Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 460fd5-OWI3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management

Description:

PDW, Annual AOM 2012, Boston Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management Eric Barends Blake Jelley Wendy Carroll – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:686
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 70
Provided by: EricBa4
Learn more at: http://www.cebma.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management


1
PDW, Annual AOM 2012, Boston
Evidence-Based Management Three New Approaches
to Teaching the Practice of Management
Eric Barends
Blake Jelley
Wendy Carroll
Denise Rousseau
2
PDW, Annual AOM 2012, Boston
  • Denise Rousseau Introduction
  • Wendy Carroll Blake Jelley Push Approach
  • Subgroups
  • Eric Barends Pull approach
  • Video (9 min)
  • Subgroups
  • Denise Rousseau Process Approach

3
Definition
Evidence-based management means making decisions
about the management of employees, teams or
organizations through the conscientious, explicit
and judicious use of four sources of information
1. The best available scientific evidence 2.
Organizational facts, metrics and
characteristics 3. Stakeholders values and
concerns 4. Practitioner expertise and judgment
4
Four sources
5
Teaching EBMgt The Push Approach
Barends, Rousseau, Carroll, Jelley 2012 Academy
of Management PDW Evidence-Based Management
Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of
Management
  • R. Blake Jelley Wendy R. Carroll

6
Overview
  • Our Perspectives and Context
  • Importance of the Push Approach
  • Principles and Resources

7
Our Perspectives and Context
  • Our backgrounds
  • Education
  • Applied experiences
  • Teaching in the UPEI School of Business
  • Undergraduate
  • EMBA (launched 2008)
  • Oxford Handbook of EBMgt chapter
  • Jelley, Carroll, Rousseau (2012). Reflections
    on teaching evidence-based management.
  • Less about the push approach

8
Importance of the Push Approach
  • Bounded Rationality, Heuristics, Biases
  • Kahneman (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow
  • System 1 (fast automatic)
  • System 2 (slow deliberate)
  • See also Kahneman Klein (2009).
  • Conditions for Intuitive Expertise A Failure to
    Disagree
  • (2009, American Psychologist)

9
Importance of the Push Approach
  • A path toward the development of expertise in
    management?
  • Developing expert skill and intuition (see
    Kahneman Klein, 2009 Kahneman, 2011)
  • A sufficiently regular, predictable environment
  • Opportunities to learn regularities through
    prolonged practice and feedback
  • The management domain is not highly favourable to
    skilled intuition
  • Intuition is an important consideration, not the
    final word
  • Managers need to avoid overconfidence in
    intuition

10
Importance of the Push Approach
  • System 1 will engage!
  • Expert intuition is not magic
  • You can feel Herbert Simons impatience with
    the mythologizing of expert intuition when he
    writes The situation has provided a cue this
    cue has given the expert access to information
    stored in memory, and the information provides
    the answer. Intuition is nothing more and nothing
    less than recognition (Kahneman, 2011, p. 11).

11
Importance of the Push Approach
  • Making intuition more friendly to EBMgt.
  • You do as much homework as possible beforehand
    so that the intuition is as informed as it can
    be (Kahneman, In Kahneman Klein, 2010,
    McKinsey Quarterly).
  • It is easier to make good decisions quickly if
    managers are educated and evidence savvy (John
    Zanardelli, 2012, p. 196 President CEO,
    Ashbury Heights).
  • Program System 1 with evidence-based principles.
  • Think fast, well, and set triggers for System 2.
  • Bolster, not replace, more deliberate processing.

12
Importance of the Push Approach
  • Practitioners are not well-informed about
    management-related knowledge
  • E.g., Senior SHRM members 57 correct (Rynes et
    al., 2002)
  • Are educators much better?
  • Various ways to push EB knowledge.
  • Management education as a key.
  • Also, ME can integrate push, pull, and process
    approaches

13
Principles and Resources
  • Use of Diagnostic Quizzes
  • Examples
  • HRM (Rynes et al., 2002)
  • 100 things 50 more things you need to know
    books
  • Advertising (Armstrong Greens adprin.com)
  • Discussion of dissemination vs. exposing students
    as uninformed
  • Links to critical thinking and the pull approach

14
Principles and Resources
  • Concerns about what and how we teach and who
    does the teaching
  • Our body of knowledge
  • Benefits of systematic research
  • Volume of research
  • Focus on novelty over integration, etc.
  • Pluralism
  • Textbooks
  • Instructors
  • Teaching methods

15
Principles and Resources
  • Other References
  • Existing research syntheses
  • Individual synthesis and translation articles
  • E.g., Allen, Bryant, Vardaman (2010). Retaining
    Talent Replacing Misconceptions with
    Evidence-based Strategies. AOM Perspectives Best
    Paper
  • SHRM Effective Practice Guidelines
  • SHRM-SIOPs new collaborative series.

