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theories of personality and intelligence

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Title: theories of personality and intelligence


1
11
theories of personality and intelligence
2
why study personality? Personality is the sum
total of who you areyour attitudes and
reactions, both physical and emotional. Its what
makes each person different from every other
person in the world. How can any study of human
behavior not include the study of who we are and
how we got to be that way?
3
Learning Objectives
  • LO 11.1 Personality from various perspectives
  • LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of personality
  • LO 11.3 Jung, Adler, Horney, and Eriksons
    modifications
  • LO 11.4 How does modern psychoanalytic theory
    differ from Freud
  • LO 11.5 Behavioral and social cognitive
    explanations of personality
  • LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
    trait perspective
  • LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
    measure of personality
  • LO 11.9 Definition of intelligence

4
Learning Objectives
  • LO 11.10 Measuring intelligence and how
    intelligence tests are constructed
  • LO 11.11 Intellectual Disability and what causes
    it
  • LO 11.12 Giftedness and does giftedness
    guarantee success
  • LO 11.13 Biology, heredity, environment, and
    cultural roles in personality and intelligence

5
Personality
LO 11.1 Personality
  • Personality
  • Unique way individual thinks, feels, and acts
    throughout lifespan
  • Character
  • Value judgments on moral and ethical behavior

6
Personality
LO 11.1 Personality
  • Temperament
  • Based in biology
  • Genetic and prenatal influences
  • Character and temperament are components of
    personality

7
Four Perspectives in Study of Personality
LO 11.1 Personality
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Beginnings with Freud
  • Role of unconscious
  • Behaviorists
  • Origins in learning theory
  • Focus on environmental influences

8
Four Perspectives in Study of Personality
LO 11.1 Personality
  • Humanistic
  • Conscious life experiences and choices
  • Trait Theorists
  • Concerned with the characteristics of personality

9
Sigmund Freud
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Founded the psychoanalytic movement
  • Believed in layers of consciousness
  • Must be understood in the social context of the
    Victorian era
  • "Obsession" with sexual explanations for abnormal
    behavior
  • Reflects repressive attitudes about sexuality
  • Patient concerns often centered on sexual
    conflicts

10
Sigmund Freud (18561939) was the founder of the
psychodynamic movement in psychology. Many of his
patients sat or reclined on the couch above while
he sat in a chair, listening to them and
developing his psychoanalytic theory of
personality.
11
The Unconsciousness Mind
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Mind divided into three parts
  • Preconscious
  • Information available but not currently conscious
  • Conscious
  • Aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions

12
The Unconsciousness Mind
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Mind divided into three parts
  • Unconscious
  • Thoughts, feelings, and memories not easily or
    voluntarily brought into consciousness
  • Unconscious content revealed in dreams, slips of
    the tongue

13
Figure 11.1 Freuds Conception of the
Personality This iceberg represents the three
levels of the mind. The part of the iceberg
visible above the surface is the conscious mind.
Just below the surface is the preconscious mind,
everything that is not yet part of the conscious
mind. Hidden deep below the surface is the
unconscious mind, feelings, memories, thoughts,
and urges that cannot be easily brought into
consciousness. While two of the three parts of
the personality (ego and superego) exist at all
three levels of awareness, the id is completely
in the unconscious mind.
14
Freuds Theory Parts of Personality
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Id
  • Present at birth, completely unconscious
  • Libido
  • Instinctual energy, conflict with societys
    standards
  • Pleasure principle
  • Immediate satisfaction, no regard for consequences

15
Freuds Theory Parts of Personality
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Ego
  • Deals with reality conscious, rational, logical
  • Reality principle
  • Satisfy demands of id when no negative
    consequences exist

16
Freuds Theory Parts of Personality
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Superego
  • Moral center source of pride or guilt
  • Ego ideal
  • Standards for moral behavior

17
Table 11.1 The Psychological Defense Mechanisms
18
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Personality develops in a series of stages
  • Fixation
  • Unresolved conflict in psychosexual stage
  • Results in personality traits and behavior
    associated with that earlier stage

19
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Labeled Psychosexual stages
  • Five stages tied to childs sexual development

20
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Oral stage
  • Occurs during first year of life
  • Mouth is erogenous zone
  • Weaning is primary conflict
  • Id dominated stage

