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WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OF PAKISTAN

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Title: WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OF PAKISTAN


1
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OF PAKISTAN
  • IJAZ -UL-HASSAN KASHIF
  • SMALL DAMS ORGANIZATION
  • ISLAMABAD

2
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3
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4
INDUS RIVER BASIN FROM SPACE
5
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  • Water Resources Management is the integrating
    concept for a number of water sub-sectors
  • hydropower
  • water supply and sanitation
  • irrigation and drainage
  • environment.
  • An integrated water resources perspective ensures
    that social, economic, environmental and
    technical dimensions are taken into account in
    the management and development of water
    resources.

6
OVERVIEW
  • Pakistan is one of the worlds most arid
    countries, with an average rainfall of under 240
    mm a year. The population and the economy are
    heavily dependent on an annual influx into the
    Indus river system (including the Indus, Jhelum,
    Chenab Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers) of about 180
    billion cubic meters of water, that emanates from
    the neighboring countries and is mostly derived
    from snow-melt in the Himalayas

7
OVERVIEW-2
  • The balance between population and available
    water already makes Pakistan one of the most
    water stressed countries of the world
  • with rapid population growth it will soon enter a
    condition of absolute water scarcity

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9
DECLINING PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY OF WATER IN
PAKISTAN
(Cubic Meters Per Capita Per Year)
10
WATER RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN
  • Rain fall
  • Glacier
  • Ground water

11
RAINFALL
  • Pakistan lies in an arid and
    semi arid climate zone
  • Sources of rainfall
  • Monsoon
  • Western disturbances
  • Mean Annual rainfall
  • Lower Indus Plain lt 100 mm
  • Upper Indus Plain gt 750 mm
  • Average seasonal rainfall
  • Kharif 212 mm
  • Rabi 53 mm

12
10 YEARS AVERAGE(1990-99) RAINFALL OF SOME MAJOR
CITIES
13
GLACIER
  • Catchment area of Indus basin contains some of
    the largest glacier in the world outside the
    polar region.
  • Glacier area of upper Indus catchment is abut
    2250 Km2 and accounts about 80 of summer runoff
    in river.
  • Kabul River originates from southern Hindukush
    and starts rising approximately a month earlier
    than Indus and fulfill the irrigation requirement
    of late Rabi and early Kharif crops.
  • Snow melt account for more than 50 of the flow
    in Jhelum River.

14
SURFACE WATER ACCOUNT
MAF
Average annual volume of water from rainfall and snow melt 154.00
From Western Rivers 144.91
From Eastern Rivers 9.14
Diversion for irrigation 104.73
Flow to see 39.40
System losses 9.90
15
DETAIL OF SURFACE WATER AVAILABILITY
MAF
River Average annual flow (1922-61) Average annual flow (1985-95) Average annual flow (2001-02)
Indus 93 62.7 48.0
Jhelum 23 26.6 11.85
Chenab 26 27.5 12.38
Ravi 7 5.0 1.47
Sutlej 14 3.6 0.02
Kabul 26 23.4 18.9
Total 189 148.8 92.62
16
SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES AND CONSUMPTIONS
  

17
Ground Water
  • Total Groundwater Potential 55 MAF
  • Groundwater Abstraction 41.5 MAF
  • Punjab (81 abstraction)
  • 80 Fresh water, 20 Saline
  • Sind (12 abstraction)
  • 23 Fresh water 77 Saline
  • NWFP (5 Abstraction)
  • Balochistan (1.2 Abstraction)

18
GROWTH IN USE OF TUBEWELLS
19
GROWING ROLE OF GROUNWATER IRRIGATION
20
DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN
Description Average annual withdrawals (MAF)
Under Colonial Rule (1850 1947) 67
Post independence development (1947-60) 85
Indus Water Treaty 1960 108105
21
INDUS WATER TREATY 1960
22
INDUS WATERS TREATY, 1960
  • SALIENT FEATURES
  • All waters of eastern rivers namely Ravi, Beas
    and Sutlej allocated to India.
  • All waters of western rivers namely Indus, Jhelum
    and Chenab allocated to Pakistan except some
    specified uses in occupied Kashmir.
  • Pakistan to meet the requirements of its eastern
    river canals from the western rivers by
    constructing suitable replacement works.
  • Safeguards incorporated in the treaty to ensure
    unrestricted flow of waters in the western
    rivers.