16
Principles and Resources
  • Identify and teach the core management body of
    knowledge less content, more practice
  • Focus on topics, theories, and principles that
  • (a) Have a solid evidence-base
  • (b) Are practical to apply
  • Are role-relevant
  • Have implications for practice address important
    practice issues
  • Involve procedural as well as declarative
    knowledge
  • (c) Are durable
  • Over time
  • Applicable in various situations
  • (Miner, 2003 Rousseau McCarthy, 2007)

17
Since we cant teach everything, what are the
most important evidence-based things we need to
program into our students?
18
References
  • Allen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., Vardaman, J. M.
    (2010). Retaining talent Replacing
    misconceptions with evidence-based strategies.
    Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(2), 48-64.
  • Armstrong, J. S., Green, K. C. (2012).
    Advertising principles Evidence-based knowledge
    on persuasion through advertising. Retrieved from
    http//advertisingprinciples.com/ see
    http//advertisingprinciples.com/en/try/test-your-
    advertising-iq
  • Charlier, S. D., Brown, K. G., Rynes, S. L.
    (2011). Teaching evidence-based management in MBA
    programs What evidence is there? Academy of
    Management Learning Education, 10(2), 222-236.
  • Eichinger, R. W., Lombardo, M. M., Ulrich, D.
    (2004). 100 things you need to know Best people
    practices for managers HR (Vol. 1).
    Minneapolis, MN Lominger.
  • Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow.
    New York Farrar, Strauss, Giroux.
  • Kahneman, D. Klein, G. (2009). Conditions for
    intuitive expertise A failure to disagree.
    American Psychologist, 64(6), 515-526.
  • Kahneman, D. Klein, G. (2010). When can you
    trust your gut? McKinsey Quarterly, Issue 2,
    58-67.
  • Jelley, R. B., Carroll, W. R., Rousseau, D. M.
    (2012). Reflections on teaching evidence-based
    management. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The Oxford
    Handbook of Evidence-Based Management (pp.
    337-355). New York Oxford University Press.
  • Latham, G. P. (2009). Becoming the evidence-based
    manager Making the science of management work
    for you. Boston Davies-Black.
  • Locke, E. A. (2009). Handbook of principles of
    organizational behavior Indispensable knowledge
    for evidence-based management (2nd ed.).
    Chichester, UK Wiley.
  • Miner, J. B. (2003). The rated importance,
    scientific validity, and practical usefulness of
    organizational behavior theories A quantitative
    review. Academy of Management Learning
    Education, 2(3), 250-268.
  • Pearce, J. L. (2009). Organizational behavior
    Real research for real managers. Irvine, CA
    Melvin Leigh.

19
References
  • Pearce, J. L. (2012). Creating evidence-based
    management textbooks. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.),
    The Oxford Handbook of Evidence-Based Management
    (pp. 377-386). New York Oxford University Press.
  • Pfeffer, J., Sutton, R. I. (2006). Hard facts,
    dangerous half-truths, and total nonsense.
    Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press.
  • Rousseau, D. M. (Ed.) (2012). The Oxford Handbook
    of Evidence-Based Management. New York Oxford
    University Press.
  • Rousseau, D. M. (2012). Designing a better
    business school Channelling Herbert Simon,
    addressing the critics, and developing actionable
    knowledge for professionalizing managers. Journal
    of Management Studies, 49(3), 600-618.
  • Rousseau, D. M., McCarthy, S. (2007). Educating
    managers from an evidence-based perspective.
    Academy of Management Learning Education, 6,
    84101.
  • Rynes, S. L., Colbert, A. E., Brown, K. G.
    (2002). HR professionals beliefs about effective
    human resource practices Correspondence between
    research and practice. Human Resource Management,
    41(2), 149174.
  • Society for Human Resource Management Foundation
    (2012). Effective practice guidelines series.
    http//www.shrm.org/about/foundation/products/page
    s/default.aspx
  • Society for Industrial and Organizational
    Psychology Society for Human Resource
    Management (2012). Publication and dissemination
    of science to practice A research collaboration
    between the Society for Human Resource Management
    (SHRM) and the Society for Industrial and
    Organizational Psychology (SIOP).
    http//www.siop.org/SIOP-SHRM5Cdefault.aspx
  • Ulrich, D., Eichinger, R., Kulas, J., De Meuse,
    K. (2007). 50 more things you need to know The
    science behind best people practices for managers
    HR professionals (Vol. 2). Minneapolis, MN
    Lominger.
  • Zanardelli, J. (2012). At the intersection of the
    academy and practice at Ashbury Heights. In D. M.
    Rousseau (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of
    Evidence-Based Management (pp. 191-197). New
    York Oxford University Press.

