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The Historical Background of Hanukkah

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The Historical Background of Hanukkah and why we celebrate for 8 days The New York Times 12/11/09 David Brooks Tonight Jewish kids will light the menorah, spin ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Historical Background of Hanukkah


1
The Historical Background of Hanukkah
  • and why we celebrate for 8 days

2
(No Transcript)
3
The New York Times12/11/09 David Brooks
  • Tonight Jewish kids will light the menorah, spin
    their dreidels and get their presents, but
    Hanukkah is the most adult of holidays. It
    commemorates an event in which the good guys did
    horrible things, the bad guys did good things and
    in which everybody is flummoxed by insoluble
    conflicts that remain with us today.

4
1 Maccabees ch. 2
  • 23 There came a certain Jew in the sight of all
    to sacrifice to the idols upon the altar in the
    city of Modin, according to the king's
    commandment. 24 And Mathathias saw and was
    grieved, and his reins trembled, and his wrath
    was kindled according to the judgment of the law,
    and running upon him he slew him upon the altar.
    25 Moreover the man whom king Antiochus had sent,
    who compelled them to sacrifice, he slew at the
    same time, and pulled down the altar. 26 And
    showed zeal for the law, as Phinees did by Zamri
    the son of Salomi.

5
I Maccabees 111
  • In those days there appeared in Israel men who
    were breakers of the law, and
  • they seduced many people, saying "Let us go and
    make an alliance with the Gentiles all around us
    since we separated from them, many evils have
    come upon us.
  • Cf. Jer 4418

6
  • What is Hellenism?
  • Why did Antiochus persecute the Jews?
  • Why do we celebrate for 8 days?
  • Why do we celebrate on Kislev 25th?
  • What can Hanukka mean for us today?

7
Babylonians 605 539 BCE
Persians 539 332 BCE
Hellenistic Rule Alexander 332 BCE Ptolemies 301
200 BCE Seleucids 200 142 BCE
Hasmonean Rule 142 63 BCE
Romans 63 BCE 395 CE
8
Jeremiahs Prophecy of 70
  • ?????? ??? ????-??
  • ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????
    ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????
    ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
    ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????
    ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????
    ??????
  • ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?????
    ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????
  • ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????
  • ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????

9
Cyrus Cylinder
  • Now in the British Museum

10
Read this
11
Cyrus Cylinder
  • 28-33 By his exalted word, all the kings who
    sit upon thrones throughout the world, from the
    Upper Sea to the Lower Sea i.e., from the
    Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, who live
    in the districts far-off, the kings of the West,
    who dwell in tents, all of them, brought their
    heavy tribute before me and in Babylon they
    kissed my feet. From Babylon to Aššur and from
    Susa, Agade, Ešnunna, Zamban, Me-Turnu, Der, as
    far as the region of Gutium, the sacred centers
    on the other side of the Tigris, whose
    sanctuaries had been abandoned for a long time, I
    returned the images of the gods, who had resided
    there i.e., in Babylon, to their places and I
    let them dwell in eternal abodes. I gathered all
    their inhabitants and returned to them their
    dwellings. In addition, at the command of Marduk,
    the great lord, I settled in their habitations,
    in pleasing abodes, the gods of Sumer and Akkad,
    whom Nabonidus, to the anger of the lord of the
    gods, had brought into Babylon.
  • 34-36 May all the gods whom I settled in their
    sacred centers ask daily of Bêl and Nâbu that my
    days be long and may they intercede for my
    welfare. May they say to Marduk, my lord "As for
    Cyrus, the king who reveres you, and Cambyses,
    his son, lacuna." The people of Babylon blessed
    my kingship, and I settled all the lands in
    peaceful abodes.

