeability
  • Breakdown of nutrients and production of energy
  • Some have pigments and enzymes involved in
    photosynthesis in foldings
  • Chromatophores or thylakoids

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ne/membrane_permeability.html
18
(No Transcript)
19
  • NUCLEOID
  • Single long, continuous circular thread of
    double-stranded DNA
  • Attached to plasma membrane
  • PLASMID
  • Circular, double-stranded DNA
  • Replicate independently
  • 5 to 100 genes
  • RIBOSOMES
  • Site of protein synthesis
  • CYTOPLASM
  • 80 water, proteins, carbos, lipids, inorganic
    ions
  • Thick, aqueous, semitransparent, elastic

20
Inclusions (reserve deposits)
  • Metachromatic granules
  • Volutin reserve of inorganic phosphate used in
    the synthesis of ATP
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae (agent of diphtheria)
  • ID stain red with blue dyes
  • Polysaccharide Granules
  • Glycogen (reddish brown) and starch (blue)
  • ID iodine
  • Sulfur Granules
  • Lipid Inclusions
  • ID fat-soluable dyes
  • Carboxysomes
  • Enzyme ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase
  • Use as sole source of carbon
  • Gas Vacuoles
  • Maintain buoyancy
  • Magnetosomes
  • Iron oxide, act as magnets

21
Endospores
  • Cells formed when essential nutrients are
    depleted
  • Very resistant to heat, chemicals, hard to kill
  • Can be dormant for thousands of years
  • Gram positive bacteria
  • Bacillus anthrax, food poisoning
  • Clostridium gangrene, tetanus, botulism

Core DNA and protein Cortex peptidoglycan
(rigid protective) Spore Coat protein Exosporium
protective layer
Endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis.
22
  • http//student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/
    lab1/images/u1coccus.gif
  • http//www.slic2.wsu.edu82/hurlbert/micro101/imag
    es/SpirochetesEx2.gif
  • http//www.nslc.wustl.edu/courses/Bio2960/labs/04M
    icroscopy/11299D.jpg
  • http//images.iop.org/objects/nano/news/4/6/14/pil
    i.jpg
  • http//www.agen.ufl.edu/chyn/age2062/OnLineBiolog
    y/OLBB/www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/
    14_1.jpg
  • http//bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu/themicrobialworld/end
    ospore.jpeg
  • http//www.brighamandwomens.org/publicaffairs/Imag
    es/Cells.jpg
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