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Objectives Course No. 204 Machinery and Machine Guarding Standards Course

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Title: Objectives Course No. 204 Machinery and Machine Guarding Standards Course


1
Objectives Course No. 204 Machinery and Machine
Guarding Standards Course
  • Identify basic machinery terms
  • Identify common machines found within a broad
    spectrum of industries
  • Identify hazards that occur in or on machinery
  • Select the appropriate OSHA STANDARD that applies
    to a hazard
  • Present options to achieve abatement

2
Dangerous moving parts in these three basic areas
need safeguarding
  • The point of operation that point where work is
    performed on the material, such as cutting,
    shaping, boring, or forming of stock.
  • Power transmission apparatus all components of
    the mechanical system which transmit energy to
    the part of the machine performing the work.
    These components include flywheels, pulleys,
    belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams,
    spindles, chains, cranks, and gears.
  • Other moving parts all parts of the machine
    which move while the machine is working. These
    can include reciprocating, rotating, and
    transverse moving parts, as well as feed
    mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.

3
Hazardous Rotating Motion
Burr
Rotating shaft
Rotating pulley
Rotating coupling
4
  • Rotating (including in-running nip points)?

5
Hazardous Reciprocating Motion
6
Hazardous Transverse Motion
7
What must a safeguard do to protect workers
against mechanical hazards?
8
  • Prevent contact
  • The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, or any
    part of a worker's body or clothing from making
    contact with dangerous moving parts. A good
    safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of
    the operator or other workers placing parts of
    their bodies near hazardous moving parts.
  • Secure
  • Workers should not be able to easily remove or
    tamper with the safeguard, because a safeguard
    that can easily be made ineffective is no
    safeguard at all. Guards and safety devices
    should be made of durable material that will
    withstand the conditions of normal use. They
    must be firmly secured to the machine.
  • Protect from falling objects
  • The safeguard should ensure that no objects can
    fall into moving parts. A small tool which is
    dropped into a cycling machine could easily
    become a projectile that could strike and injure
    someone.

9
  • Create no new hazards
  • A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates
    a hazard of its own such as a shear point, a
    jagged edge, or an unfinished surface which can
    cause a laceration. The edges of guards, for
    instance, should be rolled or bolted in such a
    way that they eliminate sharp edges.
  • Create no interference
  • Any safeguard which impedes a worker from
    performing the job quickly and comfortably might
    soon be overridden or disregarded. Proper
    safeguarding can actually enhance efficiency
    since it can relieve the worker's apprehensions
    about injury.
  • Allow safe lubrication
  • If possible, one should be able to lubricate the
    machine without removing the safeguards.
    Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard, with a
    line leading to the lubrication point, will
    reduce the need for the operator or maintenance
    worker to enter the hazardous area.

10
Machine Safeguarding Classifications
11
Machine Safeguarding Classifications
  • Guards
  • Fixed
  • Interlocked
  • Adjustable
  • Self-adjusting
  • Devices
  • Presence Sensing
  • Photoelectric (optical)?
  • Radiofrequency (capacitance)?
  • Electromechanical
  • Pullback
  • Restraint
  • Safety Controls
  • Safety trip control
  • Pressure-sensitive body bar
  • Safety tripod
  • Safety tripwire cable
  • Two-hand control
  • Two-hand trip
  • Gates
  • Interlocked
  • Other

12
Machine Safeguarding Classifications
  • Location/Distance
  • Potential Feeding and Ejection Methods
  • Automatic feed
  • Semi-automatic feed
  • Automatic ejection
  • Semi-automatic ejection
  • Robot
  • Miscellaneous Aids
  • Awareness barriers
  • Miscellaneous protective shields
  • Hand-feeding tools and holding fixtures

13
Fixed Guards - Provides a Barrier
  • Advantages
  • Can be constructed to suit many specific
    applications
  • In-plant construction is often possible
  • Can provide maximum protection
  • Usually requires minimum maintenance
  • Can be suitable to high production, repetitive
    operations
  • Limitations
  • May interfere with visibility
  • Can be limited to specific operations
  • Machine adjustment and repair often require its
    removal, thereby necessitating other means of
    protection for maintenance personnel

