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INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES MATERIALS (FRP) AND ITS USES IN INDIAN RAILWAYS.

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES MATERIALS (FRP) AND ITS USES IN INDIAN RAILWAYS. ARVIND LAL Chief Instructor (Met) IRIMEE, Jamalpur. E-mail arvindlal65_at_ yahoo.co.in – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES MATERIALS (FRP) AND ITS USES IN INDIAN RAILWAYS.


1
INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES MATERIALS (FRP) AND
ITS USES IN INDIAN RAILWAYS.
  • ARVIND LAL
  • Chief Instructor (Met)
  • IRIMEE, Jamalpur.
  • E-mail arvindlal65_at_ yahoo.co.in

2
INTRODUCTION
  • COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
  • COMPOSITES, THE WONDER MATERIALS
  • WITH LIGHT
    WEIGHT,
  • HIGH
    STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO,

  • HIGH STIFFNESS AND MORE CORROSION RESISTANCE
  • HAVE COME IN A LONG
    WAY BY REPLACING THE CONVENTIONAL MATERIALS
    LIKE WOODS METALS ETC
  • COMPOSITES MATERIALS ARE DERIVED BY
    COMBING OF TWO OR MORE OF MATERIALS WITH THE
    INTENT OF ACHIEVING SUPERIOR PROPERTIES/
    PERFORMANCE COMPARED TO EACH INDIVIDUAL
    MATERIALS.
  • EXAMPLES- BONES, WOOD, MUSCLE FRP,
    CERMETS ETC.
  • FRP- (FIBER GASS REINFORCED PLASTICS ) - IS A
    LARGE FAMILY OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
  • ONE OF THE CONSTITUENT MATERIALS IS
    CALLED MATRIX WHILE THE OTHER IS CALLED
    REINFORCEMENT.

3
CONVENTIONAL MATERIALS .

METALS AND ALLOYS. (A)
ORGANIC POLYMERS. (B)
CERAMICS AND GLASSES. (C)
BC FRP( FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTICS. AB-
MRP( METAL- REINFORCED PLASTICS. AC-
CERMETS
4

FRP-FEW FACTS.
  • IN FRP F FIBRE. (G-GLASS.)
  • R- REINFORCEMENT.
  • P- POLYMER ( PLASTICS) BEHAVES
    LIKE MATRIX.
  • FIBRE- ANY POLYMER, METAL OR CERAMIC THAT HAS
    BEEN DRAWN INTO LONG AND THIN FILAMENT IS
    TERMED AS FIBRE. SOME OF THE FIBRES USED AS
    REINFORCEMENTS ARE - GLASS FIBRES, CARBON FIBRES
    ARAMID FIBRES
  • GLASS FIBRE-GLASS FIBRES ARE THE MOST COMMON OF
    ALL REINFORCING FIBRES FOR POLYMER MATRIX
    COMPOSITES. THE PRICIPLE ADVATAGES OF GLASS
    FIBRES ARE THE LOW COST AND HIGH STREGTH.
  • FORMS OF GLASS FIBRE.
  • CHOPPED-STRAND MAT AND CONTIUOUS-MAT.
  • FIBRE GLASS ROVING.
  • WOVEN ROVING. 4. SURFACE MAT.

5
MATRIX (RESIN) MAY BE - POLYMERIC MATRICES-
THERMOSETS- POLYESTER, PHENOLICS, EPOXY,
SILICONES. THERMOPLASTIC-
PS,PE,PC,NYLON-6,6 PEEK ETC. METAL MATRICES-
AL, Ni AND Ti POLYESTERS ARE WIDELY
USED BECAUSE OF THERE LOW COST. Phenolic resins-
high temperature resistance is required. Epoxy
resins impart good mechanical properties. Silicon
resins-excellent thermal elecrrical
properties.