21
Freud believed that mothers should breast-feed
their infants to satisfy an infants need for
oral gratification in the oral stage of
psychosexual development. The age at which an
infant was weaned from the breast was a critical
factor in psychoanalytic theory.
22
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Anal stage
  • 1 to 3 years of age
  • Anus is erogenous zone
  • Toilet training is source of conflict
  • Ego develops

23
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Anal stage
  • Anal expulsive personality
  • Fixated personality
  • Messy, destructive, and hostile
  • Anal retentive personality
  • Fixated
  • Neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn

24
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Phallic stage
  • 3 to 6 years of age
  • Child discovers sexual feelings
  • Superego develops
  • Oedipus complex
  • Child develops sexual attraction to opposite-sex
    parent
  • Jealousy of the same-sex parent

25
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Phallic stage
  • Identification
  • Defense mechanism
  • Child identifies with same sex parent to deal
    with anxiety

26
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Latency
  • Age 6 to puberty
  • Sexual feelings of the child are repressed
  • Child grows socially, intellectually, physically

27
Freud Stages of Personality Development
LO 11.2 Freuds historical views of
personality
  • Genital
  • Puberty
  • Sexual feelings reawaken
  • Parents are no longer target of attraction

28
Table 11.2 Freud's Psychosexual Stages
29
Neo-Freudians
LO 11.3 Jung, Adler, Horney, and Eriksons
modifications
  • Jung
  • De-emphasized Freuds focus on biology and
    sexuality
  • Unconscious more complex than suggested by Freud
  • Collective unconscious
  • Memories of ancient fears
  • Themes common in folktales and cultures
  • Archetypes
  • Collective, universal human memories

30
Carl Jung (18751961) was a Swiss psychoanalyst
who eventually broke away from Freuds emphasis
on the sexual content of the unconscious mind. He
formed his own theory of analysis known as
analytical psychology.
31
Neo-Freudians
LO 11.3 Jung, Adler, Horney, and Eriksons
modifications
  • Adler
  • Conflicts rooted in feelings of inferiority
  • Driving force is pursuit of superiority
  • Horney
  • Theory based on anxiety
  • Rejected concept of penis envy
  • Basic anxiety
  • Struggle with powerful world of older children
    and adults

32
Dr. Karen Horney (18851952) took issue with
Freuds emphasis on sexuality, especially the
concept of penis envy. She emphasized the
importance of feelings of basic anxiety in
personality development during early childhood.
33
Neo-Freudians
LO 11.3 Jung, Adler, Horney, and Eriksons
modifications
  • Erikson
  • Theory based on social rather than sexual
    relationships
  • Covers entire life span

34
Modern Psychoanalytic Theory
LO 11.4 Modern psychoanalytic theory
  • Current research supports
  • Defense mechanisms to explain irrational behavior
  • Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence
    conscious behavior

35
According to Horney, of the three ways children
deal with anxiety, which way do you think this
child might be using?
36
Behaviorism and Personality
LO 11.5 Behavioral and social cognitive
explanations of personality
  • Define personality as a set of learned responses
    or habits
  • Habits
  • Well-learned, automatic responses
  • Social cognitive learning theorists
  • Emphasis on influences of others behavior and
    own expectancies on learning

37
Behaviorism and Personality
LO 11.5 Behavioral and social cognitive
explanations of personality
  • Social cognitive view
  • Includes cognitive processes
  • Anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of
    models

38
Banduras Reciprocal Determinism and Self-efficacy
LO 11.5 Behavioral and social cognitive
explanations of personality
  • Reciprocal determinism
  • Environment, personal characteristics, and
    behavior interact to determine future behavior
  • Self-efficacy
  • Perception of how effective behavior will be
  • Not the same as self-esteem

39
Figure 11.2 Reciprocal Determinism In Banduras
model of reciprocal determinism, three factors
influence behavior the environment, which
consists of the physical surroundings and the
potential for reinforcement the person
(personal/cognitive characteristics that have
been rewarded in the past) and the behavior
itself, which may or may not be reinforced at
this particular time and place.
40
Rotters Social Learning Theory Expectancies
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Personality as stable set of potential responses
    to various situations
  • Locus of control
  • Degree one assumes to have control or not
    have control over consequences in life

41
Rotters Social Learning Theory Expectancies
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Locus of control
  • Internal
  • Assume personal actions control events
  • External
  • Assume results are beyond personal control

