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ISLAMIC STUDIES

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Title: ISLAMIC STUDIES


1
  • ISLAMIC STUDIES
  • ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • (Lecture12)
  • Dr. Saif-ud-Din Saif

2
Two Groups of Ayaat in QUran (Al-e-Imran)
  • He is the One Who has revealed to you the Book.
    Some of its verses are decisive-(Muhkamaat), they
    are the foundation of the Book - while others are
    allegorical (Mutashabihaat). Those whose hearts
    are infected with disbelief follow the
    allegorical part to mislead others and to give it
    their own interpretation, seeking for its hidden
    meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings
    except Allah. Those who are well grounded in
    knowledge say "We believe in it it is all from
    our Lord." None will take heed except the people
    of understanding.7

3
Contents
  • Attributes of Islam
  • Salient Features of Islam
  • Types of Acts/Deeds in Islam
  • The Actions Prescribed by Islam

4
ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  1. ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF ISLAM
  2. A DIVINE RELIGION (the word of Allah Almighty)
  3. THE ONLY RELIGION THAT BELIEVES IN ALL THE
    PREVIOUS DIVINE RELIGIONS AND PROPHETS
  4. THE LAST AND PERFECT RELIGION WITH THE LAST
    MESSENGER AND LAST MESSAGE
  5. THE ONLY RELIGION FOR ALL THE MANKIND
  6. A RELIGION FOR ALL THE TIMES PEOPLE TO COME
  7. A PRACTICAL AND PRACTICABLE SYSTEM

5
ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  1. A RELIGION WITH A POTENTIAL TO ADDRESS ALL THE
    NEWLY EMERGING PROBLEMS
  2. A HARMONIOUS BLEND AMONG ALL THE SPHERES OF LIFE
  3. A NATURAL RELIGION (Deen-e-Fitrat)
  4. A BALANCED RELIGION
  5. A COMPLETE/PERFECT SYSTEM
  6. AN EQUALIZING SOURCE
  7. A PEACEFUL RELIGION

6
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 1. THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF ISLAM
  • a. Faith in Oneness of Allah, The Almighty, The
  • Sovereign, The Creator, The Sustainer.
  • b. Not to be oppressed or oppress others.
  • c. Not to enslave other or be enslaved.
  • d. All mankind is slave (creation and
  • abd) of Allah only should only obey Allah.
  • e. To create a society (Islamic State) according
  • to instructions of Holy Quran Model of
  • Sunnah. Cont

7
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 2. A DIVINE RELIGION (the word of Allah
  • Almighty)
  • 3. THE ONLY RELIGION THAT BELIEVES IN ALL
  • THE PREVIOUS DIVINE RELIGIONS AND
  • PROPHETS
  • 4. THE LAST AND PERFECT RELIGION WITH
  • THE LAST MESSENGER AND LAST MESSAGE
  • Cont

8
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 5. THE ONLY RELIGION FOR ALL THE
  • MANKIND
  • 6. A RELIGION FOR ALL THE TIMES PEOPLE
  • TO COME
  • 7. A PRACTICAL AND PRACTICABLE SYSTEM
  • An ideology with a practical system of life that
    fully appreciates all the needs of mankind and
    gives real and viable (practicable) solutions to
    fulfill them.

9
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 8. A RELIGION WITH A POTENTIAL TO
  • ADDRESS ALL THE NEWLY EMERGING
  • PROBLEMS
  • 9. A HARMONIOUS BLEND AMONG ALL THE
  • SPHERES OF LIFE
  • a. Instructions to meet the genuine
    requirements of
  • mankind
  • b. To keep perfect balance between the
    instructions
  • for body, mind and spirit so that one
    sector
  • should not dominate the others.
  • c. Moderation advised in all good deeds.
  • d. Extremism strictly forbidden

10
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 10. A NATURAL RELIGION (Deen-e-Fitrat)
  • a. No suppression or negation of the human
    instincts (fitrat) thud body can perform at
    optimum level to achieve the higher purpose of
    its creation.
  • b. Development of soul to the higher planes of
    existence desired thereof.
  • c. Caters for all the natural needs/demands of
    mankind in a rightful way.
  • d. Does not allow bodily desires to low levels of
    animalism and hedonism or torture oneself.
  • e. Provides chances for body and soul to mutually
    co-exist and develop it prevents and resolves
    the internal psychological and spiritual
    conflicts.

11
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 11. A BALANCED RELIGION (Oppression-Free)
  • a. Does not allow an individual to transgress
    against other individuals or the society
  • b. Does not allow the society to commit
    transgression against an individual
  • c. Does not allow one class or group of people to
    enslave or exploit other class or group
  • d. Creates a balance between different sectors of
    society, in all material and spiritual realms
  • e. Gives due regard to the just human needs and
    places everything at its proper place.
  • f. Gives full allowance to physical, economic,
    social and spiritual needs for a harmonious
    co-existence and growth.