6
GLASS FIBERS- Glass fibers are the most common
of all reinforcing fibers for polymer matrix
composites. The principal advantages of glass
fibers are the low cost and high strength. TYPES
OF GLASS FIBERS their nominal
formula- E-glass - Calcium aluminoboroslicate. E
(Electrical)- 15 Al2O3, 17 CaO, 5MgO,
8B2O3 S-glass - Magnesium aluminosilicate. S
(HIGH-STRENGTH) --- 25 Al2O3 , 10 MgO C- glass -
Sodalime borosilicate. C (CHEMICAL) - 4
Al2O3,13CaO , 3 MgO, 8Na2O, 5 B2O3.

7
Properties of E-glass S-glass fibers.
Propertied units E-glass
S-glass Density, g/cm3 2.54
2.49 Tensile strength, MPa 3448
4585 Elastic modules, GPa 72.4
85.5 Range of diameter Um
3.20 8-13 Coefficient of thermal
Expansion 10-6/0C 5.0
2.9
8
Over 90 of the glass fibers made are E grade.
The more expensive S grade is used for the
highest strength, and the C grade for chemical
resistance. The composition of the glass that is
most commonly drawn into fibres is contained as
(composition, wt ) SiO2- 52-56, CaO-16-25,
Al2O3 12-16, B2O3 8-13, 4MgO.
9
SELECTION OF RAW MATERIALS (FRP)
1.GLASS FIBRE . 2.RESINS. ISOPHTHLATE POLYESTER
RESINS IS6746/72. EXCEPTIONALLY GOOD
CHEMICAL RESISTANT TOWARDS MINIRAL ORGAIC
ACIDS. 3.STABILIZERS-TO GIVE RESIN A REASONABLE
SHELF LIFE. 4. CATALYSTS AND ACCELERATORS-TO
CONVERT RESIN TO A HARD AND INFUSIBLE SOLID
WITHIN A SHORT TIME TO MAKE MOULDING
POSSIBILITY. A. FOR COLD CURING- CATALYST-
MEKP ACCELERATOR-COBALT
NAPHTHENATE. B. HOT CURING- CATALYST-MEKP.
ACCELERATOR- DMA(DIMETHYL ANILINE)
10
SELECTION OF RAW MATERIALS (FRP)
5. COLOURING MATERIAL FILLERS
IORGANIC PIGMENTS. 6. MOULD RELEASE AGENT - PVA
IN WATER. HARD WAX SUCH AS CARNAUBA. ARE
USED ON POLISHED METAL MOULDS.
11
FIBRE REIFORCED COMPOSITES. (FIBROUS COMPOSITES)
12
PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES (PARTICULATE
COMPOSOTES)
13
LAMINATES COMPOSITES.
14
ARRAGEMENT OF FIBRE
15
ARRAGEMET OF GLASS FIBRE.
16
ARRAGEMET OF FIBRE
17
ADVANTAGE OF C.M.(FRP) OVER CONVENTIONAL
MATERIALS-
1. EXCELLENT CORROSION RESISTANCE. 2. LONG LIFE
OFFERS EXCELLENT FATIGUE, IMPACT , ENVIRONMENTAL
RESISTANCE AND REDUCED MAINTENANCE. 3. LESS NOISY
WHILE IN OPERATION PROVIDE LOWER VIBRATION
TRANSMISSION THAN METALS. 4. IMPROVED APPERANCE
WITH SMOOTH SURFACES DECORATIVES.
18
ADVANTAGES (CONT)
5. WIDE PERFORMANCE RANGE.(BY PROPER SELECTING
FIBRES AND MATRICES) 6. LOW MANUFACTURING
COST. 7. SUPERIOR STYLING. 8. HIGH TENSILE
STRENGTH (4 to 6 times greater than steel
Al.) 9. MORE FATIGUE LIFE.( UPTO 60 OF UTS). 10.
HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO.( 30 TO 45 LIGHTER
THAN AL. 11. ELIMINATE JOINTS INTEGRATED DESIG
COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL METALLIC PARTS. 12.
LESS CHANCE OF THEFT.
19
FUNCTION OF MATRIX PHASE.
  • IT BINDS THE FIBRES TOGETHER BY VIRTUE OF
    ADHESIVE FORCE.
  • IT ACTS AS A MEDIUM BY WHICH VIRTUE AN
    EXTERNALLY APPLIED LOAD IS TRANSMITTED AND
    DISTRIBUTED TO THE DISPERSED PHASE.
  • IT PTROTEST THE INDIVIDUAL FIBRES FRON
    CHEMICAL REACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT AND FROM THE
    SURFACE DAMAGE DUE TO MECH.ABRACTION.
  • IT KEEPS THE REINFORCING FIBRES IN THE PROPER
    POSITIO AND ORENTATION SO THAT THEY CAN CARRY THE
    INTENDED LOADS.
  • IT PTEVENTS THE PROPAGATION OF BRITTLE CRACKS
    BY ITS RELATIVE SOFTNESS AND PLASTICITY.