42
According to Rotter, what would be the most
likely form of locus of control experienced by
this young woman?
43
Humanism and Personality
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Humanistic perspective
  • Focuses on aspects of personality that make
    people uniquely human
  • Subjective feelings, freedom of choice
  • Developed as a reaction against
  • Negativity of psychoanalysis
  • Deterministic nature of behaviorism

44
Rogers Theory of Personality
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Self-actualizing tendency
  • Humans strive to reach unique potential
  • Self-concept is tool for self-actualization

45
Rogers Theory of Personality
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Components of self-concept
  • Real self
  • Actual perception of characteristics, traits,
    abilities
  • Forms basis of striving for self-actualization
  • Ideal self
  • Perception of what one should or would like to be

46
Figure 11.3 Real and Ideal Selves According to
Rogers, the self-concept includes the real self
and the ideal self. The real self is a persons
actual perception of traits and abilities,
whereas the ideal self is the perception of what
a person would like to be or thinks he or she
should be. When the ideal self and the real self
are very similar (matching), the person
experiences harmony and contentment. When there
is a mismatch between the two selves, the person
experiences anxiety and may engage in neurotic
behavior.
47
Carl Rogers and Self-Concept
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Positive regard
  • Warmth, affection, love, respect
  • Comes from significant others in ones life
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • Regard given without conditions or strings
    attached

48
Carl Rogers and Self-Concept
LO 11.6 How humanists explain personality
  • Conditional positive regard
  • Given only when doing what providers of positive
    regard wish
  • Fully functioning person
  • In touch with and trusting deepest, innermost
    urges and feelings

49
Trait Theories of Personality
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Describe characteristics that make up human
    personality
  • Attempt to predict future behavior
  • Trait
  • Consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or
    behaving

50
Trait Theories of Personality
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Allport
  • Developed a list of 200 traits
  • Believed traits were literally wired into
    nervous system
  • Cattell
  • Defined traits as surface and source
  • Based personality questionnaire on 16 source
    traits

51
Cattell and the 16 PF
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Five-factor model (Big Five)
  • Statistical technique
  • Factor analysis
  • Evaluating groupings and commonalities in
    numerical data

52
Cattell and the 16 PF
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Five basic core trait dimensions
  • Openness
  • Willingness to try new things, open to new
    experiences
  • Conscientiousness
  • Organization, thoughtfulness of others
    dependability

53
Figure 11.4 Cattells Self-Report
Inventory This is an example of personality
profiles based on Cattells 16PF self-report
inventory. The two groups represented are airline
pilots and writers. Notice that airline pilots,
when compared to writers, tend to be more
conscientious, relaxed, selfassured, and far less
sensitive. Writers, on the other hand, are more
imaginative and better able to think abstractly.
Source Cattell (1973).
54
Figure 11.4 (continued) Cattells Self-Report
Inventory This is an example of personality
profiles based on Cattells 16PF self-report
inventory. The two groups represented are airline
pilots and writers. Notice that airline pilots,
when compared to writers, tend to be more
conscientious, relaxed, selfassured, and far less
sensitive. Writers, on the other hand, are more
imaginative and better able to think abstractly.
Source Cattell (1973).
55
The Big Five Theory
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Extraversion
  • Refers to need to be with other people
  • Extraverts
  • Outgoing and sociable
  • Introverts
  • Prefer solitude, dislike being the center of
    attention

56
The Big Five Theory
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Agreeableness
  • Emotional style range
  • Easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy,
    crabby, and unpleasant
  • Neuroticism
  • Degree of emotional instability or stability

57
Trait Theories Today
LO 11.7 The history and current views of the
trait perspective
  • Cross-cultural research
  • Supports five-factor model in many different
    cultures
  • Future research to explore
  • Child-rearing practices influence on factors
  • Hereditys influence on the personality factors

58
Table 11.3 Who Uses What Method?
59
Measuring Personality Interviews
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Professional asks questions of the client and
    client answers
  • May be a structured or unstructured fashion
  • Interview is not like a job interview
  • Naturally flowing dialogue

60
Measuring Personality Interviews
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Problems with interviews
  • Can be biased and prejudiced
  • Halo effect
  • Interviewer is affected by first impression
  • Subsequent interviews are influenced by this
  • May be positive or negative

