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Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action

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Title: Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action


1
Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science Concepts
in Action
  • Chapter 3
  • States of Matter

2
3.1 Solids, Liquids Gases
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain how shape and volume can be used to
    classify materials
  • 2. Describe how kinetic theory and forces of
    attraction can be used to explain the behavior of
    solids, liquids and gases

3
How Shape Volume Classifies Materials
  • Materials can be classified as solids, liquids,
    or gases based on whether their shapes and volume
    are definite or variable
  • Definition a solid is the state in which
    materials have a definite shape and definite
    volume
  • Definition definite means that shape and volume
    wont change unless the material is acted on by
    an outside force

4
  • Definition a liquid is the state of matter in
    which material has a definite volume but not a
    definite shape
  • Liquids will take the shape of their container
  • Definition a gas is the state of matter in which
    a material has no definite shape and no definite
    volume
  • Gases will expand to completely fill the volume
    take the shape of their container

5
  • Almost all matter exists as a solid, liquid or
    gas on Earth
  • This is not true for the universe
  • In places with the temperature of stars, matter
    exists in a state called plasma
  • In 1995, scientists discovered a fifth state of
    matter called BCE (Bose-Einstein condensate)
  • At temperatures close to absolute zero (0 K or
    -273ºC), BCE groups of atoms behave as if they
    were a single particle

6
Kinetic Theory
  • Definition kinetic energy is the energy an
    object has due to its motion
  • Kinetic theory says
  • 1. That all particles of matter are in constant
    motion
  • 2. There are forces of attraction among all
    particles of matter

7
  • Kinetic theory of gasses says
  • 1. The constant motion of particles in a gas
    allows a gas to fill a container of any shape or
    size
  • 2. Particles in a gas are in constant, rapid,
    random motion
  • 3. The motion of 1 particle of gas is unaffected
    by other particles of gas unless they collide
  • 4. Forces of attraction among particles of gas
    can be ignored under ordinary conditions

8
  • Kinetic theory of liquids says
  • 1. A liquid takes the shape of its container
    because particles in a liquid can flow to new
    locations
  • 2. The volume of a liquid is constant because
    forces of attraction keep particles close
    together
  • Kinetic theory of solids says
  • 1. Solids have a definite shape and volume
    because particles in a solid vibrate about a
    fixed point

9
3.2 The Gas Laws
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain what causes gas pressure in a closed
    container
  • 2. Explain what factors affect gas pressure
  • 3. Describe how temperature, volume and pressure
    of a gas are related

10
Gas Pressure in Closed Containers
  • Definition Pressure is the result of force
    distributed over an area
  • The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa)
  • The SI unit of force is the newton (N)
  • The unit for area is m2
  • Since pressure force/area then Pa N/m2
  • Collisions between particles of a gas and the
    walls of the container cause pressure in a closed
    container of gas

11
Factors That Affect Gas Pressure Relationship
of Factors
  • Three factors that affect gas pressure are
    temperature, volume and number of particles
  • 1. Raising the temperature of a gas will increase
    its pressure if the volume of the gas and the
    number of the particles are held constant

12
  • 2. Reducing the volume of a gas increases its
    pressure if the temperature and number of gas
    particles is held constant
  • 3. Increasing the number of particles will
    increase the pressure of a gas if the temperature
    and volume are constant

13
3.3 Phase Changes
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain six common phase changes
  • 2. Describe what happens to a substances
    temperature systems energy during a phase
    change
  • 3. Describe the arrangement of water molecules
    change during melting and freezing
  • 4. Explain the difference between evaporation and
    boiling

14
Six Common Phase Changes
  • Definition a phase change is the reversible
    physical change that occurs when a substance
    changes from one state of matter to another
  • Six common phase changes melting, freezing,
    vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and
    deposition

15
Temperature, Energy Phase Changes
  • The temperature of a substance does not change
    during a phase change
  • For example, water temperature remains constant
    when boiling to go from liquid to gas or when
    condensing from a gas to liquid
  • Q At what temperature does water boil and
    condense?

16
  • Energy is either absorbed or transferred during a
    phase change
  • The amount of energy absorbed depends on the
    substance is a unique physical property for
    each substance
  • Definition heat of fusion is the amount of
    energy absorbed when going from a solid to a
    liquid

17
  • Definition exothermic changes occur when energy
    is released to the environment
  • An example of an exothermic change is water
    freezing since it releases its heat to the
    environment so that it can freeze
  • Definition endothermic changes occur when energy
    is absorbed from the environment
  • An example is water melting since it gathers as
    much heat as possible from the environment to melt

18
Melting Freezing Water
  • The arrangement of molecules in water becomes
    less orderly as water melts and more orderly as
    water freezes
  • Solid water (ice) has molecules in a fixed
    position that vibrate about a fixed point
  • Freezing produces molecules in an orderly
    arrangement
  • Liquid water has molecules that are attracted to
    each other and slide past each other due to
    special chemical bonds
  • Melting allows a less orderly molecular
    arrangement

19
Evaporation Boiling
  • Definition vaporization is a phase change from a
    liquid to a gas
  • Vaporization is endothermic since liquid water
    absorbs energy in the form of heat from the
    surroundings to go from liquid to gas
  • Definition heat of vaporization is the amount of
    energy needed for a substance to change phases
    from liquid to gas
  • Heat of vaporization is a unique physical
    property for each substance

20
  • Definition evaporation is the process that
    changes a substance from a liquid to a gas below
    the substances boiling point
  • Evaporation is a process that takes place at the
    surface of a liquid and occurs at temperatures
    below the boiling point
  • Definition vapor pressure is the pressure caused
    by the collisions of vapor on the walls of the
    container
  • Vapor pressure increases as temperature increases

21
  • Q How does surface area of a liquid affect the
    rate of evaporation?
  • Definition the boiling point is where vapor
    pressure equals atmospheric pressure
  • Kinetic theory shows that as the temperature
    increases, water molecules move faster faster
    until they have energy to overcome attractive
    forces of neighboring molecules
  • Definition condensation is the phase change from
    a gas or vapor to a liquid

22
  • Definition sublimation is the phase change from
    solid to a gas without going through the liquid
    phase
  • Example of sublimation is dry ice to CO2 at room
    temperature
  • Definition deposition is the phase change from a
    gas or vapor to a solid without going through the
    liquid phase
  • Deposition is the reverse of sublimation
  • Example of deposition is frost on windows
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