12
Cyrus Cylinder in British Museum, London
13
Replica of Cyrus Cylinder in UN, New York
14
A seal from the 6th cent. BCE
  • Belonging to Yehoyishma, daughter of
    Sawas-sar-usur. Sawas-sar-usur is a well-known
    neo-Babylonian name that means "Shamash the
    Babylonian sun-god protect the king

15
Rebuilding of Temple
  • Texts Ezra 1-6, Haggai 1
  • People Involved
  • Sheshbazzar Yehoyachins son
  • Zerubabel Yehoyachins grandson
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Dates
  • Commences in Darius Is 2nd year 520
  • Finished on Adar 3 of Darius 6th year March
    516

16
Important Dates
  • 587 BCE Destruction of Bet haMikdash I
  • 539 BCE Cyrus destroys Babylonia, decrees that
    Jews can return
  • 520-516 BCE Rebuilding of Bet haMikdash II
  • ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??? ???????
    ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????
    ????????????, ?????-??????? ??????-?????? ??????
    ??-???? ??????? ?????????.
  • 5th century Ezra and Nehemiah
  • 332 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Judea and
    Persian Empire

17
Babylonians 605 539 BCE
Persians 539 332 BCE
Hellenistic Rule Alexander 332 BCE Ptolemies 301
200 BCE Seleucids 200 142 BCE
Hasmonean Rule 142 63 BCE
Romans 63 BCE 395 CE
18
Alexander the Great
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vMQfBinQwPGsfeature
    email

19
Alexander the Macedonian
20
Unifying the Empire
  • Alexander encouraged intermarriages, setting an
    example by marrying a Persian princess himself.
    He placed soldiers from all the provinces in his
    army. He introduced a uniform currency system
    throughout the empire and promoted trade and
    commerce. He encouraged the spread of Greek
    ideas, customs, and laws into Asia. When he heard
    that some of his provincial officials ruled
    unjustly, he replaced them. To receive
    recognition as the supreme ruler, he required the
    provinces to worship him as a god.

21
Arrian of Nicomedia on Weddings at Susa
  • Then he also celebrated weddings at Susa, both
    his own and those of his Companions. He himself
    married Barsine, the eldest of Darius' daughters,
    and, according to Aristobulus, another girl as
    well, Parysatis, the youngest of the daughters of
    Ochus. He had already married previously Roxane,
    the daughter of Oxyartes of Bactria.
  • He gave Drypetis to Hephaestion, she too a
    daughter of Darius and a sister of his own wife
    his intention was that the children of
    Hephaestion should be cousins to his own
    children. To Craterus he gave Amastris daughter
    of Oxyathres, brother of Darius, and to Perdiccas
    the daughter of Atropates, satrap of Media. To
    Ptolemy the bodyguard and to Eumenes the royal
    secretary he gave the daughters of Artabazus,
    Artacama to one and Artonis to the other. To
    Nearchus he gave the daughter of Barsine and
    Mentor, and to Seleucus the daughter of
    Spitamenes of Bactria. Similarly he gave to the
    other Companions the noblest daughters of the
    Persians and Medes, some eighty in all.
  • The marriages were celebrated according to
    Persian custom. Chairs were placed for the
    bridegrooms in order, and after the drinks the
    brides came in and sat down, each by the side of
    her groom. They took them by the hand and kissed
    them the king began the ceremony, for all the
    weddings took place together. More than any
    action of Alexander this seemed to show a popular
    and comradely spirit. The bridegrooms after
    receiving their brides led them away, each to his
    own home, and to all Alexander gave a dowry. And
    as for all the Macedonians who had already
    married Asian women, Alexander ordered a list of
    their names to be drawn up they numbered over
    10,000, and Alexander offered them all gifts
    their wedding. 