14
Fixed Point of Operation Guard
15
Interlocked
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Shuts off or disengages power and prevents
    starting of machine when guard is open should
    require the machine to be stopped before the
    worker can reach into the danger area
  • Advantages
  • Can provide maximum protection
  • Allows access to machine for removing jams
    without time-consuming removal of fixed guards
  • Limitations
  • Requires careful adjustment and maintenance
  • May be easy to disengage

16
Adjustable
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Provides a barrier which may be adjusted to
    facilitate a variety of production operations
  • Advantages
  • Can be constructed to suit many specific
    applications
  • Can be adjusted to admit varying sizes of stock
  • Limitations
  • Hand may enter danger area - protection may not
    be complete at all times
  • May require frequent maintenance and/or
    adjustment
  • The guard may be made ineffective by the operator
  • May interfere with visibility

17
Self-Adjusting
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Provides a barrier which moves according to the
    size of the stock entering danger area
  • Advantages
  • Off-the-shelf guards are often commercially
    available
  • Limitations
  • Does not always provide maximum protection
  • May interfere with visibility
  • May require frequent maintenance and adjustment

18
Safety Devices
  • Stop the machine if a hand or any part of the
    body is inadvertently placed in the danger area
  • Restrain or withdraw the operator's hands from
    the danger area during operation
  • Require the operator to use both hands on machine
    controls, thus keeping both hands and body out of
    danger or
  • Provide a barrier which is synchronized with the
    operating cycle of the machine in order to
    prevent entry to the danger area during the
    hazardous part of the cycle.

19
Photoelectric
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Machine will not start cycling when the light
    field is interrupted
  • When the light field is broken by any part of the
    operator's body during the cycling process,
    immediate machine braking is activated
  • Advantages
  • Can allow freer movement for operator simplicity
    of use no adjustments required
  • Limitations
  • Does not protect against mechanical failure
  • May require frequent alignment and calibration
  • Excessive vibration may cause lamp filament
    damage and premature burnout
  • Limited to machines that can be stopped

20
Pullbacks
  • Safeguarding Action
  • As the machine begins to cycle, the operator's
    hands are pulled out of the danger area
  • Advantages
  • Eliminates the need for auxiliary barriers or
    other interference at the danger area
  • Limitations
  • Limits movement of operator
  • May obstruct work-space around operator
  • Adjustments must be made for specific operations
    and for each individual
  • Requires frequent inspections and regular
    maintenance
  • Requires close supervision of the operator's use
    of the equipment

21
Restraint (holdback)?
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Prevents the operator from reaching into the
    danger area
  • Advantages
  • Little risk of mechanical failure
  • Limitations
  • Limits movements of operator
  • May obstruct work-space
  • Adjustments must be made for specific operations
    and each individual
  • Requires close supervision of the operator's use
    of the equipment

22
Safety Trip Controls
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Stops machine tripped
  • Advantages
  • Simplicity of controls
  • Limitations
  • Other guards are also required for operator
    protection--usually fixed barrier guards
  • Requires frequent maintenance
  • May not be adaptable to stock variation

23
  • Safety Trip Controls (contd)?
  • When pressed by hand, the safety tripod
    deactivates the machine.
  • Because it has to be actuated by the operator
    during an emergency situation, its proper
    position is also critical.

24
  • Safety Tripwire Cables
  • Are located around the perimeter of or near the
    danger area.
  • The operator must be able to reach the cable with
    either hand
  • to stop the machine.

Calender equipped with this type of control.
25
Two Hand Controls
  • Safeguarding Action
  • Concurrent use of both hands is required,
    preventing the operator form entering the danger
    area
  • Advantages
  • Operators hands are at a predetermined location
  • Operators hands are free to pick up a new part
    after first half of cycle is completed
  • Limitations
  • Requires a partial cycle machine with a brake
  • Some two-hand controls can be rendered unsafe by
    holding with arm or blocking, thereby permitting
    one-hand operation Protects only the operator

26
Not Two Hand Controls
27
  • Two Hand Trip
  • Requires concurrent application of both of the
    operator's control buttons to activate the
    machine cycle, after which the hands are free.
  • Trips must be placed far enough from the point of
    operation to make it impossible for the operator
    to move his or her hands from the trip buttons or
    handles into the point of operation before the
    first half of the cycle is completed.