23
INDUS WATERS TREATY, 1960
  • SALIENT FEATURES
  • Either party constructing a work affecting the
    other party to inform the other party at least
    six months in advance and supply necessary
    details to enable the other party to satisfy
    itself that the proposed work does not adversely
    affect the other party.
  • Permanent Indus commission constituted to watch
    implementation of the treaty and resolve by
    negotiations any problem arising thereof.
  • Procedure for settlement of differences and
    disputes outlined.
  • Differences and disputes first to be resolved by
    negotiations by the permanent Indus commission
    failing which procedure for settling such

24
INDUS BASIN PROJECTS
DAMS i) Terbela on River Indus. ii) Mangla on
River Jhehlum NEW BARRAGES i) Chashma Barrage
on River Indus ii) New Rasul Barrage on River
Jhehlum iii) New Marala Barrage on River
Chenab iv) Qadirabab Barrage on River
Chenab v) New Sidhnai Barrage on River
Ravi vi) Mailsi Syphon on River Sutlej
25
INDUS BASIN PROJECTS
NEW LINK CANALS i) Chashma Jhelum Link (C-J
Link) ii) Taunsa Panjnad Link (T-P
Link) iii) Rasul Qadirabad Link (R-Q
Link) iv) Qadirabad Balloki Lin (Q-B
Link) v) Balloki Sulemanki Link II (B-S Link
II) vi) Trimmu Sidhnai Link (T-S
Link) vii) Sidhnai Milsi Bahawal Link (S-M-B
Link) OLD BARRAGES REMODELLED. i) Trimmu
Barrage ii) Balloki Barrage
26
KEY WATER INFORMATION
No. of major rivers 5 (Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Satluj)
No. of major reservoirs 3
No. of barrages / HW / Syphons 23
No. of main canal system 45
No. of interlink canals 12
Length of canals 60800 Km
Length of watercourses 1.6 Million Km
Average canal water diversion 104.7 MAF
Groundwater abstraction 41.6 MAF
No. of tubewells gt550,000
Irrigated area 36 Million Acres
Average escapage to the sea 39.4 MAF
27
ANNUAL CANAL DIVERSION AND ESCAPAGES TO THE SEA
28
STORAGE PER CAPITA IN DIFFERENT SEMI ARID
COUNTRIES
29
INDUS RIVER BASIN
30
INDUS BASIN IRRIGATION SYSTEM
31
LARGE DAM IN PAKISTAN
32
SALIENT FEATURE OF MANGLA DAM
Dam type Earth fill
Height 380 ft (above riverbed)
Length 10,300 feet
Lake Area 97.70 Sq. Miles
Catchment Area 12,870 Sq. Miles
Gross Storage Capacity 5.88 MAF
Live storage capacity 5.34 MAF
Main spillway capacity 1.01 Million Cusecs
Year of completion 1967
Hydropower generation 1000 MW
33
RAISING OF MANGLA DAM
  • The capacity of Mangla Dam has been reduced by
    19.22 due to silting
  • Raising of Mangla Dam is in progress, main
    features are -
  • Increase in height 40 feet
  • Additional storage 3.1 MAF
  • Additional power 1000 GWh

34
SALIENT FEATURE OF TARBELA DAM
Dam type Earth and rockfill
Height 485 ft (above riverbed)
Reservoir Area 95 Sq. Miles
Gross storage capacity 11.62 MAF
Live storage capacity 9.7 MAF
Main spillway capacity 6.5 Million Cusecs
Year of completion 1977
Power generation 3,478 MW
35
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36
STORAGE LOSS IN EXISTING RESERVOIRS
Dam Designed Live Storage (MAF) Existing Live Storage (MAF) Percentage Loss
Tarbela 9.7 7.2 -26
Mangla 5.3 / 4.75 4.5 -15
Chashma 0.9 0.4 -55
Total 15.9 12.1 -25
37
WATER ACCORD 1991
38
SALIENT FEATURES OF ACCORD 1991
  • Existing uses of provinces remain untouched and
    protected.
  • N.W.F.P / Baluchistan projects which are under
    execution are provided their authorized quota of
    water as existing uses.
  • Need for additional storages on the Indus and
    other rivers admitted and recognized for planned
    future agricultural development.
  • Need for minimum escapages to sea below Kotri to
    check sea intrusion recognized. Further
    studies desired to establish minimal escapage
    needs below Kotri.

39
SALIENT FEATURES OF ACCORD 1991
  • No restrictions on Baluchistan to develop water
    resources of Indus tributaries flowing through
    its area.
  • Need for establishing Indus river authority for
    implementation of the accord recognized and
    accepted.
  • IRSA to have headquarters at Lahore and to have
    representation from the four provinces.
  • Sharing procedure laid down in Para 14(b) of the
    accord
  • Provinces are free to under take new projects
    within their agreed shares.
  • Within their allocations provinces may modify
    uses both system wise and period wise.