22
(No Transcript)
23
High Priests
Sadok
Shimon ha-Sadiq
Jason (Yehoshua) (175-171)
Onias III
Meneleus (171-161)
Jonathan the Hasmonean
24
Hellenistic Period
  • 332BCE Alexander the Great conquers Palestine
  • 323BCE Alexander dies
  • Diadochi, Ptolemy in Egypt, Seleucus in Syria
  • 301-201BCE Ptolemaic Rule
  • Allowed to continue as semiautonomous
  • 201BCE Seleucid conquest of Palestine
  • 175-171BCE Jason High Priest
  • bribes Antiochus IV for high priesthood
  • builds gymnasium in Jerusalem which becomes a
    polis Antioch
  • 171-162BCE Menelaus High Priest
  • Converts temple into pagan shrine, YHVHZeusBaal
    Shamin
  • 168BCE Bet haMikdash is looted, Jews are
    massacred
  • 167-166 Antiochus IV decrees persecution
  • 164 Judah conquers Jerusalem and rededicates the
    Temple

25
Why did Antiochus Persecute the Jews?
  • He was crazy, nervous, eccentric.
  • May have hastened the persecution but not caused
    it.
  • He was a Great Hellenizer and unifier
  • But only for political ends by making poleis, not
    cultural.
  • The Jewish Hellenizers asked for the decrees.
  • Decrees result from a civil war.

26
Why is Hanukah on Kislev 25?
27
Megilat Taanit
  • ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????.
  • ???? ???? ?? ???? ????, ??????? ???? ?? ??????.
    ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ???, ???????,
    ????? ?? ????? ?????, ????? ????? ????? ????. ???
    ?????? ?? ???? ???, ?? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??
    ????? ?? ?? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???.
  • ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????
  • ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????, ??????? ?? ??? ???????
    ????? ???????? ???. ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???.

28
Haggai 218
  • ???????-??? ?????????, ???-??????? ??????
    ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????
    ????????????, ?????-??????? ??????-?????? ??????
    ??-???? ??????? ?????????.
  • Consider, I pray you, from this day and forward,
    from the four and twentieth day of the ninth
    month, even from the day that the foundation of
    Hashems temple was laid, consider it.

29
I Maccabees 1
  •   54 Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the
    one hundred forty-fifth year, they erected a
    desolating sacrilege on the altar of burnt
    offering. They also built altars in the
    surrounding towns of Judah, 55and offered incense
    at the doors of the houses and in the
    streets. 56The books of the law that they found
    they tore to pieces and burned with
    fire. 57Anyone found possessing the book of the
    covenant, or anyone who adhered to the law, was
    condemned to death by decree of the king. 58They
    kept using violence against Israel, against those
    who were found month after month in the
    towns. 59On the twenty-fifth day of the month
    they offered sacrifice on the altar that was on
    top of the altar of burnt offering.

30
Winter Solstice Holiday
  • ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ? ???? ?
  • ??'. ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? - ?' ???? ???
    ?????, ??????? - ?' ???? ???? ?????, ??????
    (????? ???) ???? ???? ????? ???'.
  • ?"? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???
    ??? ??, ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????
    ????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ?????,
    ??? ???? ?' ???? ?????? ??????, ???? ????
    ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ??
    ???? ???, ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????, ???? ?????
    ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????, ??? ???? ??? ????,
    ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????. ????? ??"? ?????
    ???? ?????, ???? ???? ???, ???? ????? ???? ??
    ??? ??? ??"? ????? ???? ?????, ?? ??? ??? ????
    ???? ????? ?????! ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???.
  • ?"? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????, ???? ????? ????
    ???, ??? ??? ??, ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????
    ?????? ???? ????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???
    ?? ?????, ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????
    ???? ?????, ???? ???? ???? ????, ??? ????? ??
    ???? ???.

31
Winter Solstice
  • Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zara 8a
  • Our Rabbis taught When Adam saw the day getting
    gradually shorter, he said, Woe is me, perhaps
    because I have sinned, the world around me is
    being darkened and returning to its state of
    chaos and confusion this then is the kind of
    death to which I have been sentenced from
    Heaven! So he began keeping an eight days fast.
    But as he observed the winter solstice and noted
    the day getting increasingly longer, he said,
    This is the world's course, and he set forth to
    keep an eight days festivity. In the following
    year he appointed both as festivals. Now, he
    fixed them for the sake of Heaven, but the
    heathens appointed them for the sake of
    idolatry.