20
PDW, Annual AOM 2012, Boston
Evidence-Based Management Three New Approaches
to Teaching the Practice of Management
Part 2 The 5-step pull approach
Eric Barends
21
Trust me, Im a manager.
22
Push vs Pull
Push teaching management principles based upon a
convergent body of research and telling students
what to do. Pull teaching students how to find,
appraise and apply the outcome of research
(evidence) by themselves
23
Why do we need a pull approach?
24
Problem I too much evidence
  • HRM 1,400 articles in 2011 (ABI/INFORM). For an
    HR manager to keep up this means reading 3 to 4
    articles every day (for a general manager more
    than 50!)

25
Problem II false information
  • Half of what you learn will be shown to be either
    dead wrong or out-of-date within 7 years of your
    graduation the trouble is that nobody can tell
    you which half

26
Problem III half time value
5 years? 7 years? 10 years?
27
Pull
Pull teaching students how to find, appraise and
apply evidence by themselves
28
Starting point
Start with a practical question, (not with an
academic answer)
  • Problem based
  • Real live case
  • Just in time

29
The 5 steps of pull EBP
  • Formulate a focused question (Ask)
  • Search for the best available evidence (Acquire)
  • Critically appraise the evidence (Appraise)
  • Integrate the evidence with your managerial
    expertise and organisational concerns and apply
    (Apply)
  • Monitor the outcome (Assess)

30
1. Formulate a focused question
31
Asking the right question?
  • Does team-building work?
  • Does the introduction of self-steering teams
    work?
  • Does management development improve the
    performance of managers?
  • Does employee participation prevent resistance to
    change?
  • Is 360 degree feedback effective?

32
Focused question?
  • Does team-building work?
  • What is a team?
  • What kind of team?
  • In what contexts/ settings?
  • What counts as team-building?
  • What does work mean?
  • What outcomes are relevant?
  • Over what time periods?

33
Answerable question PICOC
P Population I Intervention or success
factor C Comparison O Outcome C Context
34
Focused question PICOC
P Population I Intervention or
successfactor C Comparison O Outcome C
Context
  • Employee productivity?
  • Job satisfaction?
  • Return on investment?
  • Market share?
  • Organizational commitment?

35
2. Finding the best available evidence
36
Searching evidence
Where do we search?
37
Databases
  • ABI/INFORM
  • Business Source Elite
  • PsycINFO
  • Web of Knowledge
  • ERIC
  • Google Scholar

38
Searching evidence
How do we search?
Search Strategy
39
Two types of search strategies
Search strategy
40
Hands on instruction
41
3. Critical appraisal of studies
Making sense of evidence
42
The best available evidence
Studies with the highest internal validity (does
it work?) Studies with the highest external
validity (does it work for my employees / my
organization?)
43
Research designs
Which study for which question?
The best evidence depends on the question type !
44
Which design for which question?
45
Best research design?
46
Critical appraisal
47
Critical appraisal
  1. Is the study design appropriate to the stated
    aims?
  2. Was a control group used?
  3. Was a pretest used?
  4. Are the measurements likely to be valid and
    reliable?
  5. Could bias or confounding have occurred?
  6. How large was the effect size?

48
Step 4 Turning evidence into practice
49
Organization concerns
Always ask yourself to what extent the evidence
is applicable in your situation
  1. Is your organization / population so different
    from those in the study that its results are
    difficult to apply?
  2. How relevant is the study (or outcome) to what
    you are seeking to understand or decide?
  3. What are your organizations potential benefits
    and harms from the intervention?
  4. Is the intervention feasible in your setting?

50
Four sources
51
Feasible?
  • organizational facts and characteristics
  • cultural aspects
  • stakeholders values and concerns
  • political aspects
  • financial aspects /cost-effectiveness / ROI
  • priorities
  • change readiness / resistance to change
  • implementation capacity
  • timing

52
Exercises / Assignments
  • Popular management book / guided field trip
  • Surfacing assumptions
  • Needle haystack assignment
  • Myth busters, snake oil symposium
  • Find the Flaws
  • Persuasive paper / presentation
  • CAT

53
CAT Critically Appraised Topic
54
CAT Critically Appraised Topic
A critically appraised topic (CAT) is a
structured, short (2 pages max) summary of
evidence on a topic of interest, usually focused
around a practical problem or question..
55
CAT structure
  1. Background / context
  2. Question (PICOC)
  3. Search strategy
  4. Results / evidence summary
  5. Findings
  6. Limitations
  7. Recommendation