28
  • Gate
  • Movable barrier which protects the operator at
    the point of operation before the machine cycle
    can be started.

29
Robots
Robot
Press
Stock Conveyor
Fixed Barrier
30
Miscellaneous
Awareness Barrier
31
Shields
32
Part 1910 Subpart O - Machinery and Machine
Guarding
  • 1910.211 - Definitions.
  • 1910.212 - General requirements for all machines.
  • 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.
  • 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. (Reserved)
  • 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.
  • 1910.216 - Mills and calenders in the rubber and
    plastics industries.
  • 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses.
  • 1910.218 - Forging machines.
  • 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission
    apparatus.

33
Horizontal v. Vertical
Section 1910.212 is a general (or (horizontal)
standard that applies to all machines not
specifically mentioned elsewhere in other
sections of Subpart O. Other sections are
specific (vertical) standards that apply to
particular types of machines e.g., Section
1910.213 applies to woodworking machinery.
34
  • Machine guarding. 1910.212(a)(1)?
  • One or more methods of machine guarding shall be
    provided to protect the operator and other
    employees in the machine area from hazards such
    as those created by point of operation, ingoing
    nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and
    sparks.

35
  • 1910.212(a)(2)?
  • Guards shall be affixed to the machine where
    possible and secured elsewhere if for any reason
    attachment to the machine is not possible.
  • The guard shall be such that it does not offer an
    accident hazard in itself.

36
1910.212(a)(3)(ii) The point of operation of
machines whose operation exposes an employee to
injury, shall be guarded.
37
  • 1910.212(a)(4)Revolving Drums, Barrels, and
    Containers
  • Must be guarded by an enclosure which is
    interlocked with the drive mechanism.

38
  • 1910.212(a)(5) Fan Blades
  • When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less
    than 7 feet above the floor or working level, the
    blades must be guarded with a guard having
    openings no larger than ½ inch.

39
  • 1910.212(a)(6)Anchoring Fixed Machinery
  • Machines designed for a fixed location must be
    securely anchored to prevent walking or moving.

40
What machines are covered by 910.212 ?
41
Presenting 1910.212
42
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazards
  • Contact with pinch points
  • Struck by hot metals
  • Caught in two die halves
  • Reference Standard
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard

Gates Video Clip Not in Handout
43
Unguarded Dough Mixer
44
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Rotating Parts
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazards
  • Contact with rotating parts
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI/AHAM FM-1 (food mixers)?
  • Guarding Method
  • Interlocks
  • What happened?
  • Employee by-passed interlock
  • Result - Death

Ingredient Mixer
45
(No Transcript)
46
Injection Molding Machine (Plastic Molding)?
1 - Electrical Interlock
2 - Hydraulic Interlock
47
175 Ton Injection Molding Machine
Mechanical Blocking Mechanism
Interlocked Safety Gate
Die Halves
Stationary Platen
48
(No Transcript)
49
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazards
  • Contact with pinch points
  • Struck by hot metals
  • Caught in two die halves
  • Reference Standard
  • Society of Die Cast Engineers Die Cast Machine
    Safety)?
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard

Die Casting Machines Video Clip
50
Die Casting Operation
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Nipping points
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazard (s)
  • Stuck-by molten aluminum
  • Contact with moving machine parts
  • Reference Standard
  • Society of Die Cast Engineers Die Cast Machine
    Safety
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier Guard

Die Spit Shield
51
Tubing Bender
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Pinch Point Struck by
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazard (s)
  • Caught in the clamp die
  • Contact with moving machine parts
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11.15 Pipe Tube and Shape Bending
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard
  • Foot pedal operation
  • Presence sensing device

52
Swing Arm in Motion
53
Addison Tube Bender
Safety Mat and Foot Pedal Control
54
Mechanical Power Press Brake
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazards
  • Caught in the point of operation
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSIB11.3 Power Press Brakes
  • Guarding Method
  • Presence Sensing Devices
  • Two hand controls
  • Automatic barrier gates
  • Restraint device