32
Why is Hanukah 8 Days?
33
Josephus is in the Dark
  • Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 127
  • Now Judas celebrated the festival of the
    restoration of the sacrifices of the temple for
    eight days, and omitted no sort of pleasures
    thereon but he feasted them upon very rich and
    splendid sacrifices and he honored God, and
    delighted them by hymns and psalms. Nay, they
    were so very glad at the revival of their
    customs, when, after a long time of intermission,
    they unexpectedly had regained the freedom of
    their worship, that they made it a law for their
    posterity, that they should keep a festival, on
    account of the restoration of their temple
    worship, for eight days. And from that time to
    this we celebrate this festival, and call it
    Lights. I suppose the reason was, because this
    liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us and that
    thence was the name given to that festival. Judas
    also rebuilt the walls round about the city, and
    reared towers of great height against the
    incursions of enemies, and set guards therein. He
    also fortified the city Bethsura, that it might
    serve as a citadel against any distresses that
    might come from our enemies.

34
Lit for Eight Days
  • ????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?
  • ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??"? ?????? ???? ??????
    ????? ?????, ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ????.
    ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????,
    ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????, ???? ??? ????
    ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????,
    ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???, ???? ?? ?? ???????
    ???? ????? ????. ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????
    ????? ???? ??????.

35
  • What is the reason of Hanukkah? For our Rabbis
    taught On the twenty-fifth of Kislev commence
    the days of Hanukkah, which are eight on which a
    lamentation for the dead and fasting are
    forbidden. For when the Greeks entered the
    Temple, they defiled all the oils therein, and
    when the Hasmonean dynasty prevailed against and
    defeated them, they made search and found only
    one cruse of oil which lay with the seal of the
    High Priest, but which contained sufficient for
    one day's lighting only yet a miracle was
    wrought therein and they lit the lamp therewith
    for eight days. The following year these days
    were appointed a Festival with the recital of
    Hallel and thanksgiving.

36
Eight Metal Spits
  • ?????? ???? (??? ????) ???? ? ?"? ?????? ????? ??
  • ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??
    ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????
    ???? ?? ???? ??? (????? ?' ?"?) ????? ???? ?????
    ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???????
    ????? ????,

37
  • II Maccabees 212 - Solomon also celebrated the
    feast in the same way for eight days.

38
Like Sukkoth
  • II Maccabees 10
  • Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading
    them on, recovered the temple and the city 2.
    they tore down the altars that had been built in
    the public square by the foreigners, and also
    destroyed the sacred precincts. 3. They purified
    the sanctuary, and made another altar of
    sacrifice then, striking fire out of flint, they
    offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years,
    and they offered incense and lighted lamps and
    set out the bread of the Presence. 
  • 4. When they had done this, they fell prostrate
    and implored the Lord that they might never again
    fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they
    should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him
    with forbearance and not be handed over to
    blasphemous and barbarous nations. 5. It happened
    that on the same day on which the sanctuary had
    been profaned by the foreigners, the purification
    of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the
    twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was
    Chislev. 
  • 6. They celebrated it for eight days with
    rejoicing, in the manner of the festival of
    booths, remembering how not long before, during
    the festival of booths, they had been wandering
    in the mountains and caves like wild animals. 7.
    Therefore, carrying ivy-wreathed wands and
    beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they
    offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had
    given success to the purifying of his own holy
    place. 8. They decreed by public edict, ratified
    by vote, that the whole nation of the Jews should
    observe these days every year.  9. Such then was
    the end of Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes.