56
CAT-walk
57
CAT example
See www.cebma.org/presentations (CAT
Organizational Trust and Job Satisfaction)
58
What are the skills that are manifest in this
video that are relevant to what you are trying to
teach at your classes?
59
Teaching EBMgt It All Comes Down to Decisions
  • Denise M. Rousseau

Barends, Rousseau, Carroll, Jelley 2012 Academy
of Management PDW Evidence-Based Management
Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of
Management
60
EBMgt Overcomes Limits of Unaided Decisions
  • Bounded Rationality
  • The Small Numbers Problem of Individual
    Experience
  • Prone to See Patterns Even in Random Data
  • Critical Thinking
  • Decision Supports
  • Research
  • Large Ns gt individual experience
  • Controls reduce bias
  • The Human Problem
  • Evidence-Based Practice

61
EBMgt Overcomes Limits of Unaided Decisions
  • Bounded Rationality
  • The Small Numbers Problem of Individual
    Experience
  • Prone to See Patterns Even in Random Data
  • Critical Thinking
  • Decision Supports
  • Research
  • Large Ns gt individual experience
  • Controls reduce bias
  • The Human Problem
  • Evidence-Based Practice

62
Formula For A Fast World
  • Get critical evidence in advance
  • Prime your KSAs
  • Make the right decision as fast as needed
  • Not necessarily as fast as possible
  • Learn best (evidence-based) strategies for
    different decision types
  • Identify the type of decision you face
  • Then, engage the right decision strategy

63
Decision Types Routine
  • Routine decisions for which there is a best
    evidence-based way to do things
  • Hiring call center workers, management trainees
  • Giving periodic performance feedback
  • Running a geographically distributed meeting
  • Acquire science-based evidence and org facts to
    identify effective practices
  • Develop standard operating procedures with users
  • Gather org-evidence to evaluate SOP effects
  • Modify as needed
  • Put in user-friendly form (Checklist, Diagram)

64
Decision Types Non-Routine
  • Non-routine Decisions ( Stakeholders Goals)
  • New facility start up
  • Solving space problem in existing building
  • Developing a company-wide performance management
    system
  • Evidence-Based Pull Approach
  • Yatess Cardinal Rules
  • Note What is non-routine to one organization may
    be routine in another (e.g., new store start ups
    are routine in McDonalds )

65
Yates Cardinal Rules
A Big Picture
66
Decision Types Hypercomplex
  • Hypercomplex Decision with High Risk and Many
    Unknowns (i.e. Black Swans)
  • Use Sensemaking
  • Weick and Sutcliffes Resilience Process
  • Gather information and check assumptions
  • Run experiments (in parallel if several
    alternatives are identified)
  • Multiple trials to learn by doing
  • Build on small wins
  • Continue to question assumptions

67
Decision Types Resources
  • Routine Decisions
  • Atul Gawande
  • Novel Decisions (due Stakeholders Goals)
  • Frank Yates
  • Hypercomplex with Many Unknowns/Risky Decisions
  • Karl Weick Kathleen Sutcliffe

68
Decision Types What type is this?
  • What type of decision situation do you face?
  • DIAGNOSIS Appropriate decision strategy?
  • Product of this is critical thinking that
    overtime helps you become more aware of
    assumptions and gaps in logic

69
Decision Types References
  • Heath, C., Larrick, R. P., Klayman, J. (1998)
    Cognitive repairs How organizational practices
    can compensate for individual shortcomings.
    Review of Organizational Behavior, 20, 138.
  • Gawande, A. (2009). Checklist manifesto How to
    get things right. New York Henry Holt.
  • Larrick, R.K. (2009/) Broaden the decision frame
    to make effective decisions. In E.A. Locke (ed.),
    Handbook of principles of organizational
    behavior Indispensable knowledge for
    evidence-based management. New York Wiley (pp.
    461-515).
  • Taleb, N. N. (2010). The black swan The impact
    of the highly improbable. (2nd ed.) New York
    Penguin.
  • Weick, K.E, Sutcliffe, K. (2007). Managing the
    Unexpected Resilient Performance in an Age of
    Uncertainty. New York Wiley.
  • Yates, J. F. (2003). Decision management. San
    Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Yates, J.F. Potwoworski, G. (2012).
    Evidence-based decision management. In D,M,
    Rousseau (ed) Handbook of Evidence-Based
    Management New York Oxford University Press,
    this volume.
About PowerShow.com