55
Point of operation hazard CPL
2-1.25 Guidelines for point of operation
guarding for power press brakes
4 inches
4
56
Press Brake Foot Treadle Operated With a
Restraint Device
57
Photo electric sensing across face and
barrier across the ends of the press brake
Press brake
58
The Back of The Press Brake
Awareness Guard
59
Horizontal Metal Cutting Band Saw
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine Guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact with the unused portion of the saw blade
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSIB11.10 Sawing
  • Guarding Method
  • Telescoping barrier guard

60
Metal Cutting Radial Saw
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact with the saw blade
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSIB11.10 Sawing
  • Guarding Method
  • Side barrier guard

61
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Nipping point
  • Hazards
  • Contact with rotating parts
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B20.1 Conveyors
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard
  • Isolation
  • Control relocation

Meat auger
62
Screw Conveyor
Guard does not meet requirement of Table O-10
63
Forming Mill Table
May use safety trip wire???
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact between the forming rolls and the material
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSIB11.12 Roll forming and Roll Bending
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard (interlocked)?
  • Presence sensing device

64
Forming Mill
In-running Nip Point
Point of Operation
65
Forming Mill
Shows the process of metal forming Metal is
being pulled through dies and formed as it
progresses.
66
Back of a Shear Material Take-off Conveyor
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact between the belt and the pulley nip
    (drum)?
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSIB 20.1 Conveyors
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard
  • Isolation

67
Conveyor Nip
Nip Point
68
Scissor Lift Table
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact between the scissors arms
  • Reference Standard
  • ??
  • Guarding Method
  • Telescoping barrier guard
  • Isolation

69
Pyramid or Pinch Roll Forming
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact in the point of operation
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11.12 Roll forming and bending
  • Guarding Method
  • Isolation
  • Limited barrier guards

70
Pyramid or Pinch Roll Forming
Point of Operation
Point of Operation
71
Roll Former Isolation Guarding
72
REEL Paper Mill Pope
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact in the point of operation
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11.12 Roll forming and bending
  • Guarding Method
  • Isolation
  • Limited barrier guards

73
REEL Threading the Machine Paper Mill Pope
In Running Nip Point
74
REEL Threading the Machine Paper Mill Pope
75
REEL Paper Mill Pope
76
REEL Paper Mill Pope
77
Primary Arm Guard
78
Lathe
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Rotating parts
  • Hazards
  • Contact with rotating parts
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11.6 Lathes
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard

79
Lathe
80
Lathe Chip Shield
81
Tapper
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact with rotating parts, chips and coolant
  • Contact in the point of operation
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11.8 Tapper
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guards and/or isolation

82
Vertical Boring Mills
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact with rotating parts
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11. 8 Milling, drilling and boring machines
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guards

83
Vertical Boring Mills
84
Vertical Boring Mill Chip, and Rotating Part Guard
85
Horizontal Boring Mill
86
Mechanical Shear
Hold down
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation guarding
  • Hazards
  • Contact with shear blade
  • Contact with hold down
  • Reference Standard
  • ANSI B11. 4 Shears
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guard

87
Shear in Operation
Helper is exposed
88
Hydraulic Shear
Modified Guard
Blade
89
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazards
  • Contact with mold halves
  • Contact with shuttle
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guards
  • Presence devices

Core Making Machines Video Clip
90
  • OSHA Standards
  • 1910.212(a)(1) Machine guarding
  • 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of operation
  • Hazards
  • Contact with angle shear or notcher
  • Contact with the punch and die
  • Guarding Method
  • Barrier guards

Iron Worker
91
Woodworking Machinery Requirements 1910.213
92
  • 10.213(a)(9) All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts,
    and moving parts must be guarded in accordance
    with the specific requirements of 1910.219.

Belts
93
1910.213(c) Rip Saws
  • Circular table saws must have a hood over the
    portion of the saw above the table, so mounted
    that the hood will automatically adjust itself to
    the thickness of and remain in contact with the
    material being cut.
  • Must have a spreader aligned with the blade,
    spaced no more than one-half inch behind the
    largest blade mounted in the saw.
  • If used for ripping must have nonkickback fingers
    or dogs.