39
???? ??? ?? ?"?
  • Our Rabbis taught The precept of Hanukkah
    demands one light for a man and his household
    the zealous kindle a light for each member of
    the household and the extremely zealous, Beth
    Shammai maintain On the first day eight lights
    are lit and thereafter they are gradually
    reduced, but Beth Hillel say On the first day
    one is lit and thereafter they are progressively
    increased. Ulla said In the West Palestine
    two amoraim, R. Jose b. Abin and R. Jose b.
    Zebida, differ therein one maintains, The reason
    of Beth Shammai is that it shall correspond to
    the days still to come, and that of Beth Hillel
    is that it shall correspond to the days that are
    gone but another maintains Beth Shammai's
    reason is that it shall correspond to the
    bullocks of the Festival whilst Beth Hillel's
    reason is that we promote in matters of
    sanctity but do not reduce.

40
2 Maccabees 67
  • On the monthly celebration of the kings
    birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter
    constraint, to partake of the sacrifices and
    when a festival of Dionysus was celebrated, they
    were compelled to wear wreaths of ivy and to walk
    in the procession in honor Dionysus.

41
Teetotum
42
  • The original medieval dice used in Germany by
    gamblers was inscribed with the four letters N,
    G, H, and S, which are the initials
  • Nichts (nothing),
  • Ganz (all),
  • Halb (half), and
  • Stellein (put in).
  • Encyclopedia Judaica Folklore

43
Kedushefy
  • Winter Solstice becomes religious day of hope and
    trust in Hashem.
  • Celebration of lights becomes symbol of Hashems
    providence even in times of darkness.
  • Ivy bands for Dionysis become part of
    rededication celebration.
  • European gambling game becomes symbol of
    perseverance.

44
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
45
From the Hasmoneans to Roman Revolt
46
  1. Mattathiasben Johanan ? - 165 BCE     Hasmonean Dynasty  
____ _ _______________ _ __________________ _ ________________ _ ______
       
JohananGaddi   4. SimonThassiruled 142-134 BCE   2. JudahMaccabee ? - 160 BCE   EleazarAvaron   3. JonathanApphusruled 160-142 BCE
____ _ ______________ _ __________        
           
Mattathias ?-134 BCE   Judah ?- 134 BCE   5. JohananHyrcanusruled 134-104 BCE        
    ________ _ __________________ _ ________    
           
    6. Aristobulus I(Judah)ruled 104-103 BCE   Antigonus(Matthew) ? - 104 BCE   7. Alexander Jannai(Jonathan)ruled 103-76 BCE 8. SalomeAlexandraruled 76-67 BCE
        __________ _ ________    
             
        10. Hyrcanus II(Jonathan)ruled 63-40 (d. 30) BCE   9. Aristobulus II(Judah)ruled 67-63 (d. 49) BCE    
          _______ ____
        Alexandra ? - 28 BCE Alexander ? - 49 BCE   11. Antigonus(Matthe)ruled 40-37 BCE
        __________    
        Aristobulus III ? - 35 BCE   Mariamne ? - 29 BCE 12. Herod(the Great)ruled 38-4 BCE
            ________ _____
             
            Aristobulus IV ca 31 - 7 BCE   Alexander ca 30 - 7 BCE
Elephant fell on him
47
Judah the Maccabee
  • 167-160 BCE
  • Led the revolt against the Seleucids
  • Purified the Temple in 164 BCE

48
Jonathan
  • Ruler 161-143 BCE
  • Brother of Judah
  • first Hasmonean to be High Priest in 153 BCE

49
Simon
  • Ethnarch and High Priest
  • 142-135 BCE
  • Is granted tax exemption from Demetrius II
  • Removes Seleucid garrison in Jerusalem
  • Gains total political independence
  • Murdered by his son-in-law together with two
    older sons

50
John Hyrcanus
  • Ethnarch and High Priest
  • Son of Simon
  • 134-104 BCE
  • Forced the Idumeans to convert (including
    Antipaters father, grandfather of Herod)
  • Destroys Samaritan Temple in 128BCE

51
  • Coin of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BCE)
  • ?????? ???? ????? ???? ???????