61
Measuring Personality Projective Tests
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Client projects unconscious concerns and fears
    onto ambiguous visual stimuli
  • Tests are commonly used as a diagnostic tool
  • Uncover problems in personality
  • Rorschach inkblot test
  • uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli

62
Measuring Personality Projective Tests
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations are
    visual stimuli
  • Test interpretation can be very subjective
  • Not scientific or necessarily accurate

63
Figure 11.5 Rorschach Inkblot Example A
facsimile of a Rorschach inkblot. A person being
tested is asked to tell the interviewer what he
or she sees in an inkblot similar to the one
shown. Answers are neither right nor wrong but
may reveal unconscious concerns. What do you see
in this inkblot?
64
Figure 11.6 Thematic Apperception Test
Example A sample from the Thematic Apperception
Test (TAT). When you look at this picture, what
story does it suggest to you? Who are the people?
What is their relationship?
65
Measuring Personality Behavioral Assessments
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Direct observation
  • Professional observes client engaged in
    day-to-day behavior
  • Seen in either a clinical or natural setting
  • Rating scale
  • Numerical value is assigned to specific behavior
    listed in the scale

66
Measuring Personality Behavioral Assessments
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Frequency count
  • Frequency of a particular behavior is counted

67
Measuring Personality Personality Inventory
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Paper and pencil or computerized test
  • Consists of statements requiring specific,
    standardized responses
  • NEO-PI
  • Neuroticism/Extraversion/Openness Personality
    Inventory
  • Based on the five-factor model

68
Measuring Personality Personality Inventory
LO 11.8 Advantages and disadvantages of various
measures of personality
  • Consists of statements requiring specific,
    standardized responses
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • Uses Jungs theory of personality types
  • MMPI-2
  • Clinical test, assesses abnormal personality
    traits

69
Intelligence
LO 11.9 Definition of intelligence
  • The ability to
  • Learn from ones experiences
  • Acquire knowledge
  • Use resources effectively in adapting to new
    situations or solving problems
  • Characteristics individual needs to survive in
    his or her culture

70
Intelligence
LO 11.9 Definition of intelligence
  • Spearman
  • g factor
  • General intelligence
  • Ability to reason and solve problems
  • s factor
  • Specific intelligence
  • Ability to excel in certain areas

71
Intelligence
LO 11.9 Definition of intelligence
  • Gardner
  • Multiple intelligences
  • Broader concept of intelligence
  • Identifies nine areas of intelligence

72
Measuring Intelligence
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • Intelligence quotient (IQ)
  • MA/CA X 100 IQ
  • Allows comparison of intelligence levels of
    people of different age-groups

73
Measuring Intelligence
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
  • Single score
  • Evaluates
  • Fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative
    processing, visualspatial processing, and
    working memory
  • Wechsler Intelligence Tests
  • Three scores
  • Verbal, performance, and overall score

74
Table 11.4 Paraphrased Sample Items from the
Stanford-Bidet Intelligence Test
75
Table 11.5 Simulated Sample Items from the
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV)
76
Test Construction
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • Reliability
  • Producing consistent results on repeat testing of
    individuals or groups
  • Validity
  • Degree to which a test measures what it is
    intended to measure

77
Test Construction
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • Standardization
  • Testing large group of people that represents
    population for whom the test is designed

78
IQ Test Norms
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • Norms
  • Scores from the standardization group
  • Normal curve distribution
  • Where most frequent scores are around the mean
  • Normal curve allows IQ scores to be more
    accurately estimated
  • Deviation IQ scores
  • Are based on normal curve distribution

79
Figure 11.7 The Normal Curve The percentages
under each section of the normal curve represent
the percentage of scores falling within that
section for each standard deviation (SD) from the
mean. Scores on intelligence tests are typically
represented by the normal curve. The dotted
vertical lines each represent one standard
deviation from the mean, which is always set at
100. For example, an IQ of 115 on the Wechsler
represents one standard deviation above the mean,
and the area under the curve indicates that 34.13
percent of the population falls between 100 and
115 on this test.
80
IQ Tests and Cultural Bias
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • People originating from a culture different from
    that of the developer tend not to perform as well
  • Language, dialect, and content,
    represent the culture of the test developer

81
IQ Tests and Cultural Bias
LO 11.10 Measuring intelligcne and how
intelligence tests are constructed
  • "Culture fair" tests
  • Use more nonverbal items
  • May be impossible to create test free of cultural
    bias