12
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 12. A COMPLETE/PERFECT SYSTEM
  • Complete a perfect guidance on social, economic
    and all other disciplines.
  • Guarantees personal freedom,opportunities for
    individual enterprise, not at the cost of
    society, exploitation or social injustice.
  • c. None is superior on the basis of racism or
    color No one enjoys any superiority over the
    others except in virtue and piety. Cont.

13
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • AIM Welfare of all member of the society and the
    global community as a whole. Cont..
  • Protects the society from hazards of the two
    extremes of Capitalism and Socialism or any other
    -ism.
  • Discourages the two extremes of entirely leaving
    the worldly affairs and ignoring the bodily needs
    or getting lost in the physical pleasure and
    worldly affairs. It gives a moderate way in
    between, where one can live a normal life and
    fulfill the purpose of his creation.
  • Peace of Mind Self-actualization, Connectedness
    Enlightenment according to Islamic code.

14
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • g. Islamic social and economic system was
    ordained much before man-made systems. It ensures
    the basic needs of mankind, i.e., food, housing,
    security and sexual satisfaction.
  • Hadith Whosoever acts as a public officer for
    us (i.e., The Islamic State) and has no wife, he
    shall have a wife if he has no house, he shall
    be given a house to live in if he has no
    servant, he shall have one and if he has no
    animal (a conveyance), he shall be provided with
    one. Any one who takes more than this has
    exaggerated (i.e., taken more than he deserves).
    (Ahmad).
  • h. The usefulness of socio-economic all other
    Islamic systems is everlasting.

15
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 13. AN EQUALIZING SOURCE
  • Freed the black from slavery.
  • Recognized the rights of black slaves even to
    the highest seat of authority 1400 years ago in
    the Islamic State.
  • c. Hadith Listen and obey even if a black slave
    be appointed as your superior, so long as he
    should enforce amongst you the Law of Allah
    (GOD).
  • d. No Imperialism or Monarchy in Islam.
  • e. Prohibits usury and hoarding, which are basis
  • of Capitalism rid of their evil
    consequences .
  • f. The human rights, the real respect, the
    economic
  • rights, inheritance, and right to vote were
    given to
  • the women, first time in history by Islam.
  • g. The men ordered to be the caretaker,
    supervisor
  • and guardian of the women. (Gender equality)

16
1. ATTRIBUTES OF ISLAM
  • 14. A PEACEFUL RELIGION
  • a. Literal meaning of Islam Peace.
  • b. The first and foremost important aim of Islam
    is Peace for everyone.
  • c. First ever code of ethics of war was given to
    the world by Islam.

17
2. SALIENT FEATURES OF ISLAM
  • 1. Muslims worship only One Allah (GOD)- Tauheed
  • 2. Faith in Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)- Risalat
  • 3. Faith in all the Prophets
  • 4. Faith in Quran all previous Divine Books
  • 5. Faith in Angels
  • 6. Faith in Pre-destination
  • 7. Resurrection after death
  • 8. Day of Judgment
  • 9. Five Pillars of Islam
  • a. Shahdah (Tauheed Risalat)
  • b. Salaat
  • c. Sawm (Fasting in Ramazan)
  • d. Zakaat
  • e. Hajj
  • 6. Islam Commands all kinds of Good and forbids
    all
  • kinds of Evil

18
2. SALIENT FEATURES OF ISLAM
  • 1. Muslims worship only One Allah (GOD)
  • a. Allah is the one and unique in His Oneness
  • b. Nothing is like Him and He is not like any
    other thing.
  • c. Allah has no partner/s.
  • d. Allah is the only Creator, the only Sustainer
    and the only Cherisher of everything.

19
2. SALIENT FEATURES OF ISLAM
  • 1. Muslims worship only One Allah (GOD)
  • e. Allah has created everything and He
  • was not created by any one.
  • f. He is the one who gives life and death.
  • g. Muslims trust in Him, ask Him for
  • help, guidance, patience and support.
  • h. Allah is able to do all things and has
  • no need of wife, son or daughter.

20
3. TYPES OF THE ACTS/DEEDS IN ISLAM
  1. Strictly Forbidden Acts (Haram)
  2. Permitted (Halal)
  3. Compulsory (Mandatory) Acts (Farz)
  4. Strongly Recommended Acts (not Farz)
    (Sunnat-e-Moakada)
  5. Optional Acts (Sunnat Nafl)
  6. Only Allah can make the rules/laws
  7. The Caliph (Muslim emperor) can only implement
    the rules of Allah.