52
??? ????Paleo-Hebrew
53
Double Perutah coin of John Hyrcanus. Pair of
cornucopiae and a crested helmet. Reads
Yehochanan the High Priest and Leader of the
Community of the Jews.
54
Bar Kokhba Coin
Front the Aron in the middle and star above.
????? Back Lulav. ????? ?????? in Ketav Ivri
(Ancient Hebrew script)
55
Bar Kokhba Coin
  • Front Trumpets. "????? ???????"
  • Back Lyre. "??? ? ????? ?????"

56
Judah Aristobulus I
  • King and High Priest
  • 104-103BCE
  • Son of John Hyrcanus
  • First to call himself king
  • Imprisons mother and three brothers. Kills
    another brother.
  • Married to Salome Alexandra

57
  • Coin of Judah Aristobulus
  • ????? ???? ????? ???? ???????

58
Alexander Yannai
  • King and High Priest
  • 103-76 BCE
  • Son of John Hyrcanus
  • Married Salome Alexandra, his brothers widow
  • Practiced Sadduecean law and was pelted by
    Etrogim. Kills 6,000 Jews in retaliations.
  • Killed 50,000 in civil war.
  • Crucified 800 Pharisees
  • Advises his wife before dying to yield to the
    Pharisees!

59
Alexander Yannai"?????? ???? ????? ???? ???????"
60
  • Sun wheel, ?????? ????
  • Anchor, King Alexander in Greek

61
  • Flower and Anchor with King Yannai
  • Restamped with Yonatan the High Priest and the
    Community of the Jews
  • Went back to original type

62
Salome Alexandra Sons
  • Salome is queen of Judea 76-67 BCE
  • Her two sons Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II fight
    over the crown. Both appeal for help from the
    Romans.
  • Pompey imprisons Aristobulus II and makes
    Hyrcanus II high priest in 63BCE.
  • Hyrcanus serves 63-40BCE
  • Antignos serves 40-37BCE
  • Herod marries Mariamne, granddaughter of Hyrcanus
    and Aristobulus.

63
Hasmonean Conquests
64
  1. Mattathiasben Johanan ? - 165 BCE        Hasmonean Dynasy
____ _ _______________ _ __________________ _ ________________ _ ______
       
JohananGaddi   4. SimonThassiruled 142-134 BCE   2. JudahMaccabee ? - 160 BCE   EleazarAvaron   3. JonathanApphusruled 160-142 BCE
____ _ ______________ _ __________        
           
Mattathias ?-134 BCE   Judah ?- 134 BCE   5. JohananHyrcanusruled 134-104 BCE        
    ________ _ __________________ _ ________    
           
    6. Aristobulus I(Judah)ruled 104-103 BCE   Antigonus(Matthew) ? - 104 BCE   7. Alexander Jannai(Jonathan)ruled 103-76 BCE 8. SalomeAlexandraruled 76-67 BCE
        __________ _ ________    
             
        10. Hyrcanus II(Jonathan)ruled 63-40 (d. 30) BCE   9. Aristobulus II(Judah)ruled 67-63 (d. 49) BCE    
          _______ ____
        Alexandra ? - 28 BCE Alexander ? - 49 BCE   11. Antigonus(Matityahu)ruled 40-37 BCE
        __________    
        Aristobulus III ? - 35 BCE   Mariamne ? - 29 BCE 12. Herod(the Great)ruled 38-4 BCE
            ________ _____
             
            Aristobulus IV ca 31 - 7 BCE   Alexander ca 30 - 7 BCE
65
  • Coin of Mattathias Antigonus (40-37BCE) with
    Menorah and Shulhan

66
Influences of Greco-Roman Thought on the Rabbis
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  • ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??.

67
Ben Zoma, Pirke Avot 41
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  • ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????? (?????
    ??"?) ??? ????? ??????
  • ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????? (???? ?? /??/) ???
    ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???
  • ????? ???? ???? ????? ????? (????? ??"?) ????
    ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????
    ?? ????? ???
  • ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? (????? ?' ?')
    ?? ????? ???? ????? ????