20
THE ESSETIAL REQUIREMETS OF A GOOD MATRIX
MATERIALS ARE -
  • IT SOULD BE DUCTILE.
  • THE BONDIG STRENGTH BETWEEN THE MATRIX AND THE
    FIBRE MUST BE HIGH.
  • IT SOULD BE MORE CORROSION RESISTANCE.
  • IT SHOULD BE MORE ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE.
  • IT SHOULD DETERMINES THE OVERALL SERVICE
    TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS.
  • ( POLYMERS ARE LIMITATED TO SERVICE
    TEMPERATURES BELOW 300c)

21
COMPOSITES IN RAILWAYS INDIAN SCENARIO
  • C.M. HAVE ALREADY BEEN IDENTIFY AS A POTENTIAL
    MATERIAL FOR ITS APPLICATION IN THE INDIAN
    RAILWAYS BY THE CONCERTED EFFORTS OF RDSO.LKO
    ICF.CHENNAI.
  • WHY NEEDS FOR IR ?
  • 1. HIGHER TRAIN SPEED.
  • 2. LOWER PRODUCTIO, OPERATION MAINTENANCE
    COST FOR CARRIAGES.
  • 3. LOWER ENERGY CONSUMPTION.
  • 4 MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT.
  • 5. LOWER NOISE LEVEL.
  • 6. IMPROVED PASSENGER COMFORTS AESTHETICS.
  • LESS TRACK WEAR THE ABILITY TO CARRY GREATER
    PAY LOADS.
  • TO PROVIDE GREATER VERSATILITY IN TRAIN DESIGN
    AND OPTIMIZATION OF
  • TRAIN PERFORMANCE.( LOWERING THE
    CENTRE OF GRAVITY TO ENHANCE
  • STABILITY).

22
COMPONENTS USED IN IR
  • COMPONENTS OF COACHES ARE GENERALLY MADE OF
    FRP-COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
  • WINDOW FRAMES SHUTTERS.
  • WALL PROTECTOR IN TOILETS.
  • TRAYS FOR BATTERY BOXES ( FOR AC NON AC
    COACH.)
  • SNACKS TABLE.
  • CHAIN COVER FOR JMP JACK.
  • FRP AIR GRILL FOR AC COACH.( RAJDHANI)
  • TOILET PAN FOR GUARAD VAN BRAKE.
  • FRP- TOILET MODULES.
  • FRP-COMMODE ADOPTER.
  • AXLE BOX COVERS.
  • LUGGAGE BIN.
  • PANELS.