40
APPORTIONMENT OF WATERS OF THE INDUS RIVER
SYSTEM BETWEEN THE PROVINCES-ACCORD 1991
(MAF)
PROVINCES KHARIF RABI TOTAL
PUNJAB 37.07 18.87 55.94
SINDH 33.94 14.82 48.76
N.W.F.P (a) 3.48 2.30 5.78
CIVIL CANALS (b) 1.80 1.20 3.00
BALUCHISTAN 2.85 1.02 3.87
TOTAL 77.34 37.01 114.35
CIVIL CANALS (b) 1.80 1.20 3.00
INCLUDING ALREADY SANCTIONED URBAN AND
INDUSTRIAL USES FOR METROPOLITAN
KARACHI. UNGAUGED CIVIL CANALS ABOVE THE RIM
STATIONS. BALANCE RIVER SUPPLIES
(INCLUDING FLOOD SUPPLIES AND FUTURE
STORAGES) SHALL BE DISTRIBUTED AS BELOW
PUNJAB SINDH N.W.F.P.
BALUCHISTAN TOTAL
37 37 14
12 100
41
SHARING PROCEDURE
PARA (14) OF ACCORD. 14(a) The System Wise
Allocations will be worked out separately on ten
daily basis and will be attached with
this agreement as part and parcel of
it. 14(b) The record of actual Average System
uses for the period 1977-82 would form the guide
line for developing a future regulation pattern.
These ten daily uses would be adjusted
pro-rata to correspond to indicated seasonal
allocations of the different canal systems and
would form the basis for sharing shortages and
surpluses on all Pakistan basis.
42
APPORTIONMENT OF THE INDUS WATERS (PROMISE AND
PROSPECTS) AN
HISTORIC ACCORD 21 MARCH 1991
  • MAIN FEATURES
  • Existing uses of all provinces to be protected.
  • Allocations to different canal systems to be
    worked out separately on the basis of ten daily
    uses. These uses to help determine sharing of
    shortages and surpluses

43
WATER APPORTIONMENT ACCORD 1991 SHARING PROCEDURE
  • Sindh holds that the available river supply
    should be shared between Punjab and Sindh on the
    basis of para (2) accord allocations reflected in
    para 14(a) of the accord.
  • Punjab emphasizes that the relevant clause for
    sharing of available river supply is para 14 (b)
    of the accord, which envisages sharing of
    shortages and surpluses on all Pakistan basis on
    the basis of average system uses 1978-82.

44
SHARE OF THE PROVINCES AS PER WATER ACCORD 1991
Province Kharif (MAF) Rabi (MAF) Total (MAF)
Punjab 37.07 18.87 55.94
Sindh 33.94 14.82 48.76
NWFP 05.28 03.50 08.78
Balochistan 02.85 01.02 03.87
Total 77.34 37.01 114.35
45
INDUS RIVER SYSTEM AUTHORITY
  • Comprises Five Members. One from each Province
    and one from Federal Government.
  • First Chairman Member Balochistan followed by
    NWFP, Punjab, Sindh and Federal.
  • Term of Office
  • Chairman One Year
  • Member Three Years

46
DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN IRSA
  • Decisions taken by majority votes.
  • In case of equality of votes, chairman exercises
    casting vote.
  • Aggrieved party to approach Council of Common
    Interest for redressal.

47
WATER MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE
IRSA prepares the Forecast of Water Availability for Kharif and Rabi crops
Based on water availability Forecast IRSA determines Provincial shares according to Water Accord Provisions.
Punjab prepares Canal Operation / Distribution Programme based on its share in consultation with Punjab Agriculture Department.
If Punjab share is short of requirements Rotational Programme of operation of channels is prepared and implemented by the field formations.
48
PRESENT PROJECTS
49
PAKISTAN WATER STRATEGY AND WAPDAS VISION 2025
  • The Pakistan Water Strategy and WAPDAs Vision
    2025 have reviewed likely future demands and the
    implied requirements for storage.
  • If no new storage is built, canal
  • diversions will remain stagnant at about 104 MAF
    and the shortfall will increase by about 12 over
    the next decade.
  • The Pakistan Water Strategy calculates that
    Pakistan needs to raise storage capacity by 18
    MAF (6 MAF for replacement of storage lost to
    siltation and 12 MAF of new storage) by 2025 in
    order to meet the projected requirements of 134
    MAF.