21
BROADER CLASSIFICATION OF ACTS
  • 1. Dos (Marufaat, Awamir)
  • 2. Donts (Munkaraat, Nawahi)
  • Do- Amr (order to do an act)
  • Dont-Nahi (forbidding from doing an act)
  • Key to survival of a Muslim Society
  • Amr-bil-maroof wa Nahi-anil-Munkar
  • (order to do good and stop bad deeds)

22
  • 4.
  • ACTS
  • PRESCRIBED
  • BY
  • ISLAM

23
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM (Sura Al-Anam)
24
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM (Sura Al-Anam)
25
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • Worship Allah only
  • Islamic injunctions Farz, Sunnat, Nafl
  • (Tawhed, Risalat, Salaat, Zakaat, Sawm, Hajj-
    Jihaad, Learning Teaching Quran)
  • Individual level Interpersonal relations
  • Community level
  • Social affairs
  • Domestic affairs Parents, Family members,
    Spouse, Children, Relatives
  • Economic affairs Individual/National level

26
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • Political affairs
  • Professional Responsibilities
  • Fear Me (Allah) and Me Alone.
  • Do not mix the Truth with falsehood, or knowingly
    conceal the truth.
  • Establish Salah (prayers)
  • give Zakah (charity)
  • bow down with those who bow down in
    worship

27
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • 13. Seek Allahs help with patience and prayer
    surely, Allah is with those who are patient.
  • 14. There is security of life for you in the law
    of retaliation (Qisaas), so that you may learn
    self-restraint.
  • 15. Fight in the way of Allah do not transgress
  • 16. Give generously for the cause of Allah

28
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • 13. Seek Allahs help with patience and prayer
    surely, Allah is with those who are patient.
  • 14. There is security of life for you in the law
    of retaliation (Qisaas), so that you may learn
    self-restraint.
  • 15. Fight in the way of Allah do not transgress
  • Give generously for the cause of Allah

29
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • 17. They ask you what they should spend in
  • charity. Say "Whatever you spend with a
  • good heart, give it to parents, relatives,
  • orphans, the helpless, travelers in need.
  • 18. Those of you who die and leave widows
  • should bequeath for them a years
  • maintenance without causing them to
  • leave their homes
  • 19. Orders regarding hygiene, cleanliness of body
    and
  • hair, bathing, trimming nails,

30
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • 20. Dowry to woman at the time of nikah is
    obligatory.
  • 21. Repentance with Allah (right to be forgiven
    by Allah) is only for those who do something evil
    in ignorance and repent as soon as they realize
    it Allah will pardon
  • them. Allah is the Knowledgeable, Wise.17
    (An-Nisa)

31
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • There is no repentance for those who
  • persist in their evil deeds until death
    approaches anyone of them and he says
  • "surely now I repent." Similarly, there is no
    repentance for those who die while they
  • were still unbelievers for them We have
    prepared a painful punishment.18(An-Nisa)

32
4. ACTS PRESCRIBED BY ISLAM
  • 22. If you wish to marry another wife in place of
    the one you already have, do not take
  • back anything of what you have given her even if
    it be a heap of gold. Would you
  • take it back through slander and open sin
    (accusing her unjustly) ?20(An-Nisa)

33
  • 5.
  • ACTS
  • FORBIDDEN
  • BY
  • ISLAM

34
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • Forbids the association of anything in worship
    with Allah (Shirk)
  • The worship of anything other than Allah
    (Kufr-disbelieving)
  • To obey any person by disobeying Allah (La
    taat li-makhluqin fee masia-til-Khaliq).
  • To worship (follow) own whims, wishes, desires,
    lust or indulge in rat race
  • (desires of our nafs-Id/Ego/Animal-self)

35
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 5. To worship and follow the Shaitaan, a devout
    (sworn) enemy of mankind
  • 6. Forbids all types of sins (large or small,
    hidden or open)
  • Forbids Bidah (innovations in Islam)
  • Forbids drinking wine, gambling, idol worship and
    divining arrows.
  • Forbids making Jews and Christians your close
    friends.

36
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • Forbids following the Jews, Christians and other
    non-believers in any way.
  • Forbids sitting with the people who make fun of
    the Ayaat of Holy Quran
  • i. Making fun of Ayaat
  • ii. Openly disobeying the Ayaat
  • 12. All types of addicting drugs, wine, Narcotics

37
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • Forbids Immodesty (Fah-sha)
  • Bad language
  • Adultery
  • Home-sexuality, other perversions
  • To kill another person except in cases where it
    is right to do so.

38
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • Forbidden to kill ones children for fear of
    poverty or other wise(before or after birth)
  • Forbidden to commit suicide
  • Never be disappointed from mercy of Allah
  • Forbids the hypocrisy
  • Forbids Lying, Backbiting, Breeching the trust,
    using Abusive language and jealousy.

39
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  1. Forbidden to disturb the peace of the society
    (Fasaad-fil-Arz).
  2. Forbids taking back ones charity.
  3. Forbids the employer to exploit the an employee
    commands the employee to perform his duty
    honestly.