23
COMPONENTS USED IN IR (CONTINUE).
FLOOR, CEILING ROOF PANELS. 14. MODULAR
INTERIOR PANEL DOORS. 15. DOUBLE DECK
FLOORING. 16. INTERNAL SIDE WALL PANELS. 17.
EXTERNAL STRUCTURAL SIDE PANELS. IN ADDITION ,
RDSO HAS IDENTIFIED A NUMBER OF PARTS FOR
REPLACEMENT WITH COMPOSITES I N THE NEAR FUTURE.
THESE INCIUDES. 1. COMPOSITE BRAKE- BLOCKS
BREAK- GEAR BUSHES. 2. FRP-GEAR CASE FOR
LOCOMOTIVES. 3. AXLE BOX COVERS (SMC) 4. BERTH
CHAIR BACKINGS.
24
COMPONENTS USED IN IR (CONTINUE).
5. PANELING IN THE COACHES. 6. ROOF WATER
TAKS. 7. TOILET MODULES. 8. LAVATORY CHUTES. 9.
WINDOW GUIDES. 10. DOORS. ( MAIN ENTRANCE
, SLIDING DOOR FOR 1ST AC COMPARTMENT, INTER
COMMUNICATION DOOR IN AC CAOCHES, SLIDING DOORS
FOR EMU/DMU, SLIDING/ FLUSH DOORS FOR TOILETS,
VESTIBULE DOORS ETC.) 11. CAOPY END FOR EMU/DMU
COACHES. 12. TOILET CABINETS. 13. FOLDING
TABLES. 14. FUEL IJECTION PUMP COVER. 15. LUGGAGE
RACKS ETC.
25
SOME NEW PROJECTS OR COMPOSITES FOR RAILWAYS
CASE STUDY
  • ADVANCED COMPOSITES MISSION OF TIFAC
  • ( TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION, FORECASTIG ASSESSMENT
    COUNCIL) AN AUTONOMOUS ORGANIZATION UNDER DST
    (DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY GOVT OF INDIA
    AND DRDO WORKING WITH SOME OF PVT AGECIES ON
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITES FOR THEIR USES
    UNDER THE GUIDE LINE OF RDSO ICF
  • THESE ARE-
  • FRP GEAR CASE FOR RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES.
  • A.C.M OF TIFAC IN PARTNERSHIP WITH
  • M/S PERMALI WALLACE Ltd, BHOPAL. RRL,BHOPAL
  • WHY IT IS FELT TO REPLACE THESE BY FRP GEAR
    CASE.
  • 1. THE HEAVY WEIGHT OF STEEL GEAR-CASE
    SOMETIMES CAUSES ITS DETACHMENT FROM THE TRACTION
    MOTOR DUE TO VIOLENT JERKS OR IMPACT OR DAMAGE BY
    STONE BALLAST WHICH IS VERY COMMON FOR
    LOCOMOTIVES.

26
COMPOSITES FOR RAILWAYS CASE STUDY (CONTINUE)
2. LOSS OF EXPESIVE LUBRICATING MEDIUM BY
LEAKAGE.
SL NO. PARAMETER MS GEAR CASE. FRP-GEAR-CASE.
1. CORROSION RESISTANCE. HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE NON-CORROSIVE.
2 WEIGHT PER LOCO 134x6804 KGS 68X6408 KGS WEIGHT SAVING OF 396KGS
3 QUALITY OF JOINTS. COULD BE POOR. JOINTLESS CONSTRUCTION.
4. LIFE CYCLE COST. HIGH 2 TO 3 YEARS. LOW 6 YEARS.
27
CASE STUDY (CONTINUE)
SL NO. PARAMETER MS GEAR CASE. FRP-GEAR-CASE.
5. FITMENT DUE TO DEFORMATION MAY POSE PROBLEMS. ENSURES REPEATABILITY
6. IMPACT RESISTANCE. VERY GOOD. GOOD.
7. HEAT DISSIPATION. VERY GOOD. DESIGN PROVEN THROUGH FIELD TRIALS.
8. FITMENT EFFORTS HIGH. LOW.
9. CHANCES OF FALLING HIGH CAN BE DISASTROUS. VERY LOW.
10 OIL LEAKAGE COST. HIGH. MINIMUM.
28
CASE STUDY (CONTINUE)
  • 60-FRP-GEAR-CASES HAVE ALREADY BEEN
    INDUCTED BY IR AGAINST DEVELOPMENT ORDER.
  • EFFOORTS ARE CURRENTLY UNDERWAY TO DEVELOP
    FRP-GEAR CASES FOR NEW TYPE OF TRACTION MOTOR
    WITH CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING.
  • HITACHI MODEL FOR ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES.
  • 2. FRP SLEEPERS FOR RAILWAY GIRDER BRIDGES.
  • THE PROJECT WAS INSTITUTED AT RESEARCH
    DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT(ENGINEER) , PUNE IN
    ACTIVE COLLABORATION WITH RDSO.
  • SUBJECTED TO FIELD TRILS AT 3-4 LOCATIONS EACH
    AT DIFFERENT RAILWAY ZONES.
  • VIBRATION DAMPING. HIGH RESISTACE AGAINST
    STRENGTH AND WATER RESISTANCE.
  • DYNAMIC PANEL TEST OF 8 LONG SLEEPERS IS
    CURRENTLY UDERGOING AT RDSO.
  • THE FULL LENGTH FRP SLEEPERS DEVELOPED BY RTM
    PROCESS AS PER RDSO.