94
1910.213(d) Hand fed Crosscut Saw Shall Meet
Requirements of (c)(1)?
95
10.213(g) Swing Cutoff Saws
  • Hood that will completely enclose the upper half
    of the saw, the arbor end, and the point of
    operation at all positions of the saw.
  • Constructed in such a manner and of such material
    that it will protect the operator from flying
    splinters and broken saw teeth.
  • Automatically cover the lower portion of the
    blade, so that when the saw is returned to the
    back of the table the hood will rise on top of
    the fence, and when the saw is moved forward the
    hood will drop on top of and remain in contact
    with the table or material being cut.

96
(No Transcript)
97
(No Transcript)
98
  • 1910.213 (h) Radial Saws
  • Upper hood that completely enclose the upper
    portion of the blade down to a point that will
    include the end of the saw arbor.
  • Sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade
    guarded to the full diameter of the blade.
  • Radial saw used for ripping shall be provided
    with nonkickback fingers or dogs .
  • Adjustable stop to prevent the forward travel of
    the blade beyond the position necessary to
    complete the cut in repetitive operations.
  • Installation such that the front end of the unit
    will be slightly higher than the rear, so as to
    cause the cutting head to return gently to the
    starting position when released by the operator.

99
Radial Arm Saws
100
(No Transcript)
101
  • 1910.213 (i) Bandsaws and
  • Band Resaws
  • All portions of the saw blade shall be enclosed
    or guarded, except for the working portion of the
    blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and
    the table.
  • Wheels fully encased.
  • Outside periphery of the enclosure shall be
    solid.
  • Front and back enclosed by solid material or by
    wire mesh or perforated metal.
  • Guard for the portion of the blade between the
    sliding guide and the upper-saw-wheel guard shall
    protect the saw blade at the front and outer
    side.
  • Self-adjusting to raise and lower with the guide.

102
Band Saw
103
Band Saw
104
(No Transcript)
105
  • 10.213(j)(3) Hand-Fed Jointer
  • Automatic guard which will cover all the section
    of the head on the working side of the fence or
    gage.
  • Effectively keep the operator's hand from coming
    in contact with the revolving knives.
  • Automatically adjust itself to cover the unused
    portion of the head and shall remain in contact
    with the material at all times.

106
1910.213(m)(1) Wood Shapers and Similar Equipment
  • Cutting heads of each wood shaper, hand-fed panel
    raiser, or other similar machine not
    automatically fed, shall be enclosed with a cage
    or adjustable guard so designed as to keep the
    operator's hands away from the cutting edge.

107
  • 10.213(o)(2) Cutting Heads on Wood- Turning
    Lathes
  • Covered as completely as possible by hoods or
    shields.

108
1910.213(p)(1) Sanding Machines
  • Feed rolls of self-feed sanding machines must be
    protected with a semi cylindrical guard to
    prevent the hands of the operator from coming in
    contact with the in-running rolls at any point.
  • Guard must be constructed of heavy material,
    preferably metal, and firmly secured to the frame
    carrying the rolls so as to remain in adjustment
    for any thickness of stock.
  • The bottom of the guard should come down to
    within three-eighths inch of a plane formed by
    the bottom or contact face of the feed roll where
    it touches the stock.

109
Circular Sander
110
Unguarded belt sander
111
(No Transcript)
112
Saw Blade
1910.213(s)(7)(8)?
113
Table Saw
114
Swing Cut off Saw
115
Table Saw
116
Table Saw
117
Belt Sander
118
Table Saw
119
Table Saw
120
Power Molding Machine
121
Table Saw
122
Table Saw
123
Dado Blade on Radial Saw
124
Power Fed Rip Saw
125
Radial Arm Saw
126
Radial Arm Saw
127
1910.215 Abrasive Wheel Machinery
128
(No Transcript)
129
(No Transcript)
130
(No Transcript)
131
1910.215(a)(2) Guard Design
  • The safety guard shall cover the spindle end,
    nut, and flange projections.