40
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  1. Islam forbids killing the human beings except in
    cases where legal
  2. Islam forbids to commit suicide
  3. Forbids giving the false witness
  4. Judiciary To avoid injustice/Bribe
  5. Magic Curse

41
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 31. To disobey the parents
  • 32. Canceling out good deeds by showing off,
    boasting or reminding others of ones favors.
  • 33. Offering of any nafl (supererogatory) prayers
    when
  • - the sun is rising,
  • - when it is at its zenith, and
  • - when it is setting, because it rises and sets
    between the horns of shaytan (Satan)

42
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 34. Raise the voice in prayer (disturbs others)
  • 35. Urinating into stagnant water
  • 36. Buying, selling and making lost and found
    announcements in the masjid.
  • 37. Cheating
  • 38. Looting, plundering

43
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 39. Taking or giving Bribe
  • 40. Wine
  • 41. Gambling Lottery, Prize bonds, Cards,
  • Sports, etc.
  • 42. Divining arrows
  • 43. Worship the Idols, Tree, Grave, etc.

44
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 44. Worship of humans (Sajda, kissing
  • hands of so-called spiritual leaders or
    even other people)
  • 45. Worship of own nafs
  • 46. Misappropriations of money
  • unjustly

45
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 47. Not consume one anothers wealth through
  • unlawful means instead, do business with mutual
    consent do not kill yourselves by adopting
    unlawful means. Indeed Allah is Merciful to
    you.29
  • 48. Acts of aggression and injustice will thrown
    into hellfire, and this is very easy for Allah to
    do.30
  • (Sura An-Nisa)

46
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 49. Forbids haste in walking when the iqamah
    (call immediately preceding congregational
    prayer) is given, and prescribes walking in a
    calm and dignified manner.
  • 50. Forbids wailing, tearing ones clothes,
    beating oneself, or leaving ones hair unkempt
    when a person dies.

47
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 51. GRAVES
  • a. Making them high,
  • b. Cemented,
  • c. Sitting on them,
  • d. Walking on the graves,
  • e. Putting lights/fire over them
  • f. Writing on graves
  • g. Prayers from the dead
  • h. To take graves as places of worship
  • j. Touching with reapect
  • k. Bowing before or Sajda to a grave

48
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 52. Adulteration of food or any other item
  • 53. Islam forbids celibacy and castration
  • 54. Islam forbids women to make a
  • wanton display of themselves (tabarruj)
  • 55. It also forbids extreme forms of female
  • circumcision.
  • 56. Tattooing any disfiguring of body
  • 57. Long finger nails, cutting eyebrows,
  • widening teeth, adding hair.

49
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 58. Eating of dead meat, regardless of whether it
    died by drowning, strangulation, shock or falling
    from a high place.
  • 59. Clothing and adornment Dress should be used
    conceal the body and not to reveal the body not
    for show-off not very expensive
  • 60. Men are forbidden to wearing of gold.

50
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 61. Men women forbidden to wear each others
    dress (cursed ones)
  • 62. Bearing false witness
  • 63. Forbids Muslims to praise themselves
  • 64. Forbids Muslims to talk in a secret way or
    whisper when others are present. (Manners)

51
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 65. Surely those who conceal any part of the Book
    which Allah has revealed and sell His revelations
    for a petty price (material gain), shall swallow
    nothing but fire into their bellies. On the Day
    of Resurrection, Allah will neither speak to them
    nor purify them and they shall have painful
    punishment.
  • 66. Islam forbids speaking ill of the dead

52
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 67. Islam forbids Muslims not to eat the food
    that is placed in front of others or to eat from
    the centre of the dish or plate
  • 68. Betraying a trust
  • 69. Forbidden things regarding defecation and
  • urinating
  • 70. Do not mix the Truth with falsehood, or
    knowingly conceal the truth.

53
5. FORBIDDEN THINGS
  • 71. Forbidden 3 divorces at a time one divorce
    in each month is recommended.
  • 72. Forbidden to have sexual intercourse during
    menstruation.
  • 73. Have fear of Allah
  • 74. Dont misappropriate the property of orphans
  • 75. Dont misappropriate the property of
    inheritance

54
SEVEN BIG SINS-Hadith
  • 1. To join other in worship along with Allah,
  • 2. To practice sorcery,
  • 3. To kill the life which Allah has forbidden
  • except for a just cause, (Islamic law),
  • 4. To eat Riba (usury),
  • 5. To eat up an orphans wealth,
  • 6. To give back to the enemy and fleeing from
  • the battlefield at the time of fighting,
  • 7. To accuse, chaste women, who never even
  • think of anything touching chastity and are
  • good believers.
  • (Narrated
    Abu Huraira)

55
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