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Language Learning: Language Socialization

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Language Learning: Language Socialization the baby uses a word long before he asks for the object; when he wants his horsey he is likely to cry and fret, because ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Language Learning: Language Socialization


1
Language Learning Language Socialization
  • the baby uses a word long before he asks for the
    object when he wants his horsey he is likely to
    cry and fret, because he is reacting to an actual
    environment, not forming ideas (Goshgarian, 2004
    31).

2
In what ways are the relationship between
language and gender cross-culturally similar or
different to the relationship between language
and race?
3
Previously
  • Social roles and language use
  • --class, caste, gender, race, etc.
  • Language and social meanings
  • --reflects social and cultural norms
  • Linguistic markers
  • --sounds, grammar, morphology

4
Communicative Competence
  • Knowledge of rules of language and language use.
    Communicative competence entails ability to speak
    a particular language and knowledge of cultural
    and social norms of appropriate language use in
    given interactional contexts.

5
Todays Basic Questions
  • 1. How is this communicative competence acquired?
  • 2. How are children socialised into appropriate
    linguistic behaviour?
  • 3. How linguistic practices are made to seem
    natural?

6
Linguistic Ability
  • Symbolic representation
  • Awareness of symbolism of sounds
  • Relational situations people, objects, and/or
    activities
  • Discovery and creativity
  • Universality of process (acquisition of language)

7
Acquisition of language Steps
  • 1. Learning to differentiate and produce sounds
  • 2. The beginning of grammatical construction
  • 3. Morphological development
  • 4. Growth in vocabulary
  • 5. Syntactic development

8
Syntactic development
  • Expansion of grammar new propositions
  • Example negation
  • SimpleN Sentence or Sent N No sit there.
  • More sophisticated He not little, he big.
  • Complex incorporation I didnt did it

9
Child-Rearing Practices and Language Instruction
Three Cases
  • Ochs (1988) and Schieffelin (1990)
  • White-middle- class (USA) infants encouraged to
    speak
  • Samoa (A group of six Polynesian islands in the
    South Pacific) opposite
  • Kaluli (New Guinea)opposite
  • Different practices and values diff linguistic
    socialization

10
White-Middle-Class (USA) Language Instruction
  • Infants treated as persons
  • Potential and actual conversational partners
  • Interpretation of infants vocalization and
    gestures as meaningful
  • Establishes communicative structures
  • Simplification of language(caregiver) baby talk

11
Samoan Language Instruction
  • Infants mobility (Crawling) determines hiss/her
    status as a conversational partner
  • Infants vocalization and gestures not speech
    act
  • Stratification by age and title
  • Lower-rank status infant

12
SamoaChild appeals to high-ranking caregiver (A
? B)High-ranking caregiver directs lower-ranking
caregiver (B ? C)Lower-ranking caregiver
responds to child (C ? A)
  • Turn taking sequencing in the USA (ABBA)

13
Samoan Communicative Interaction
  • Multiparty sequencing along hierarchical lines
  • Social hierarchy and meaning clarification of
    meaning (lower rank)
  • Cultural priorities through language instruction
    (paying attention to social hierarchy)

14
Kaluli Language Instruction
  • Egalitarian
  • Emphasis on network of obligation and reciprocity
  • Language means to ge rights and desires
  • Infants helpless, lacking understanding
  • Not considered conversational partners

15
Socialization and language Acquisition
  • Teaching how to become assertive
  • Teaching by example
  • Social rules transmitted through language
    instruction

16
Summary
  • Discovery and creativity universal steps
  • Cultural practices to make a child language
    competent differ cross culturally
  • Ochs (1988) and Schieffelin (1990)
  • Different cultural practices reflects on
    linguistic socialization

17
Discussion Question
  • How do child rearing linguistic practices play a
    central role in making the child into a competent
    member of a culture? Provide examples from your
    own culture.

18
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