132
Safety Guard
133
1910.215(a)(4) Work Rests
  • On offhand grinding machines, work rests shall be
    used to support the work. They shall be of rigid
    construction and designed to be adjustable to
    compensate for wheel wear. Work rests shall be
    kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum
    opening of one-eighth inch to prevent the work
    from being jammed between the wheel and the rest,
    which may cause wheel breakage. The work rest
    shall be securely clamped after each adjustment.
    The adjustment shall not be made with the wheel
    in motion.

Work rest 1/8
134
1910.215(b)(9) Tongue Guard
  • Exposure adjustment
  • one-fourth inch

135
1910.215(d) Mounting - Wheel Speed
  • (1) Inspection.
  • The spindle speed of the machine shall be checked
    before mounting of the wheel to be certain that
    it does not exceed the maximum operating speed
    marked on the wheel

136
1910.215(d) Mounting - Ring Test
  • (1) Inspection
  • Wheels should be tapped gently with a light
    nonmetallic implement, such as the handle of a
    screwdriver for light wheels, or a wooden mallet
    for heavier wheels. If they sound cracked (dead),
    they shall not be used. This is known as the
    "Ring Test".

Ring test
137
FLOOR STAND GRINDERS ANSI B.7.1-1988 E 4.3.2
  • Self Closing Guard
  • Effective two years after approval of this
    revision for existing machines, all floor stand
    grinders for use with a 24 diameter wheels or
    larger where personnel are required to be in the
    plane of rotation of the wheel shall be equipped
    with guards which close automatically in case of
    wheel breakage. Other guard designs which
    provide equivalent protection to the personnel in
    the plane of rotation of the wheel may be used.

138
(No Transcript)
139
Guard Down
140
(No Transcript)
141
Surface grinder with top guard
142
29CFR 1910.219 Mechanical Power-Transmission Appa
ratus
143
1910.219(a) General Requirements
  • (1) This section covers all types and shapes of
    power-transmission belts, except the following
    when operating at two hundred and fifty (250)
    feet per minute or less
  • (i) Flat belts one (1) inch or less in width,
  • (ii) Flat belts two (2) inches or less in width
    which are free from metal lacings or fasteners,
  • (iii) Round belts one-half (1/2) inch or less in
    diameter and
  • (iv) Single strand V-belts, the width of which is
    thirteen thirty-seconds (13/32) inch or less.

144
1910.219(a) General Requirements
  • (2) Vertical and inclined belts (paragraphs (e)
    (3) and (4) of this section) if not more than two
    and one-half (2 1/2) inches wide and running at a
    speed of less than one thousand (1,000) feet per
    minute, and if free from metal lacings or
    fastenings may be guarded with a nip-point belt
    and pulley guard.

145
Belt speed exceeds one thousand (1,000) feet per
minute
146
1910.219(b) Flywheels
  • (1) Flywheels located so that any part is seven
    (7) feet or less above floor or platform shall be
    guarded in accordance with the requirements of
    this subparagraph

(7) feet or less above floor or platform shall
be guarded
147
LETTER OF INTERPRETATION
This is in further response to your letter dated
April 5, 1983, concerning the guarding of
flywheels on power presses. The Occupational
Safety and Health Administration's General
Industry Standards 29 CFR 1910.219(b)(1) and
(b)(1)(vi) require guarding of the press
flywheel. Furthermore, the latter provision
requires that flywheels above working areas be
provided with guards of sufficient strength to
contain the flywheel in the event of shaft or
wheel mounting failure. Reference to ANSI
815.1-1972, the current version of the source
standard, rapidly demonstrates that structural
failures are possible. Appendix AB.1 of ANSI
815.1 indicates that failures of a fatigue nature
can be anticipated, particularly for older
machines that have been continually exposed to
cyclic leads. Therefore, substantial guarding is
necessary to provide safety. That company die
setter's need to have easy access to the flywheel
for die-setting for is completely valid and
should be a major consideration of the guarding
provided. In that regard, the guard configuration
enclosed is recommended for consideration.
148
  • 1910.219(c) Shafting

Burr
Rotating shaft
Rotating pulley
Rotating coupling
149
1910.219(c)(2) Guarding Horizontal Shafting
  • (i) All exposed parts of horizontal shafting
    seven (7) feet or less from floor or working
    platform, excepting runways used exclusively for
    oiling, or running adjustments, shall be
    protected by a stationary casing enclosing
    shafting completely or by a trough enclosing
    sides and top or sides and bottom of shafting as
    location requires.