82
How might these two women, apparently from
different cultures, come to an agreement on what
best defines intelligence?
83
Intellectual Disability
LO 11.11 Intellectual disability and what causes
it
  • Intellectual disability
  • IQ score must fall below 70, or two standard
    deviations below the mean on the normal curve
  • Adaptive behavior is severely below a level
    appropriate for the persons age
  • Behavior may be conceptual, social, or practical
    in nature
  • Onset before age 18
  • Occurs in about 3 of population

84
Classification of Intellectual Disability
LO 11.11 Intellectual disability and what causes
it
  • Disability ranges from mild to profound
  • Mild
  • 5570 IQ
  • Capable of independent living with support
  • Moderate
  • 4055 IQ
  • Second grade skill level, sheltered work

85
Classification of Intellectual Disability
LO 11.11 Intellectual disability and what causes
it
  • Disability ranges from mild to profound
  • Severe
  • 2540 IQ
  • May learn basic self-care, need supervision
  • Profound
  • Below 25 IQ

86
Giftedness
LO 11.12 Giftedness and does giftedness
guarantee success
  • 2 percent of the population
  • IQ scores fall in upper end of the normal curve
  • Typically possess an IQ of 130 or higher

87
Actor Colin Clive portrayed the character of Dr.
Frankenstein in one of the earliest film
adaptations of Mary Shelleys original novel,
Frankenstein. In this 1931 version, the
prototypical mad scientist and his odd assistant
Fritz (played by veteran character actor Dwight
Frye) prepare to bring their monster to life.
This is only one example of how the myth of the
mad genius became part of the popular culture.
88
Does Giftedness Guarantee Success?
LO 11.12 Giftedness and does giftedness
guarantee success
  • Terman longitudinal study
  • Gifted children grow up to be successful adults
  • Earned more academic degrees
  • Had higher occupational and financial success
    than average peers
  • Study has been criticized for a lack of
    objectivity
  • Terman became too involved in the lives of his
    participants

89
Emotional Intelligence
LO 11.13 Biology, heredity, environment, and
cultural roles in personality and intelligence
  • Awareness of and ability to manage ones own
    emotions
  • Ability to be self-motivated
  • Able to feel what others feel, and socially
    skilled

90
Emotional Intelligence
LO 11.13 Biology, heredity, environment, and
cultural roles in personality and intelligence
  • Viewed as a powerful influence on success in life
  • Concept first introduced by Salovey and Mayer
    (1990),expanded upon by Goleman (1995)

91
Behavioral Genetics
LO 11.13 Biology, heredity, environment, and
cultural roles in personality and intelligence
  • Studies the relationship between heredity and
    personality
  • Minnesota twin study
  • Followed identical twins
  • Are more similar than fraternal twins or
    unrelated people in
  • Intelligence, leadership abilities, the tendency
    to follow rules, and tendency to uphold
    traditional cultural expectations

92
James Arthur Springer and James Edward Lewis,
otherwise known as the Jim twins and as
referenced in the chapter opener. Although
separated shortly after birth and reunited at age
39, they exhibited many similarities in
personality and personal habits. Although
genetics may explain some of these similarities,
what other factors might also be at work?
93
Figure 11.8 Correlations Between IQ Scores of
Persons with Various Relationships In the graph
on the left, the degree of genetic relatedness
seems to determine the agreement (correlation)
between IQ scores of the various comparisons. For
example, identical twins, who share 100 percent
of their genes, are more similar in IQ than
fraternal twins, who share only about 50 percent
of their genes, even when raised in the same
environment. In the graph on the right, identical
twins are still more similar to each other in IQ
than are other types of comparisons, but being
raised in the same environment increases the
similarity considerably.
94
Heredity and Environment and Intelligence
LO 11.13 Biology, heredity, environment, and
cultural roles in personality and intelligence
  • Stronger correlations found between IQ scores as
    genetic relatedness increases
  • Heritability of IQ is estimated at 0.50.
  • Genes interact with environmental factors
  • Extreme environments can modify even very
    heritable traits

95
Heredity and Environment and Intelligence
LO 11.13 Biology, heredity, environment, and
cultural roles in personality and intelligence
  • Four basic dimensions of personality along which
    cultures may vary
  • Individualism/collectivism
  • Power distance
  • Masculinity/femininity
  • Uncertainty avoidance
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