50
RAISING OF MANGLA DAM PROJECT RAISING OF MANGLA DAM PROJECT
Location At Mangla Azad Jummu and Kashmir and District Jhelum (Punjab)
Dam Type Length Height Dam Earth and Rockfill 11200 Ft. 420 Ft.
Canal Length 0 Miles
Canal Capacity 0
Storage 2.9 MAF
Power 772 KW
Cost 1025 Million US()
Con. Period 6 Years
Status Rs.8000 Million has been arranged by WAPDA, through SUKUK Bonds.
Implementation International Competitive Bidding (ICB)
River Jhelum
51
SABAKZAI DAM PROJECT SABAKZAI DAM PROJECT
Location About 2 miles (3km) upstream of Sabakzai village Zhob Distt. Bulochistan
Dam Type Length Height Dam Earth Fill Zoned Embankment 1300 Ft. 98.42 Ft.
Canal Capacity 3284
Storage 25046 AF
Area To Benefit 25000 Acres
Power 100 KW
Cost 19 Million US()
Con. Period 3 Years
Status Feasibility complete. PC-I Sumitted.
River Sawar Rud Tributry Zhob
52
SATPARA DAM PROJECT SATPARA DAM PROJECT
Location About 3.74 Miles 6 KM South of Skardu. FANA
Dam Type Length Height Dam Earthfill 560 Ft. 128 Ft.
Canal Length 24.5 Miles
Canal Capacity 170
Storage 0.05 MAF
Area To Benefit 15536 Acres
Power 12.7 KW
Cost 36 Million US()
Con. Period 4.25 Years
Status Construction in progress.
River Satpara Stream
53
MIRANI DAM PROJECT MIRANI DAM PROJECT
Location In the Dasht River Basin about 30 miles (48 km) West of Turbat Town in Makran Divn of Bulochistan.
Dam Type Length Height Dam Concrete Faced Rock Fill 335 Ft. 127 Ft.
Canal Capacity 377
Storage 0.3 MAF
Area To Benefit 33200 Acres
Cost 101 Million US()
Con. Period 4 Years
Status Under Construction on EPC/Turnkey Basis
River Dasht
54
FUTURE PROJECTS
55
INDUS AND JHELUM OFF CHANNEL STORAGE SITES
56
KALABAGH DAM KALABAGH DAM
Dam Height 260 Ft.
Storage 6.18 MAF
River INDUS
57
BASHA DIAMER DAM PROJECT BASHA DIAMER DAM PROJECT
Location About 200 miles(320 km) upstream of Tarbela Dam.
Dam Type Length Height Dam Roller Compacted concrete 3402 Ft. 909 Ft.
Canal Length 0 Miles
Canal Capacity 0
58
SURFACE STORAGE IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM
59
SEDIMENTATION AND STORAGE CAPACITY
60
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61
WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN POTOHAR PLATEAU OF
PUNJAB PROVINCE
62
KEY FEATURES OF POTOHAR PLATEAU
LOCATION RAINFED AREA OF NORTHERN PUNJAB COMPRISING DISTRICT JHELUM .CHAKWAL, RAWAL PINDI. ATTOCK AND ISLAMABAD
AREA 22000 Sq.Km
No. OF VILLAGES 2600
POPULATION 4.2 MILLION
ANNUAL RAINFALL 400 TO 1400 MM
TOPOGRAPHY UNEVEN WITH STEEP SLOPES
MAIN RIVERS INDUS JHELUM
63
STATISTICS
Description Punjab Province Potohar plateau
Area Population Cultivated Area Irrigated Rain fed 205345 Sq Km 74.0 Million 10.70 M ha 8.10 M ha (75.70 of CA) 2.60 M ha (24.30 of CA) 24000 Sq Km 6.66 Million 1.00 M ha 25500 ha (2.55 of CA) 0.987 M ha (97.45 of CA)
64
HYDROLOGY OF POTOHAR
Total basin area 22307 Sq. Km
No. of basins 6 (Soan, Haro, Reshi, Bunha, Kahan and Kanshi)
Average yearly runoff 1.88 MAF
Runoff Tapped 0.22 MAF (11.70)
Balance runoff available 1.66 MAF (88.30)
65
Area D
Harro River
Korang River
Soan River
Indus River
Attock
Haro Basin
Rawal Pindi
Area A
Area C
F Jang
Ling River
Reshi Basin
Soan Basin
Kanshi Basin
Sill River
Area B
Soan River
Chakwal
Kahan Basin
Jhelum
Talagang
Bunha Basin
Jhelum River
Area A
66
DETAIL OF DAMS
Dams Constructed by WAPDA (1962) 1 No.
Dams Constructed by ADC (1961-1972) 10 No.
Dams Constructed by Small Dams Organization 1973-1986 1986-1995 (ADB Funded) 2000-2005 8 No. 12 No. 10 No.
Dams under construction 9 No.
Total 50 No.
67
DISTRICT WISE DETAIL OF DAMS
District Completed Under construction
Islamabad 2 0
Rawalpindi 6 1
Attock 15 1
Chakwal 12 4
Jhelum 6 3
Total 41 9
68
BENEFITS FROM 50 DAMS
  • Assured Irrigation supplies to 25500 ha of land
  • Drinking water supplies
  • 22 MGD from Rawal Dam to Rawalpindi city
  • 0.55 MGD from Khokharzer Dam to Ckakwal City
  • 2.5 MGD from different dams for small schemes
  • Flood Control
  • Development of Fish Culture
  • Improvement in environment
  • Ground water recharge
  • Recreational facilities

69
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