68
Quotes from Roman Writers
  • Who then is sane? He whos no fool. (Horace
    56-8BCE, Satires, II.iii.158)
  • Who then is free? The Sage who masters himself.
    (Horace, Satires II.vii.83)
  • To be content with ones things are riches.
    (Cicero, Paradoxa Stiocorum, 51)
  • A noble thing is joyful poverty. (Seneca, Epistle
    II.5)
  • Honoring the Sage is a great bonus to the
    honorers. (Gnomologium Vaticanum, 32)
  • Only the Sage is sane. Only the Sage is free.
    Only the Sage is rich. (Cicero, pro Murena 60-66)

69
Kohelet Rabbah 514
  • AS HE CAME FORTH OF HIS MOTHER S WOMB naked
    shall he go back as he came, and shall take
    nothing for his labor (514). Genibah said It
    is like a fox who found a vineyard which was
    fenced in on all sides. There was one hole
    through which he wanted to enter, but he was
    unable to do so. What did he do? He fasted for
    three days until he became lean and frail, and so
    got through the hole. Then he ate of the grapes
    and became fat again, so that when he wished to
    go out he could not pass through at all. He again
    fasted another three days until he became lean
    and frail, returning to his former condition, and
    went out. When he was outside, he turned his face
    and gazing at the vineyard, said, ' O vineyard, O
    vineyard, how good are you and the fruits inside!
    All that is inside is beautiful and commendable,
    but what enjoyment has one from you? As one
    enters you so he comes out. Such is this world.

70
Aesops Fables
  • A hungry fox spied some bread and meat left in a
    hollow tree by some shepherds. He crawled in and
    ate it, but his belly swelled so that he could
    not get out again. As he moaned and groaned,
    another fox passing by came up and asked what was
    the matter. When he heard what had happened, he
    said to the first fox I guess youll just have
    to wait until you get back to the size you were
    when you went in, and then you wont have any
    trouble getting out. The story shows that time
    overcomes difficulties.

71
More Fables
  • (Baba Kama 60b)
  • When R. Ammi and R. Assi were sitting before R.
    Isaac the Smith, one of them said to him Will
    the Master please tell us some legal points?
    while the other said Will the Master please
    give us some homiletical instruction?
  • When he commenced a homiletical discourse he was
    prevented by the one, and when he commenced a
    legal discourse he was prevented by the other. He
    therefore said to them I will tell you a
    parable
  • To what is this like? To a man who has had two
    wives, one young and one old. The young one used
    to pluck out his white hair, whereas the old one
    used to pluck out his black hair. He thus finally
    remained bald on both sides. He further said to
    them I will accordingly tell you something which
    will be equally interesting to both of you
  • (Aesops Fables)
  • In the old days, when men were allowed to have
    many wives, a middle-aged man had one wife that
    was old and one that was young each loved him
    very much, and desired to see him like herself.
  • Now the Man's hair was turning grey, which the
    young Wife did not like, as it made him look too
    old for her husband. So every night she used to
    comb his hair and pick out the white ones.
  • But the elder Wife saw her husband growing grey
    with great pleasure, for she did not like to be
    mistaken for his mother. So every morning she
    used to arrange his hair and pick out as many of
    the black ones as she could. The consequence was
    the man soon found himself entirely bald.
  • Yield to all and you will soon have nothing to
    yield.

72
Studying Greek
  • Rabban Gamaliel was given permission to teach the
    students Greek due to the relationship with the
    Romans.
  • (Tosefta Sot 158)
  • R. Gamaliel's son, Rabbi Simeon even said, "There
    were a 1000 pupils in my father's house 500
    studied the Torah and 500 studied Greek wisdom."
    (Bavli Sota 49b)