29
CASE STUDY (CONTINUE)
  • 3. ENERGY EFFICIENT FRP AXIAL FLOW FANS. OR
    1680 MM DIA FAN FOR RADIATOR COOLING FOR DIESEL
    LOCOMOTIVES
  • THE PROJECT WAS LACHED IN PARTERSHIP WITH
  • PARAG FANS COOLING SYSTEMS Ltd, DEWAS
    ACTIVE SUPPORTED BY IIT, MUMBAI.
  • EFFICIENCY OF THE FAN HAS BEEN PROVED SUPERIOR
    TO THE CONVENTIONAL FANS WITH ALUMINIUM
    IMPELLERS.
  • 4. JUTE-COIR COMPOSITES- AN ALTERNATIVE TO WOOD
    PRODUCTS.
  • M/S DUROFLEX LIMITED BANGALORE.
  • APPLICATION.
  • PARTITIONING. ( 80 NATURAL FIBRES SUCH AS
    JUTE COIR WITH PHEOLIC RESIN)
  • FALSE CEILING
  • SURFACE PAELING
  • FURNITURE ( SLEEPER BERTH BACHING IN IR
    COACHES.)

30
CASE STUDY (CONTINUE)
5. DEVELOPMENT OF FRP-PULTRUDED PROFILES. M/S
SUCRO FILTERS Pvt Ltd PUNE TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT
FROM NCL, PUNE. APPLICATION IN RAILWAYS FOR
FRAME SECTIONS FOR DOOR WINDOWS LUGGAGE RACKS
STRIPS LADDERS RODS ETC.
31
Conclusion.
NOW THE COMPOSITES HAVE BECOME A PART OF
OUR EVERYDAY LIFE. COMPOSITES IMPART AN
AESTHETIC APPEARANCE FOR THE RAILWAY COACHES.
NOW WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF LHB COACHES IN
THE INDIAN RAILWAYS IN THE NEAR FUTURE, THE USAGE
OF COMPOSITES IS EXPECTED TO GROW MORE AND MORE.
GLASS FIBRE IS MOST WIDELY USED
REINFORCEMENT.E-GLASS FIBRE HAS EXCELLENT
CORROSION AND ENVIROMENT RESISTANCE. CARBON
FIBRES SHOW NO EXPASION OR CONTRACTION ACROSS
WIDELY TEMPERATURE DIFFERECE, APPLICABLE TO
ELECTRONICS. SELECTION OF CORRECT RAW
MATERIALS RIGHT MANUFACTURING
TECHNIQUE.
32
CONCLUSION.(CONT)
DISPOSAL OF USED COMPOSITE MATERIALS.
TESTING FACILITIES OF COMPOENT MATERIALS SOULD
BE AVAILABLE AT PU.
33
THANKS .
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