Shafting must be guarded
150
1910.219(c)(4) Projecting Shaft Ends
  • (i) Projecting shaft ends shall present a smooth
    edge and end and shall not project more than
    one-half the diameter of the shaft unless guarded
    by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.
  • (ii) Unused keyways shall be filled up or covered.

Shafting shall not extend more than 1/2 the
diameter of the shaft unless guarded
151
1910.219(d) Pulley Guarding
  • (1) Pulleys, any parts of which are seven (7)
    feet or less from the floor or working platform,
    shall be guarded in accordance with the standards
    specified in paragraphs (m) and (o) of this
    section.

152
(No Transcript)
153
1910.219(f) Gears, Sprockets, and Chains
154
1910.219(f) Gears
  • (1) Gears shall be guarded in accordance with one
    of the following methods
  • (i) By a complete enclosure or
  • (ii) By a standard guard as described in
    paragraph (o) of this section, at least seven (7)
    feet high extending six (6) inches above the mesh
    point of the gears or
  • (iii) By a band guard covering the face of gear
    and having flanges extended inward beyond the
    root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides.
    Where any portion of the train of gears guarded
    by a band guard is less than six (6) feet from
    the floor a disk guard or a complete enclosure to
    the height of six (6) feet shall be required.

155
1910.219 (f)(3) Sprockets and Chains
  • All sprocket wheels and chains shall be enclosed
    unless they are more than seven (7) feet above
    the floor or platform. Where the drive extends
    over other machine or working areas, protection
    against falling shall be provided.

156
1910.219 (i) Collars and Couplings
  • (1) Collars. All revolving collars, including
    split collars, shall be cylindrical, and screws
    or bolts used in collars shall not project beyond
    the largest periphery of the collar.
  • (2) Couplings Shaft couplings shall be so
    constructed as to present no hazard from bolts,
    nuts, setscrews, or revolving surfaces. Bolts,
    nuts, and setscrews will, however, be permitted
    where they are covered with safety sleeves or
    where they are used parallel with the shafting
    and are countersunk or else do not extend beyond
    the flange of the coupling.

157
1910.219(m) Standard Guards General Requirements
  • (1) Materials
  • (i) Standard conditions shall be guarded by the
    use of the following materials. Expanded metal,
    perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a
    frame of angle iron, or iron pipe securely
    fastened to floor or to frame of machine.
  • (ii) All metal should be free from burrs and
    sharp edges.

158
1910.219(o) Approved Materials
  • (1) Minimum requirements.
  • The materials and dimensions specified in this
    paragraph shall apply to all guards, except
    horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain
    guards more than seven (7) feet above floor, or
    platform.

159
1910.219(o)(2) Wood Guards
  • (i) Wood guards may be used in the woodworking
    and chemical industries, in industries where the
    presence of fumes or where manufacturing
    conditions would cause the rapid deterioration of
    metal guards also in construction work and in
    locations outdoors where extreme cold or extreme
    heat make metal guards and railings undesirable.
    In all other industries, wood guards shall not be
    used.

Wood guard
160
29 CFR 1910.261Paper, Pulp Paperboard Mills
  • Application of 29 CFR 1910.212

161
Hydro Pulper
162
Fourdrinier
163
Screen Roll
164
Screen Cleaning
165
Threading the Presses (Tailing)?
166
Cooch Carrier Roll Nip Point
167
Cooch Carrier Roll Nip Point
168
First Press Nip Point
169
Press Section / First Dryer
170
Cylinder Machine Nip Point
171
Cleaning the Press Roll
172
Dryers (Front Side)?
173
Dryer (Back Side)?
174
(No Transcript)
175
Isolation Guarding
176
Line Shaft
177
Incline Belts and Pulleys
178
Tailing (Threading) the Dryer
179
Dryer Nip Point
180
Reel Nip Point
181
Rewinder Nip Point
182
Guarded Rewinder
183
Rotary Cutters
184
Embosser Nip Point
185
Nip Point Guarding
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