73
May a Jew study Greek?
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    ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????
    ?? ???? ?????
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    ????? ?? ???? ?????
  • ????? ?' ?????? ????' ????? ?? ??????
  • ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???
    ????? ???? ???????
  • ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???
    ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??
  • ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???
    ??? ??? ??' ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??' ?????
  • They asked R. Yehoshua, May one teach his son
    Greek? He replied, he may teach it at a time
    which is neither day nor night for it is written,
    You shall study it day and night.
  • If so, then one may not teach his son a trade
    since it is written, You shall study it day and
    night.
  • But didnt R. Ishmael say, Choose life this is
    a trade.
  • R. Abbabecause of the slanderers.
  • R Abhu said in the name of R. Yohanan, One may
    teach his daughter Greek for it serves her as an
    ornament.
  • Shimon bar Abba heard this. He said, because he
    wanted to teach his daughters he ascribed it to
    R. Yohanan. May a curse come upon me if I heard
    this from R. Yohanan.

74
Pandoras Jar
  • Beresheet Rabbah, 179-180
  • And he said, I heard Your voice, and I was
    afraid for I am naked and I hid. And he said, who
    told you that you are naked? (Gen 39-10)
  • Rabbi Levi said, This should be compared to a
    woman who comes to borrow vinegar, who enters
    into the house of the wife of a colleague.
  • She the borrower asks her the wife, How does
    your husband treat you?
  • She wife said to her visitor, Everything he
    does with me is good, except that there is this
    jar, which is full of snakes and scorpions, which
    he does not let me touch.
  • She visitor said, All of his jewels are in
    there. And he plans to marry another woman and
    give them to her.
  • What did she wife do? She stretched out her
    hand into the jar. They began to bite her.
  • When her husband came, he heard her voice crying
    out, and said, Perhaps you touched that jar?
  • Similarly God said to Adam Did you eat from
    the tree which I commanded you? (Gen 311)

75
Pompey
76
Josephus on Pompey
  • No small enormities were committed about the
    temple itself, which, in former ages, had been
    inaccessible, and seen by none for Pompey went
    into it, and not a few of those that were with
    him also, and saw all that which it was unlawful
    for any other men to see but only for the high
    priests.
  • There were in that temple the golden table, the
    holy candlestick, and the pouring vessels, and a
    great quantity of spices and besides these there
    were among the treasures two thousand talents of
    sacred money yet did Pompey touch nothing of all
    this, on account of his regard to religion and
    in this point also he acted in a manner that was
    worthy of his virtue.
  • The next day he gave order to those that had the
    charge of the temple to cleanse it, and to bring
    what offerings the law required to God and
    restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, both
    because he had been useful to him in other
    respects, and because he hindered the Jews in the
    country from giving Aristobulus any assistance in
    his war against him
  • Antiquities 14.4

77
Pompey Enters the Holy of Holies
  • The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot
    into their Temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus
    Pompey thereafter it was a matter of common
    knowledge that there were no representations of
    the gods within, but that the place was empty and
    the secret shrine contained nothing.
  • Tacitus Histories 5.11-12

78
Rambam and His Detractors
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    ?????? ? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???, ?? ?? ??
    ???? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??
    ??? ??? ???? ???? ????.
  • ????? ???"? ???? ??? ??? ?"? ??
  • ??? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????
    ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ???
    ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???
    ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????
    ????? ?? ?? ???? ??????

79
Adapted from Rabbi Berel Wein
  • What happened to the Hellenists? Their influence
    all but collapsed in the wake of the defeat. They
    would never return again as Hellenists, because
    the war brought out their true colors as traitors
    and they lost whatever appeal they could have had
    to the Jewish people.
  • Most of them retreated to the city of Caesarea,
    which remained a Greek city (and later would
    become a Roman city). They were just not part of
    the Jewish people any longer.

80
Elias BickermanFrom Ezra to the Last of the
Maccabees
  • Judaism was able to enrich itself with new and
    foreign ideas and to be saved from the
    mummification that overtook the religion of the
    Egyptians, for example, which shut itself off
    from Hellenism completely.
  • The Maccabees preserved the Judaism of the Greek
    period from both dissolution and ossification. It
    is through their deeds that the God of Abraham,
    Isaac and Jacob could and did remaind our God.
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